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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstract of papers presented during the 54th National Conference of The Anatomical Society of India, 2006 held at Amrita Medical College, Kochi, Kerala (200 - 249)

Author(s): Editors

Vol. 56, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007-06)

200. Study Of Age Related Changes In Dentate And Edentate Mandible


Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat.

80 mandibles [40 dentulous and 40 edentulous] were examined for the position of mental foramen and angle of mandible. Radiological position of mandibular canal is studied and all findings compared with other authors. In present study -A) Dentulous mandible: position of mental foramen is

found midway between the borders of the body in 60% of the cases, in 28% cases, it is near the lower border, in 12% cases, it is near the upper border, angle of mandible found between 100 to 130 degrees.

B) Edentulous Mandible: in 84% cases, position of mental foramen is near upper border, in 13% of the cases position of mental foramen is midway between the upper and lower border, in 3% of the cases position of mental foramen is near the lower border, angle found between 120 to 140 degrees. All these observations suggest that as age advances,

in majority of the cases, mental foramen shifts upwards and angle becomes wide. But in few cases, changes were not correlating with age.That means various other factors are also responsible for these changes. Details will be discussed during conference.

201. Histochemical study of mucins in developing human foetal stomach and its comparision with adult normal, premalignant lesions and malignant epithelial tumours of stomach

(2) Gourishankar Ganga and (1)PG Gaikwad

(2)J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere And (1)Medical College, Bijapur.

The histochemical changes in mucin pattern of foetal stomach during 12 week to 37 week of gestational period were studied with the different histochemical techniques (PAS, Alcian Blue (8GX) PH 2.5, PH 1, AB-PAS, AF-AB2.5). There was definite changes in histochemical pattern of mucins of stomach in 2nd trimester and 3rd trimester. Neutral mucins and sulphomucins and sialomucins were identified at different stages of development of stomach. Foetal mucins from 14th week to 26th week of gastric mucosa showed increase in sulphomucin and sialomucin which can be compared with the type II and type III intestinal metaplasia (premalignant lesion). Mucin histochemistry markedly altered in adenocarcinoma of stomach. Re-emergence of foetal type of mucin in early stage of carcinogenesis was discussed with respect to above findings

202. Thoracic Renal Ectopia – A Case Report

L.C Prasanna, Gowrishankar.M Ganga,M.Mallikarjuna#, linganagowda S Patil

J.J.M.M.C., Davangere, S.S.I.M.S.R.C,

Davangere, S.S.I.M.S.R.C, Davangere.

Thoracic ectopic kidney is a rare anamoly, the rarest of all renal ectopia types (0.005%). An adult lady diagnosed as a case of ovarian carcinoma, was found to have a mass in the left thoracic cavity. The results showed evidence of a renal mass, which was diagnosed as an ectopic kidney through computed tomography (CT). This case is being reported to stress the importance of recognizing the thoracic kidney, thus avoiding surgery or biopsy. The embryological rationale behind the renal ascent will be discussed at the time of presentation.

203. Pentalogy Of Cantrell – A Case Report

K Kathiresan, MS Trinesh Gowda, Nagalaxmi and NS Naveen

M.I.M.S, Mandya, Karnataka

Omphalocele is a congenital defect in the formation of the umbilical and supraumbilical portions of the abdominal wall, the size of the defect ranging from 4 – 10 cm in diameter with an incidence rate of 1 in 6000 to 1 in 10000 live births. Most of the defects have no fixation of the midgut and rotation is incomplete. Midgut normally returns from the umbilical cord into the abdomen by the 10th week of gestation. The developing somatic layers of the cephalic, caudal and lateral folds join to close the defect in the abdominal wall. For unknown reasons if the closure does not take place then it results in omphalocele. 2 common types are found; in the first type the failure of closure begins early, about 3rd week of gestation and the defect is usually large. The second type is more often referred as umbilical hernia; the defect is not bigger than 4 cm in diameter and contains only loops of small bowel in the sac. It arises between 8th and 10th weeks of development due to failure of closure of umbilical ring. A number of syndromes are commonly associated with type I omphalocele like a) Pentalogy of Cantrell, b) Lower midline syndrome, c) Beckwith-Weidemann Syndrome, d) Trisomy Syndromes. This report discusses the fIndings in a fetus around 20 weeks of age with PENTALOGY OF CANTRELL, one of the rare form of Type I omphalocele. The pentalogy includes upper midline omphalocele, sternal cleft, anterior diaphragmatic hernia, ectopia cordis (with pericardial defect), and intracardiac anomaly (usually a ventricular septal defect, tetrology of Fallot and occasionally a diverticulum of the left ventricle). Early detection is possible using ultrasound and termination of the fetus can be recommended since survival rate is very poor and needs an elaborative surgical procedure to reverse the defect.

204. Abdominal Parieties And Inguinal Hernia


Aarupadai Veedu Medical College, Pondicherry.

Inguinal region is a potential site for the development of hernia due to the defects and variation in the extent of parieties of the anterior abdominal wall. Even though, various factors play a role in the development of hernia, the involvement of anterior abdominal wall muscles have a significant role (Watson 1938, McVay 1968, Greenburg 1995). According to Anson et all, the high level origin of internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles with inguinal ligament lead to the development of inguinal hernia due to subnormal functional inadequacy of shutter closing mechanism.

In our study, one hundred South Indian paticnts with definite presentation of the inguinal hernia were examined pre surgically and during surgery with strict aseptic precaution and the data correlated with the type of occurrence of hernia and the results were recorded. · The internal oblique muscle has no significant role when compared with transversus abdominis muscle in the development of inguinal hernia. · The size of the defect in the parieties is not a promoting factor for the occurrence of hernia as significant number of hernia cases were with the normal sized ring.

205. A Female Anencephalic Fetal Cadaver With Skeletal, Neurological And Urogenital Anomalies - A Case Report

V.usha Rani, V Subhadra Devi and S Hussain saheb S.V Medical College,Tirupati

A female Anencephalic fetal cadaver of 26 weeks gestational age was subjected to radiological investigations and dissection to find out the extent of various congenital anomalies. It presented skeletal anomalies in vertebrae, vault and base of skull, neurological defects like absence of cerebral hemispheres, optic nerve and pituitary gland and anomalies of urogenital system like exostrophy of urinary bladder, urethral agenesis and septate vagina. The various defects will be discussed in detail with embryological explanation and clinical importance.

206. CAUL – A Case Report

Nagalaxmi, M S trinesh Gowda, K Kathiresan and NS Naveen

M.I.M.S, Mandya, Karnataka

Spontaneous rupture of the fetal membranes -amnion, chorion most often occurs sometime during the course of active labor. Typically rupture of the membranes is evident by a sudden gush of a variable quantity of normally clear or slightly turbid, nearly colorless fluid. Less frequently, the membranes remain intact until delivery of the infant. If by chance membranes remain intact until completion of delivery covering the entire fetus, then the fetus is born surrounded by them and the portion covering the head of the newborn infant is sometimes referred to as the CAUL. Acase of spontaneous abortion of a fetus of age ranging 14 – 20 gestational weeks with caul in our district hospital was studied, which is a rare presentation in human beings. The cause of the abortion is unknown. This type of presentation of the new born is normally found in lower animals like canines etc., where the fetus is delivered with the covering membranes. Etiology for this type of cases ranges from premature rupture of the membrane, cervical incompetence, or nutritional deficiency in the mother. Proper nutritional supplement to the mother during the course of pregnancy can prove vital in preventing the abnormal presentation of the fetus like Caul and also for the growth of the fetus in utero.

207. Oro-Facial-Digital Syndrome

Deepti Shastri, G Rohini and S Muthukrishnan

V.M.K.V Medical College, Salem

An 18-week-old fetus was diagnosed to have short rib- Polydactyly Syndrome following an antenatal USG screening of a multigravida by the OBG department, VMKVMC, Salem. The pregnancy was terminated fearing other major congenital anomalies usually associated with the syndrome.

Following the delivery, it was difficult to ascertain short ribs with fetal X-rays. Tibia was shorter than fibula. The fetus was dissected at the department of Anatomy, VMKVMC, Salem. The aim of our study was to confirm the diagnosis / arrive at a more precise diagnpsis by radiological and morphological (gross and histological) study.

Talipes equino varus deformity of both feet was noted. Preaxial and postaxial polysyndactyly of both hands and feet were noted. A median cleft upper lip and micrognathia were the prominent facial features. Alveolar clefts were seen. Hypoplastic lungs were noted. Malrotation of the gut was evident. A hairy nevus was seen in the lower lumbar region. Histological study revealed inflammatory changes in various organs.

A diagnosis of Oro-Facial-Digital type II (Majewski type 6 ) Syndrome was made following the morphological study. Oro-Facial-Digital Syndroms are a group of malformations inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. They are well recognized but confusion exists over their characteristics and nomenclature as different phenotypic findings are recorded and explained as variable gene expression. The fetus described here supports the hypothesis that clinical variability of this syndrome is indeed very wide.

208. Craniorachischisis Totalis – A Case Report

NS Naveen,MS Trlnesh Gowda, Nagalakshmi and K Kathiresan

M.I.M.S, Mandya, Karnataka

Neural Tube Defects are congenital malformations which arise from incomplete closure of neural tube during early embryogenesis. It occurs between 17 to 30 days of gestation at the time when the mother may not be aware that she is pregnant and the embryo is estimated to be about the size of a grain of rice. Incidence rate ranges from 1.2 to 1.7 per 1000 births. Most common type of neural tube defect found in human is spina bifida and anencephaly. Craniorachischisis Totalis [Total Dysraphism] is a rare form of neural tube defects in which brain and spinal cord are exposed. This defect usually results in early spontaneous abortion often associated with malformation of other organ system. Formation of neural tube first occurs on day 22 at the level of somite 3; fusion preceding both rostrally and caudally and the neural tube is closed by the day 26. Primary disturbance in the axial mesoderm system may impair formation, elevation and approximation of neural folds leading to craniorachischisis total is. A multifactorial inheritance is considered to be responsible along with environmental factors like nutrition and folic acid, chromosomal aberration and some teratogens. A case of Craniorachischisis Totalis from our district hospital has been dissected, studied and the findings, associated malformations have been discussed in this case report. Likelihood of having child with neural tube defect increases significantly once one affected offspring is born. It is recommended that Folic acid substitution during the period beginning two months prior to conception and continuing through gestation reduces incidence of neural tube defect by as much as 70%. Hence early detection of the anomaly and termination of the pregnancy followed by counseling of the parents will help to prevent the further occurrence of the defect in the subsequent pregnancies.

209. Morphometric Study Of The Ventricular System Of Brain By Computerised Tomography

Medora C D’souza E Dias and Prashant E Natekar.

Goa Medical College, Bambolim, Goa.

The aim of this morphometric study was to examine the range in size of the normal ventricular system of the brain in humans and to find any relationship of this with gender and clinical correlations, in order to help in their diagnosis, treatment, and the need to intervene surgically and in judging the efficacy of treatment designed to deal with Hydrocephalus.

This study was carried out on 1000 patients attending the department of Radiodiagnosis between April 2001 and October 2002.CT Scans of the brain were examined for the various morphometric measurements of the ventricles of the brain, namely the Fourth ventricle, the Third ventricle, and the Right and Left lateral ventricles. Measurement of the height and width of the Fourth ventricle were taken and the height was found to be greater than the width. The third ventricle width when measured showed a considerable difference between males and females, as did many other measures. The Lateral ventricles in addition demonstated a right and left asymmetry. The details will be presented at the Conference

210. Estrogen Mediated Changes In Neuronal Morphology, Estrogen Receptor Status And Synaptic Plasticity In Female Rat Subiculum

S. Kataria, K Sharma, RD Mehra and P Dhar

AIIMS, New Delhi.

Subiculum, the output component of hippocampal memory system, has been strongly implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since AD is more prevalent in postmenopausal women, it is reasonable to speculate if subiculum is vulnerable to estrogen deprivation. Present studies were carried out on ovariectomized rats with estrogen supplementation (n=8, daily subcutaneous injection of 17â-estradiol, 0.1 mg/kg in sesame oil for 30 days) and necessary controls (ovariectomized, vehicle-treated and normalcontrols (n=8, each)). The parameters studied were subicular cytoarchitecture (using Cresyl Violet staining), distribution pattern of estrogen receptors (ER) á and â (using immunohistochemistry) and synaptic plasticity (using Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry) on cryosections of perfusion-fixed brains. Analysis of sections and image capturing was done using Nikon Microphot-FX microscope, with attached Image Analysis System (Image Pro-Plus Software). ERá and â co-localization was demonstrated by Confocal microscopy. ERá, ERâ and Synaptophysin proteih levels were analyzed by Western blot (WB) on unfixed subiculum. Our results revealed that (i) estrogen markedly modulates subicular cytoarchitecture, (ii) subicular neurons (pyramidal and non-pyramidal) express both ER subtypes,

(iii) intracellular expression of ER was cytonuclear (predominantly) or cytoplasmic (occasionally), (v) most subicular neurons co-expressed ERá and ERâ (vi) Ovariectomy resulted in increased staining intensity and depleted numbers of immunopositive neurons, while estradiol treatment reversed these changes, (vii) Synaptophysin expression was downregulated following ovariectomy, and upregulated following estrogen supplementation, (ix) WB quantification of ERá, ERâ and Synaptophysin proteins confirmed the immunohistochemistry findings. These studies clearly demonstrate that estrogen exerts regulatory influence on subicular neurons, which may have a bearing on the cognitive functions of subiculum.

211. Study Of Birth Defects Associated With Consanguinity

Sharada B Menasinkai and G Saraswathi.

J.S.S.Medical College,Mysore.

In the present study 3000 foeti were studied which include stillbirths, live births, abortuses >20wks. The study was undertaken in Cheluvamba Hospital attached to Government Medical College Mysore during the period May 99 – September 99.

History of consanguinity was collected in all 3000 cases.There were interesting cases, of birth defects in association with consanguinity change to the surprisly there were more number of normal babies.

All the observations will be discussed during presentation.

212.”Assessment Of DNA Damage In Couples With Repeated Pregnancy Loss” By Comet Assay

Rajesh.B, K Ramachandra Rao, Habeebullah S Jawaharlal Institute Of Post Graduate Medical

Education And Research, Pondicherry

Recurrent pregnancy loss is commonly attributed to immunological imbalance, chromosomal defects such as loss of chromatids and chromosome, translocations including jumping translocations, telomere and subtelomeric regional changes and gross DNA damages. A study was undertaken to assess the level of DNA damage by Comet Assay among the couples with history of repeated pregnancy loss. Comet Assay indicates qualitative and quantitative level of DNA damage in singlecells through single-cell gel electrophoresis of peripheral blood lymphocytes commonly. The comparison of the results of Comet Assay in cases and controls showed a significant difference.

213. A Morphometric Study Of The Normal Human External Ear And Its Clinical Implications

Natekar Prashant E and Desouza Fatima M

Goa Medical College, Bambolim, Goa.

The main aim of this study is to know the normal morphometric measurements of the external ear in males and females.

The standard measurements of the right and left external ear of 100 males and 100 females of age group 1825 medical students of Goa Medical College were analyzed. The measurements of the following parameters were studied. a) ear length b) ear length above tragus c) ear length below tragus d) ear breadth f) tragus length g) ear breadth h) concha length i) concha breadthj) concha volume k) lobule height I) lobule width.

It was observed that all the parameters were significantly larger on right side in both males and females which was statistically significant.

These findings suggest that the normal morphometric study will have a role in plastic and reconstructive surgery, dysmorphic features in various chromosomal disorders, designing of head phones, ear phones, stethoscopes, otoscope and various hearing aids.

214. Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia – A Case Report

Pratima Kulkarni, VV Inamdar, DB Devarshi, AM Pawde, Sudhir Tungikar and Shailesh Kulkarni

Government Medical College, Nanded.

A case of rare genetic disorder anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Christ-siemens Touraine syndrome is described. There is defect in morphogenesis of ectodermal structures including hair, skin, nails and teethes, due to mutation in EDA (Ectodermal Dysplasia Anhidrotic) gene. The disorder is usually X- linked recessive. Patient presented with an absent perspiration, hypodonita (lack of development of one or more teeth) and hypotrichosis (decreased amount of hair). The case was diagnosed by skin biopsy.

215. Variation In Branching Pattern Of Axillary Artery

Vaishali Inamdar, Pratima Kulkarni, DB Devershi, Sudhir Tungikar, Shailesh Kulkarni and Maruti Lathkar

Government Medical College, Nanded.

The present report is regarding the incidental finding of variation in branching pattern of axillary artery during routine cadaveric dissection of axilla.

On the right side there was a common trunk arising from the axillary artery which immediately divided into two trunks. the upper one giving rise to superior thoracic, lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial branches while lower one giving rise to subscapular, circumflex scapular and circumflex humeral.

On the left side there were two trunk arising from the artery, the upper one giving rise to superior thoracic and thoracoacromial branches while lower one giving rise to lateral thoracic, subscapular, circumflex scapular and circumflex humeral arteries. This finding is of importance during surgical intervention in this region.

216. Surgical Significance Of Sphenoidal And Ethmoidal Air Sinuses – By Coronal And Axial CT

Gladwin V, Bhuvaneswari V and Ramachandra Rao K

JIPMER, Pondicherry.

Paranasal sinuses are air filled spaces housed inside selective bones of the skull. Disorders associated with the paranasal sinuses are one among the commonest illness in the present day world. Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) has revolutionized the management of such disorders. The success of the surgery depends upon the thorough knowledge of anatomy of these sinuses and its variations. Among paranasal sinuses, the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses gain much importance due to their close proximity to the vital structures like orbital contents, cavernous sinus, anterior and middle cranial fossa. Computerized Tomography provides an excellent soft tissue and bony discrimination and spatial resolution for detecting anatomical variations in these sinuses. This study aims to identify the anatomical variations and the incidence of such variations in these sinuses. Two hundred patients referred for paranasal sinus related and inflammatory orbital pathologies were selected and subjected to axial and coronal CT imaging. The images were critically analyzed for variations of sphenoid and ethmoidal sinuses. It was found that there was a significant incidence of variations in these sinuses, the knowledge of such variations and its associations with vital structures is essential for the surgeons and the radiologists.

217. Localization Of Motor Neuron Somata Of Posterior Interosseous Nerve In Spinal Cord Of Rabbit

Farhan Kirmani and M Ullah.

JNMC,AMU, Aligarh.

The present study was undertaken with an aim to ascertain the cranio-caudal extent of the spinal grey column that harbours the motor neurons for the posterior interosseous nerve. Six adult rabbits were included in this study. Under general anaesthesia, the deep branch of radial nerve of right side was surgically sectioned at elbow. After post-lesional survival period of 8-28 days the animals were sacrificed and perfusion fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The cervical spinal cord segments 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and thoracic spinal cord segments 1st and 2nd were recessed for paraffin embedding. From all blocks 40 u thick serial sections were cut. Every 5th section was stained with Thionine and studied light microscopically to localize the somata of motor neurons showing either typical chromatolysis (Nissl, 1892) or cell body response (Grafstein, 1975) induced by axotomy. It was concluded that the cranio-caudal extent of the spinal grey column that contained the somata of motor neurons for the deep branch of radial nerve extended from the caudal part of 6th cervical spinal segment to the cranial part of the 1st thoracic spinal segment.

218. Topography Of Cubital Tunnel And Its Clinical Significance

Kohli mangala, Rath Gayatri, Kakkar Smita and Gaur Uma

Lady Hardinge Medical College And Smt. Suchita Kriplani, Hospitai, New Delhi.(1) Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi

Cubital tunnel syndrome is well documented in literature. The exact topography and measurements has not been reported in the literature cited. Therefore, attempt has been made to study the cubital tunnel in 100 humerus of unknown age and sex. Study was supplemented by 20 cadaveric dissection and 10 M.R.I scan in living human subjects.

It was noticed that in some bones the tunnel was very shallow and in others the tunnel could not be appreciated. In 10 out of 20 cadavers, the arcuate ligament connecting humeral and ulnar head of flexor carpi ulnaris muscles was very thin and in 5 cadavers it was quite thick. The length of the tunnel in relation to ulnar nerve during flexion and extension at elbow joint was also measured in M.R.I scan.

The data was analysed statistically and co-related with previous studies. It was concluded that the short course of ulnar nerve and thinning of arcuate ligament, bridging the cubital tunnel may be a predisposing cause of cubital tunnel syndrome.

219. Ossification Centres In Male Pelvis For Age Estimation – Role Of Forensic Anatomy

M Roshan Zameer, K Sreenivasa Reddy, Hari Kishan, U Jayarami Reddy, IC Obulesu, MSRKPrasad and Salah-al-Marashi.

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool. (A.P)

The aim of the present study is to observe the ossification centres in male pelvis for age estimation in medico legal aspects. 50 normal males with age ranging from 10-21 years were studied in Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, A.P.State, from August 2003 to May 2004. Amaturity indicator is radiologically and sonographically visible features that assist determination of maturity level of bone, which solves medico legal problems and domestic problems. The study was done on male pelvis of bones belonging to South Indians and findings were compared with the data of North Indians and other countries. Parent declaration, physical development and parameters like iliac crest ischial tuberosity and triradiate cartilage ossification are noted. Male pelvic bone maturation in different age group were statistically analysed and obtained significant findings and data, details of which will be presented at conference.

220. Anomalous Left Gastric Artery

SK Srivastava and SK Rathee

Pt. B D Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak.

The variations in the branching pattern of coeliac trunk has been reported by Eaton (1917) and Michels (1942). The variations in the origin of left Gastric Artery has been reported by Eaton and Schultz (1917), George (1935), Munger (1941), Cauldwell and Anson (1943), Mitchels (1952). There is no report of left Gastric Artery arising from descending thoracic aorta in the available literature.

The present study was conducted in 48 cadavers during routine dissection in the Anatomy Department of Pt.

B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak. In the present study in 2 cases (4.17%), the left gastric artery was arising from descending thoracic aorta and entered in the abdomen through aortic opening of diaphragm and supplied branches to abdominal part of oesophagus and stomach. This type of origin of left gastric artery from thoracic aorta has not been reported in the available literature and hence they are termed as anomalous left gastric artery.

221. Abductor Digiti Minimi – A Morphological Study

Kalsey G and Parminder.

Christian Medical College, Ludhiana and Government Medical College, Amritsar.

Detailed knowledge of anatomy of hand eases the surgeons approach in treatment of hypothenar trauma, resection of benign and malignant tumors and utilization of hypothenar muscles for motor transfers or soft tissue coverage (Blair et aI1986).

For this cadaveric study 50 hands of 25 phenol embalmed cadavers of department ofAnatomy, Government Medical College,Amritsar were used. Hands were labelled 125 with suffix R (right), L (left), M (male), F (Female) for the sex.

In present study, origin, insertion and nerve supply of ADM followed the normal pattern in 47 (90%) out of 50 hands while 3 (6%) out of 50 hands showed accessory slips of origin.

In one out of the three hands accessory slip presented origin from antebrachial fascia and the remaining 2 had accessory slip of origin from palmaris longus. Accessory slips in all 3 hands presented standard book pattern in their insertion. All the accessory slips had ulnar nerve innervation on their deeper aspect. Ulnar nerve supplying the hypothenar muscles in these cases was crossed superficially by accessory slips.

The antebrachial origin of supernumerary fascicles and their ulnar innervation, allow us to consider, as did Salgeback (1977) and Cantero (1987), that their ontogenic origin is in the hypothenar muscles and is due to a proximal migration related to that of flexor digitorum superficialais and not as a result of anomaly in the antebrachial muscles.

With anomalous hypothenar muscle, symptoms of ulnar nerve compression may be the presenting feature particularly when accessory muscle belly arises in distal forearm and passes with the ulnar nerve through the canal of Guyon (Jeffery 1971).

222. Study Of DNA Damage In Cases With Carcinoma Breast And Their First Degree Relatives By”Comet Assay”

Prabhakaran.K, Prakash Chand MS, Kadambari MS, Rajesh B and Ramachandra Rao.KMS

Jawaharlal Institute Of Post Graduate Medical Education And Research, Pondicherry

DNA damage and deficient repair mechanism are predisposing factors for any malignancy, especially so for breast cancer. In this study the extent of DNA damage in breast cancer patients of different stages were assessed and compared with first degree female relatives (FDFR) and controls. FDFRs of breast cancer patients with significant DNA damage are known to have higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general population.

Comet assay was done by conventional method with slight modifications. The DNA damage was assessed by measuring the comet tail length under a fluorescence microscope. The observations in the affected, FDFRs and controls will be presented and discussed.

223. Pedicle Morphology Of Lumbar And S1 Vertebrae

Kariappa MA, Jayanthi V, Vinay Prabhu, Sandeep T and Samyuktha S

M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

Preoperative assessment of the pedicle morphology helps in choosing appropriate implants and avoiding inadvertent complications. Surgically relevant parameters of transverse pedicle isthmus width, transverse pedicle angle were recorded, using abdominal roentgenograms, CT scan films and vertebral bones. The sample size is 30. The target population is South Indian population. The parameters measured include transverse pedicle isthmus width and transverse pedicle angle and analysis done. The details of the observations and results will be discussed in detail in the conference.

224. Incidence And Ossification Of Sesamoid Bones In Hands In South Indian Population

Samyuktha S, Vinay Prabhu, Jayanthi V, Sandeep T and Kariappa MA

M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

The incidence and ossification of sesamoid bones varies in different population and races. It is clinically relevant since it can get fractured and cause symptoms in the individual. The presence and ossification of sesamoid bones are studied in 300 radiographs taken from the South Indian population. The sample includes men and women in equal proportion. The details of the observations and results will be discussed in detail in the conference.

225. A Study Of The Human Gastric Parietal Cells And It’s Relation To Age

Anne George And A.Meharunissa

Government Medical College, Kottayam.

A study was done at the Government Medical College, Kottayam to determine the number of parietal cells in the human gastric mucosa and to relate it with age.

Samples were collected at postmortem, preoperatively and from foetuses. Three sites were selected; fundus, body and pylorus. Routine histological procedure followed by H and E and special staining methods were used. Under high power the parietal cells were counted and the results correlated with age.Details will be discussed.

226. Human Fetal Thymus – A Histometric Outlook

Helen SG, Suban MGS, Balaji TK and Gunasegaran JP

Rajah Muthiah Medical College,

Annamalai University, Chidambaram- 608002.

The thymus develops in the embryo from the ventral portion of the third pharyngeal pouch as thymic primordium and is subsequently invaded by precursor T Cell originating from various sources like bone marrow and liver. Thus, the lymphoid tissue of thymus has mesodermal basis while the epithelial elements have an endodermal origin. It may therefore, be inferred that the thymus is formed as a result of epithelio-mesenchymal interactions mediated through a humoral factor liberated by epithelial component of the thymic primordium.

Human fetuses of different gestational age were procured from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and perfused with formalin. Thymuses were meticulously dissected out; immersed in formalin for secondary fixation and were processed for light microscopy and subjected to Histometric analysis.

The epithelial reticular cells were found to be the most predominant cell type in the medulla of thymuses of earlier gestational age as compared to that of later age. Histometric analysis of thymus showed a gradual increase in volume of cortex in relation to medulla as age advances. Hassall’s corpuscles were observed around 17th week and showed a different pattern at different gestational period.

227. Dorsal Venous Arch Of The Hand – An Anatomical Study

MuniappanV, Balasubramaniam Aand HelenSG

Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University,Chidambaram

Dorsal Venous Arch (DVA) is a transverse vein which lies on the dorsum of hand near the middle of shaft of metacarpal bone in the subcutaneous plane. The exact pattern of formation and the course of DVA to forearm is not described in detail. Our aim of study was to observe the pattern of DVA formation in cadavers and living individual, to compare the pattern of formation in children Vs adults and male Vs female. 20 dissected hands, 100 hands of male and female each respectively and 100 hands of children (inclusive of both sexes) were studied. Four pattern of DVA formation was observed. 96% showed similar pattern in both hands.

228. Enactomy – A Innovative Method Of Making Anatomy Teaching More Interesting


M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore

Clinical anatomy / Neuroanatomy is usually taught in the theory classes either with help of black board, OHP, Slide projectors or L.C.D’S. In this new method 2-3 students are selected on rotation basis and each student is asked to enact different roles related to the given topic like cerebellar lesions, thalamic lesions, brain stem lesions. Here one of the students acts as patient, one as attendant and other as doctor. The doctor after various questions to the patient arrives at the diagnosis. By this method the student can remember clinical anatomy better. Here each and every student is given a chance. This method helps the student to develop self-confidence.

The method, impact, feasibility and other details will be discussed in the conference.

229. Pedicle Morphology Of Thoracic Vertebrae

Sandeep T, Jayanthi V, Vinay Prabhu, Kariappa MA and Samyuktha S

M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

Preoperative assessment of the pedicle morphology helps in choosing the appropriate implants and to avoid inadvertent complications. To record the surgically relevant parameters of transverse pedicle isthmus width, transverse pedicle angle. The morphologic data was obtained using thoracic roentgenograms, CTscan films and vertebral bones. The sample size is 60. The target population is South Indian population. The parameters measured include transverse pedicle isthmus width and transverse pedicle angle and analysis done. The details of the observations and results will be discussed in detail in the conference.

230. Expression Of HCG And Morphological Analysis Of Hofbauer Cells In Human Placenta

G.Rath, R.Tripathi, S.SalhanAnd (1)A.Jain

V.M.M.C and S.J Hospital,(1)L.H.M.C and S.K Hospital, New Delhi.

Hofbauer cells are fetal tissue macrophages which are present in the stroma of human placental villi but their number, size and shape are variable at different gestations. The objective of this study was to investigate the number and cytological structure of Hofbauer cells and expression of HCG in human placental samples from first trimester (n=20), second trimester (n=10) and third (n=20) trimesters of gestation, collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. Samples were processed for light microscopy (H and E and Masson’s Trichrome staining) and Immunohistochemistry. In the first trimester, Hofbauer cells were close to trophoblast and were highly vacuolated with granulated cytoplasm. Eccentric nucleus was found to be scanty. Also, stroma formation was not complete and was devoid of connective tissue fibres, therefore, appeared as empty holes. At some places, mitotic nuclei were noticed, close to central core of chorionic villi. However, at second trimester, vacuoles were decreased in number, size and increase in intracytoplasmic granules.At some places, Hofbauer cells showed ruffled surface characterized by spherical and elongated blebs. In the third trimester, Hofbauer cells were significantly reduced in number and were present in the stroma of villi characterized by large amount of collagen fibres showing narrow channels. Their nuclei were centrally placed and no mitotic divisions were observed. These observations suggest that as the gestation progresses, the number of Hofbauer cells decreases significantly while stroma formation increases. This supports their possible role in the regulatory processes for development of collagen fibres within the villous core. This may influence the remodeling of villous core by stimulating or inhibiting the proliferation of other mesenchymal cells. Also, presence of HCG expression in Hofbauer cells at all trimesters confirms their endocrinal activity in placental villi.

231. Morphometry Of Myenteric Neurons In Stomach

Narbada Saini And Madhur Gupta

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

The wall of the gastrointestinal tract presents extensive plexuses of nerve fibres and neurons controlling peristaltic activities, among other functions. This study was planned to assess the myenteric plexus of fundus, body and pyloric parts of stomach by counting the number of collections of neurons, presence of neurons in each collection, diameter and area of the neuronal cell bodies. 1cm stomach wall was taken from the same region of 5 cadavers and processed for paraffin sections. 5 and 10 thick sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Randomly selected sections were photographed using digital camera and morphometrical analysis was done using Image-Pro Express software. Number of collections of neurons was more in fundus than pylorus and body, mean being 4.521±2.558, 3.833±1.720 and 3.292± 1.268 respectively and containing neurons on an average 5.27±5.698, 4.111±4.38] and 3.1 98±2.596 respectively. The neurons were classified as small, medium and large according to the size of the area of their cell bodies and 11 .34% neurons were found to be small, 69.50% medium and 19.14% large in fundus, 8.75% small, 80.62% medium and 11.25% large in body and 11.11 % small, 74.35% medium and 14.52% large in pylorus. The observations from present study show that myenteric plexus of stomach contains large number collections of nerve cells of different sizes.

232. The Total Length And Inner Surface Area Of Human Epididymis

Soni A, Joshi AK, Avni.KPS and Skandhan KP

Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Kochi

(1) Sri M.P Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Junagadh Agriculture University, Jamnagar

Human epididymis was studied and discussed in detail. Different authors have reported its length as from 9 feet to 60 feet. In this study we attempted to verify the facts on its length. We were also interested to measure the inner surface area of epididymis, which will be useful for further studies.

This study was conducted at Sri .MP Shah Medical College, Jamnagar. From autopsy room five human epididymes from unclaimed fresh dead bodies were used for this study. Employing Microsurgical instruments caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were separated and lengthened individually. Lengthening the tissue as a single piece was not feasible. During the procedure the tube got broken few times. The total length was measured. Each part was opened lengthwise and the inner surface area was measured.

Discussion will be done on the basis of the results.

233. Inferior Epigastric Artery – Clinical Significance In Relation To Trocar Placement

Vijayakumar. J. And Senthil Kumar S

Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (DU) Porur Chennai 600116

During laproscopic hernia repair it has been noticed many times that the inferior epigastric artery is the one most commonly traumatized. Current descriptions of the course of inferior epigastric artery do not provide surface land marks useful to surgeons. The data regarding the surface anatomy of inferior epigastric artery is meagre.

In this context the study was undertaken to determine the surface anatomy, location, course and branching pattern of inferior epigastric artery.

This study was carried out in 30 adult cadavers of both sex. The data obtained from the present study will form a guideline for safer trocar placement during laproscopic hernia repair.

234. A Study On The Relationship Of The Jugular Tubercles To The Medulla Oblongata — Clinical Significance

Senthil Kumar S, Vijayakumar J and Nirmal Palit

Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (Deemed University) Porur, Chennai

Many head injury patients have clinically severe head injury without much changes in the C.T Scan of the brain. These patients are thought to have a primary brain stem injury. The patho-physiology of this type of injury is not clear but it has been held to be due to the shearing stress and distortion of the brainstem.

It has been noticed many times in C.T. Scans of head injured patients that in some patients the jugular tubercles are closely related to the brainstem as if grasping the brain stem tightly from the posterolateral aspect. In this context the study was undertaken to determine the relationship of the brainstem to the jugular tubercles.

This study was carried out in thirty adult cadavers in whom the posterior cranial fossa was exposed by occipital craniectomy, simultaneously a series of C.T.Scans were examined to see the frequency of this narrowed inter-jugular tubercle space.

From the present study it can be hypothesized that head injury patients in whom the jugular tubercles are tightly opposed to brain stem are likely to suffer a greater degree of head injury than what is apparent on the C.T. Scan, because since the jugular tubercles are closely applied to the Medulla, the brainstem is held rigid and during the time of impact the brainstem is held tight at this point allowing for a greater degree of brainstem distortion superior to this point.

This study will form a guideline for the Neurosurgeons in dealing with head injury patients.

235. Micro Nucleus As Biomarker — In Oral Neoplasms

Pratheepa Sivasankari N, Sohinder Kaur, KS Reddy(1), Vivekanandam(1) and Ramachandra Rao. K.

(1), JIPMER, Pondicherry

Micronucleus (MN) is characteristic feature of carcinomatous conditions in less and large proportions in exfoliating epithelial cells like buccal mucosa and bladder wall during their pre and advanced stage respectively. It is a useful biomarker to assess the stage and severity of neoplasms. Well established cases of oral carcinoma were screened for MN from their epithelial scrapings by conventional methods. The details of the data thus obtained are compared with the controls of the same age and gender which will be presented and discussed.

236. Study Of Variations Of Number And Origin Of Right Renal Artery

G.C.Poornima And S.Saritha

J.S.S Medical College, Mysore.

In the present study, the origin and variations of right renal artery were studied in 50 cadavers by dissection method.

Interesting variations were observed in 19 specimens, the remaining showed normal pattern.

The variations were more than one renal hilar artery, 2 hilar arteries placed at different levels at the hilum, superior and inferior polar arteries along with the hilar arteries were observed.

In the present era of organ transplantation, renal transplantation is commonly performed. The present study throws important light for urologists while removing kidneys from donors.

237. Variation In Origin Of Cystic Artery

– ACase ReportKrishna.G, Vishnumaya.G And Siddaraju.K.S

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal.

During routine dissection in the dissection hall of department ofAnatomy, K.M.C Manipal,we came across the following variation in a middle aged male cadaver.

The cystic artery was found to be arising from the gastroduodenal artery whereas normally the cystic artery arises from right hepatic artery. The cystic artery then supplies the gall bladder. The literature found on cystic artery says it may arise from Proper hepatic artery in 3 % cases, left hepatic artery distal to the origin of right hepatic artery in 2% cases, middle hepatic artery in 12.7 % cases, common hepatic artery, coeliac trunk, abdominal aorta of the 17 cadavers dissected we found the variation in origin of Cystic artery only in one cadaver.

Further details and clinical importance of the variation will be presented during the conference.

238. Comparative Histological Study Of The Olfactory Bulb Of Human And Dog

(1)Rajib Kundu, (2)Ranjit Guha and (3)Ranjit Ghosh.

(1)N.B.M.C, Darjeeling, (2)C.M.C, Kolkata, (3)W.B.U.A.F.S, Kolkata.

Comparative Histological study on the olfactory bulb of human (microsmatic mammal) and dog (macrosmatic mammal) was made in this investigation. Grossly olfactory bulb of dog was tremendously large in comparison to those of human and the central part of the same contained a small cavity, lined by ependymal cells, which was not found in human. Different zones of tissues were found to be arranged in a well organized laminar pattern in the olfactory bulb of dog. This laminar arrangement was less distinct in case of human. Olfactory nerve fibre layer was also thicker in dog than in human. The synaptic glomeruli, mitral cells and outer plexiform layer also revealed interesting differences in those two species.

239. Morphometric Analysis Of Infraorbital Foramen In Human Foetuses

Faruqi NA(1) Ghaus Farah(2)

J. N. M. C., A. M. U., Aligarh

A detailed knowledge of the anatomic morphometry of infraorbital canal and groove is necessary for a surgeon while performing maxillofacial surgery and regional block anaesthesia. Modern surgical procedures as well as anaesthesia require more precise understanding of the surrounding anatomy. The aim of the study was to establish morphometrically the infraorbital foramen size and location in human foetuses, the area where this information is scanty. Thirty foetuses of different age groups (16 wks to > 30 of IUL) were divided into five groups (< 17 weeks, 17-20 wks,21-25 wks,26-30 wks and finally> 30 wks)on the basis of age. Four parameters including transverse diameter and vertical diameter of infraorbital foramen and its distance from the infraorbital margin and nasal notch were considered. We found that the foramen is circular in group I (transverse as well as vertical diameter being 0.6 approximately) but in late foetuses of group V, the foramen is transversely oval due to faster growth of transverse diameter(1.93 mm in group V whereas the vertical diameter in group V remained 1.21 mm only). Downward displacement is relatively more than the lateral displacement when the distance of the IOF from the infraorbital margin (0.74 mm in group I to 2 mm in group V) was compared with its distance from the nasal notch (3.14 mm in group I to 6.08 mm in group V). Third group shows maximum growth and displacement in all the four parameters. The transverse and vertical diameters kept pace with the head circumference.

240. Morphometric Analysis Of Infraorbital Groove And Infraorbital Canal In Human Foetuses

Ghaus Farah 7 Faruqi NA

J. N. M. C., A. M. U., Aligarh

When operating in and around the orbit, the key to a successful result is precise anatomical localization.Anatomic variations on this area may take place and a surgeon must take this into consideration so as to increase the surgical success. It is essential because of the recently introduced invasive procedures during intrauterine life.Also the literature regarding morphometric analysis of infraorbital groove and canal exists in adult but it is scanty in foetuses. Thirty foetuses of different age groups (16 -> 30 of IUL) were divided into five groups {< 17 weeks, 17-20 wks, 21-25 wks, 26-30 wks and finally> 30 wks}on the basis of age. Four parameters including length of infraorbital groove, canal, width of anterior end and posterior end of infraorbital groove were considered. Length of infraorbital groove ranged from

4.01 mm(Group I) to 6 mm (Group V) whereas length of infraorbital canal ranged from 0.67 mm to 2.60 mm in group I and V respectively. Similarly, width of the anterior end of the infraorbital groove varied from 0.61 mm to 1.65 mm and of the posterior end from 1.39 mm to 3.01 mm. As a consequence of the study, we infer that the shape of the canal is maintained (groove and canal inclusive), total length of the groove and canal becomes double from group I to group V, ratio of the groove to the canal is 1/8 in group I and 1/3 in group V meaning thereby, that the canal is formed at the expense of the groove. Growth of all the four parameters kept pace with the head circumference.

241.”A Histological Review Of The Vermiform Appendix In Foetuses Of Manipuri Origin”

A Jaishree Devi, N Saratchandra Singh, M Shyamo Singh and Arunchandra Singh.

Regional Institute Of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur

Vermiform appendices of fresh human normal foetuses were studied histologically to assess the microscopic changes in the wall during different gestational ages of intra uterine life (IUL).

81 fresh normal human foetuses of Manipuri origin, ranging from 9 weeks gestational age (51mm crown rump length) to 40 weeks gestational age (440 mm crown rump length) were collected. Vermiform appendix of each foetus was dissected out and subjected to the sequence of fixation, dehydration, clearing, paraffin embedding and paraffin block making. Serial paraffin sections of 5-10 micrometers thickness were stained alternately by Haematoxylin and Eosin, Van Geisen’s, Masson’s Trichrome and Voerhoff’s Haematoxylin and then analysed under a trinocular research light microscope.

Lining epithelium changed from stratified cuboidal at 9 weeks to pseudostratified columnar from 11 weeks (gestational ages) onwards. It further changed into simple columnar with interspread goblet cells from 20 weeks onwards. Villi, which are present in the early stage became shorter, smaller and lesser with increasing gestational age and disappeared from 27 weeks onwards. Lymphocytes appeared in the lamina propria earlier and later on in the submucosa. Lymphoid nodule formation was detected at 20 weeks. Even at 40 weeks the lymphoid nodules were still of primary type (i.e. without germinal centres). Muscularis mucosa was detected at 19 weeks and became distinct at 24 weeks. Muscularis externa was already present at 9 weeks and at 14 weeks it began to assume the adult pattern. Subserosa and serosa were distinguishable from 11 weeks onwards. Microanatomy of the vermiform appendix of 27 weeks to 40 weeks foetuses resembles that of adults, except that the lymphoid nodules are primary type having no germinal centres and only one or two nodules are seen in cross section. Thus not forming a complete ring of lymphoid nodules in the wall.

242. Right Side Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia With Liver Herniation

Virender Kumar Nim,Aruna S and Kalpana M

Pondicherry Institute Of Medical Sciences, Kalapet, Pondicherry.

During routine dissection an oval shaped defect was noticed in the diaphragm, in the adult female cadaver. 1t was located at the centra1 tendon anterolatera1 to the inferior venacaval opening. 1t was 4 cm x 6 cm with 1ong axis anteroposteriorly and had well circumscribed margins. It was seen to that a part of liver herniated in the right hemithorax up to half a centimeter and no other defect detected. The congenital diaphragmatic hernia has been described by many authors and as early as 1679 by Lazarus Rinerius. It can develop due to defective development of the septum transversum or pleuropritoneal membrane or failure of their fusion. The present case appears to be due to defective development of the septum transversum with small liver herniation. Lung and other viscera were normal, may be due to the small defect and blocked by liver herniation.

243. Morphometric Characteristics Of Thoracic And Lumbar Vertebral Body

Ajay Kumar, Poonam Singh, Veena Sood And M.Yamin

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab.

To know the measurement of thoracic and lumbar vertebral body.

A total of 510 vertebrae from 30 Indian skeletons of unknown origin were studied. Vertebral body height, Anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter and pedicle axis length were studied.

A consistent trend is seen between mean vertebral body height and vertebral level. It increases progressively from Tl to L5.

The mean anteroposterior diameter of vertebral body in the present study is in close agreement with Postacchini 1983 Italian series.

The pedicle axis length increased from Tl 24.5mm to L5 58.0mm. The mean length increase gradually through out the thoracic spine but remains relatively constant in lumbar spine.

As observed during the study by and large all the measurements which were taken found to be few mm less when compared to western skeletons studies. This may be due to short stature of Indian population as well as ethnic and racial variation.

244. An Interesting Case Of Bilateral Branchial Apparatus Anomaly

Kalpana V Patil and Sunil D Deshmukh

GMC, Aurangabad, Maharashtra.

Anomalies of branchial apparatus are not commonly seen and even if they are seen clinically mostly they are unilateral. Here, we are reporting an interesting case of bilateral branchial apparatus anomaly i.e. on left side a branchial cyst and on right side a healed branchial fistula.

When we saw the patient, he presented to us only with branchial cyst on left side since childhood and rapidly growing since last 2 years and he also gave History of healed branchial fistula on right side which does not need any surgical treatment.

We had investigated the case by ultrasonography and C.T. Scan and we excised the branchial cyst on left side completely.

245. Light And Electron Microscopic Structure Of Submucous Glands Of Inferior Nasal Turbinate

Pratima Wahee, Balbir Singh, Kanchan Kapoor and Arjun Dass

GMC, Sector 32,Chandigarh.

The light and electron microscopic structure of submucosal glands of the inferior nasal turbinate was studied in 60 biopsy tissues obtained from 20 subjects. Tissue was taken from the anterior, middle and posterior region of the inferior turbinate from each subject.

There were serous, mucous and mixed glands located in the lamina propria. Serous glands located just beneath the epithelium were smaller in size compared to the ones located deeply. The mucous acini were all placed relatively deeply in the lamina propria.

H/E staining revealed eosinophilic granules close to the lumen in serous acini whereas mucous glands were pale staining. Serous demilunes were similar to serous acini in staining properties. The serous acini stained lightly with PAS whereas mucous acini were Alcian blue positive.

Electron microscopy revealed serous acini with supranuclear Golgi complex, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules of variable size, shape and electron density. The mucous glands revealed flattened basal nuclei. Mucous granules were found packed in the supranuclear cytoplasm.These were electron lucent.

The ducts were lined by a single layer of low columnar to cuboidal cells. Their ultrastructure revealed an absence of secretory granules and basal striations.

The secretory granules of submucosal glands were similar in appearance to those reported in middle nasal turbinate. However, glands of inferior nasal turbinate differ from major and minor salivary glands.

The serous glands were the predominant cell type in all the three regions of the turbinate. Mucous glands increased in number from anterior to posterior end. The number of mucous glands decreased significantly with advancing age.

246. Study Of Dermatoglyphic Patterns In Thalassemia

Rajesh N Dehankar and DD Ksheersagar

N.K.P Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Hingna, Nagpur (Maharashtra)

Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and the configurations on the palmar region of hands and fingers and planter region of foot and toes. Dermatoglyphic patterns are genetically determined. Thalassemia is a heterogeneous group of hereditary hemolytic anemias which have in common a decreased rate of synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. Recently dermatoglyphic patterns have been utilized as a diagnostic tool in various disorders like thalassemia. The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur with an aim to evaluate the dermatoglyphic features and to note any specific variations in the thalassemic patients. The study comprises of 200 subjects (100 thalassemics and 100 controls) and the evaluation was done by ‘INK Method’. The study concluded that following parameters were significantly increased in thalassemics than controls: a) Whorls b) Loops c) Arches d) TFRC and AFRC e) Palmar patterns f) ‘atd’angle g) ‘a -b’ridge count.

247. Histological Study Of Human Abdominal Medium Sized Arteries

Keshaw Kumar And Rasiimi Dubey

M.L.N Medical College,Allahabad

Many research papers are available in the literature regarding gross anatomy of human abdominal medium sized arteries, but histological study of these arteries is still wanting. Therefore, present study is conducted to compare wall thickness, lumen circumference and tunica medial density of elastic fibres/smooth muscle fibres in the human abdominal medium sized arteries.

10 mm long arterial segments ofleft gastric artery, hepatic artery, splenic artery, gastroduodenal artery, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, renal artery, external iliac artery and internal iliac artery were obtained from dissection room cadavers 1 cm distal to their commencement and preserved in 10% formalin.

Wall thickness and lumen circumference was measured in each arterial segment after opening their lumen longitudinally. Paraffin sections of 10-micron thickness were cut with the help of rotary microtome to be stained with orcein, haematoxylin and eosin to observe tunica medial density of elastic fibres and smooth muscle fibres per magnified field in each artery.

It was observed that all human abdominal medium sized arteries were muscular arteries with varying wall thickness and lumen circumference.

248. Post Axial Ulnar Hemimelia – A Case Study Muraleedhara Menon

Amala Institute Of Medical Sciences Amala,

Thrissur, Kerala

The partial absence of Ulna Clubhand is rare condition. The incidence is 1: 120,000 and 1:400,000 live births. Ulnar hemimelia is four time less common than the radial hemimelia. In 70% of cases it is unilateral. The condition of partial or complete absence is reported by several workers 0’ Rahilly (1951), Franz (1961), Sharrard (1971), Apley (1993). Corroborative findings have been reported by Goldfarb et al (2005) recently in the study on the upper extremity longitudinal dysplasia.

In the present case there was bowing of the forelimb of the affected side with marginal deformity. Normal pronation and supination was difficult to perform. The patient could grip the objects in a normal way and any marked hand deformity was not detectable. No family history was traceable.

The possibility of dislocation of the radial head is always there because of the structurally incomplete radio ulnar joints. Radial bowing may be a compensatory phenomena. The hand leans noticeably towards the ulnar side. The elbow joint is normally functional with or without hand deformities. An Anlage which is a fibrous band may stretch from ulna to the hand and this may be the causative factor for the radial bowing. The exact cause of the ulnar hemimelia is not known. No genetic cause is evident from the study of relevant literature.

249. A Histoarchitectural Study Of Meckel’s Diverticulum

Zaidi Tariq M, Khan A.A And Faruqi N.A A

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