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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstract of papers presented during the 54th National Conference of The Anatomical Society of India, 2006 held at Amrita Medical College, Kochi, Kerala (151 - 199)

Author(s): Editors

Vol. 56, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007-06)

151. Large Cranial Meningocele – A Case Study

P.Vithal Kumari

Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute Of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation Gannavaram, Krishna Dist.

To Study A Case of Large Cranial Meningocele and its Embryological significance.

A female aged 20 yrs primy attended obstetrics OPD for antenatal check up in our hospital. Ultra sound was done a large swelling attached to the occipital region of the fetus was noticed.

This is a case of cranial meningocele incidence 1 in 2000 live births.

The defect is in the squamous part of the occipital bone. In this case the meninges herniated through the defect. Cranial meningocele, meningoencephalocele and meningohydroencephalocele are all caused by ossification defect in the bones of the skull.

If the opening in the occipital bone is small only meninges bulge through it and results in the formation of cranial meningocele. Ultra sound was done and found a very big swelling with 14 cm diameter in the occipital region. Case is kept under follow up.

A female live baby was born by lower segment cesarean section with a large cystic swelling attached to the occipital region with good APGAR. Photographs taken soon after the delivery of the baby will be presented. The ultra sound report shows the swelling attached to the occipital region with stalk and no brain matter in the stalk. The operative closure was done. The baby is well.

152. Study Of Surgical Anatomy Of Facial Nerve By Temporal Bone Dissection

G.kanchanalatha, R Bhanumurthy and K Sreenivasulu.

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool.

To study the relationship between the middle ear, mastoid antrum, internal ear, facial nerve and vestibulo cochlear nerve by temporal bone dissection. Knowledge of various structures like, facial nerve, middle ear and mastoid air cells are very important in various ear surgical procedures can be studied in detail by temporal bone dissection.

Temporal bones studied by drilling first on dry bone, and then on wet bones by following surgical methods like simple mastoidectomy, modified radical mastoidectomy [MRM] and radical mastoidectomy and exposure of the contents through middle cranial fossa and posterior cranial fossa approach.

Injury to facial nerve, ossicular chain, sigmoid sinus, vestibular apparatus, cochlea, are common in various ear surgical procedures, can be better prevented with the knowledge of temporal bone

153. Apoptosis In Syncytiotrophoblasts In Placenta Of Pre-Eclamptic Patients

Neerja Rani, Dhingra R, Bhatla N and Kumar R

AIIMS, New Delhi

Pre-Eclampsia is the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It affects 7-10% of all pregnancies, but its etiology remains unknown. Approximately 30% of fetuses born to preeclamptic women are at less than the 10th percentile for weight and are growth restricted. Histological studies of preeclamptic placental bed biopsy reveals increased cell death (apoptosis) of cytotrophoblast and endovascular invasion is nearly absent. Therefore it was proposed to determine abnormal invasion of trophoblast due to its increased apoptosis in preeclamptic placenta. A total of 40 human term placentas were taken from the women admitted to AIIMS hospital of these 20 were normal and 20 were preeclamptic. The placental tissues were fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin embedding. 5-7ìm thick sections were cut and TUNEL (terminal deoxynuleiotidyl transferase -mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling) method was performed to label DNA strand breaks in tissue sections of placenta. The apoptotic index was be calculated by counting the apoptotic nuclei in normal as well as in preeclamptic placental tissue. Our results showed apoptotic positive nuclei in Syncytiotrophoblasts in Control as well as in preeclamptic samples. But the apoptotic rate of Syncytiotrophoblasts nuclei in Preeclamptic term placentas was significantly higher than that in normal term placenta. Therefore, from these results it is conclude that Preeclampsia is associated with widespread increased apoptosis in Syncytiotrophoblasts nuclei, which may influence pathogenesis or sequelae of Preeclampsia.

154. Digital Facial Superimposition – A Case Report

Daksha Dixit, Pratibha D Athavia and Harish Pathak.

LTMMC, Sion, Mumbai.

The identification of human remains is of paramount importance for legal and humane reasons. The reconstruction of facial features of an individual onto the skull is a blend of scientific and artistic skills of the sculptor. This age old method suffers an ongoing skepticism due to the advent of personal computer and modem software technology. Digital Facial Superimposition is a method used in Forensic Anthropology to assist in the identification of skeletal remains. This includes the use of softwares like Corel Draw and Adobe Photoshop for digitally superimposing the images of the skull upon the ante mortem photograph of the deceased. In this particular case a child was abducted and subsequently murdered, the skeletal remains were procured and using the digital superimposition technique the skull bone was identified as that of the deceased. This case along with the technique will be discussed in the presentation.

155. Nutrient Foramen Of Fibula

Priya Ranganath And Manjunath KY

St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore

Nutrient foramina play an important role in nutrition and growth of the bones. Most of the nutrient arteries follow the rule, to the elbow I go, from the knee I flee; but they are very variable in position. The present study focused on studying the number of nutrient foramen in the fibula, their direction and location. Location was measured as to whether it was present on the upper or middle or lower third of the fibula; on which surface or border of the fibula it was present; distance from the neck of fibula.

Most of the bones had a single nutrient foramen (95.2%). All foramina were directed distally following Wolff’s law. Most of them were located in the middle third of the bone (73% of left side and 72% of right side), some in the upper third (14.3% of left side and 17.4% of right) and few in the lower third (12.7% of left and 10.5% of right).

156. Articulating Facets Of Patella

Azra Jabeen, Manjuanath KY and Roopa Ravindranath

St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore

Variations in patellar articular proportions may affect knee kinesiology. These may be related to different levels of patellar stability and/or musculoskeletal hypertrophy and may affect knee function. The geometry of lateral femoral condyle allows the patella to track smoothly with a larger patellofemoral contact area and less patellofemoral pressure during deep flexion. The present study was conducted on 40 adult patellae (20-left and 20-right,) of unknown sex. The lateral, medial and the medial-most facets were measured on graph sheets. The areas were measured using a java based computer programme. On the right. side, the area of the lateral facet was 5.10 sq cms,the medial facet was 2.70 sq cms,the medial most facet was 1.35 sq cms,and the total area was 9.20 sq cms. On the left side the area of the lateral facet was 5.22 sq cms, the medial facet was 2.89 sq cms, the medial most facet was 1.39 sq cms and the total area was 9.50 sq ems. The difference between the right and the left side was not found to be significant.

157. Morphometry Of The Sacrum

Lakshmi TA, Ranganath V and Roopa Ravindranath

St. Johns Medical College, Bangalore.

Knowledge of the anatomy of the sacrum is of importance for the instrumentation and management of the lumbosacral spine surgeries, forensic science and anthropology. Forty-eight dry sacra (25 female and 23 male) were studied to know the anatomy of the sacrum in Indian population. Various morphometric measurements were carried out in the study. Significant differences were observed in sacral height (p<0. 001) and left posterior pedicular height (p=0.006). The left and right vertical diameter of the auricular surface also showed significant differences (p value = .007 and <0.001) respectively. Detailed anatomy of the sacrum is of importance during spinal surgery and instrumentation to prevent certain neurovascular injuries.

158. Rectus Sternalis – A Case Report

Rupali M.Pawar And Lakshmi Rajgopal

Seth G.S Medical College, Parel, Mumbai

During routine dissection in the department of anatomy in G.S. Medical College, the presence of a rectus sternalis muscle was observed on the left side of a male cadaver. Attachments, relationship, and innervation, as well as its clinical relevance, also a brief overview of the existing literature regarding the nomenclature, historical reports, and incidence of this muscle will be dealt with in detail

159. Variation In The Course Of Second Part Of Maxillary Artery – A Case Report

KC Mallikarjuna, Rajashekar HV and Angadi AV

JJM Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka.

The course of second part of maxillary artery in relation to inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve was studied in routine dissection, during the dissection of infratemporal fossa. In one of the specimens unusual variation in the course of second part of maxillary artery was observed. Second part of the maxillary artery instead of going superficial to inferior alveolar nerve passieo in between the two roots of inferior alveolar nerve. Clinical manifestation of this abnormal course will be discussed in detail at the time of paper presentation.

160. Variations In The Origin And Course Of Superior Thyroid Artery

L Hema

JJ M. Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka.

One hundred and fifty bodies/cadavers were dissected for variations in origin and course of superior thyroid artery. About 33 variations were noted in the origin and course of superior thyroid artery which accounts to 22%. Origin course, relations, clinical significance of the variation will be discussed.

161. Incidence Of Dominant Coronary Arteries In Coronary Artery Disease – Angiographic Study

Nandyala Puhpamala, TK Rajasree, M Ravinder, S Sreelatha and S Rajgopal.

Osmania Medical College,Hyderabad,A.P.

Study done in 100 cases who were evaluated for chest pain and myocardial infarction. They were subjected to angiography for planning the treatment.

The percentage of the dominant coronary artery and the relation between the vessels which are blocked and the dominance of the right and left coronary arteries were studied.

The results of this study will be elaborated at the time of presentation.

162. Bilateral Cervical Rib

K Aparna Vedapriya, TK Rajasree, M Ravinder, S Sreelatha and S Rajgopal

Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad.

A female, aged 25 years came with complaints of pain in the neck on both sides radiating to the left upper arm which was aggravated while doing work. On evaluation with clinical examination and investigations it turned out to be a bilateral cervical rib with subclavian artery compression which is a rare presentation. Embryological basis, anatomical relations, the treatment and prognosis will be discussed at the time of presentation.

163. Local Gigantism

M Padmavathi, TK Rajasree, M Ravinder,S Sreelatha and S Rajgopal

Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad.

A female patient aged about 55 years came for the advise to take benefits which are given by the Government to the physically handicapped persons. The grossly deformed condition of her feet prompted the author to evaluate the case which turned out to be a very rare case of Local Gigantism.

The clinical features, investigative reports, corrective treatment and the prognosis of case will be discussed at the time of presentation.

164. Dermatoglyphics In Duodenal Ulcer

D Madhavi, TK Rajasree, M Ravinder, S Sreelatha and ABharathi.

Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad

Dermatoglyphics has long been recognized as a scientific and valuable method for medico-legal genetic studies and non-invasive diagnosis of medical disorders.

The present study is done in 50 cases aged between 30 to 50 yrs in 100 hands to know the correlation between palmar dermatoglyphics and incidence of duodenal ulcer. Palmar prints of 50 duodenal ulcer patients and 50 control cases on both hands are taken to study the parameters like Total Finger Ridge Count (TFRC) and frequency of ridge patterns. The positive findings will be discussed at the time of presentation.

165. Pandit Madhusudan Gupta – A Forgotten Hero In The Indian History Of Anatomy

Parthapratim Pradhan and Jadab CH Chatterjee

RG Kar Medical College and National Medical College, Kolkata.

The year 2006 is the 150th year of the demise of Pandit Madhusudan Gupta. He was a remarkable person in the Indian history of anatomy though he received very little attention.Madhsudan Gupta, a Bengali vaidya (a man of the medical caste) played a pivotal role in the introduction of”Western” (British) medicine in to South east Asia. In that time there were already two systems of medicine in India-the Unani (Muslim) system by the Hakims and the Ayurveda (Hindu) system by the vaidyas. However,the resident English and the army personnal were treated by British doctors, trained in Western Medicine in the British Schools.The British doctors needed”native” doctors as assistants. There was almost complete disinterest in practical anatomy in the two”native” systems of medicine,whereas, the Western system, stressed on anatomy. In 1835 the British Government established a new institution(presently, Medical College, Kolkata) at Kolkata (the then Culcutta) to teach European medical science in the English language. Madhusudan Gupta was appointed there as a demonstrator of Anatomy, the only non-European to be employed as a teacher. There was probably superstitious fear among the”native” students regarding the cadavers due to the local custom. So, the instructors proceeded cautiously while introducing the practice of human dissection, a subject that still evoked feelings of aversion and controversy in India. Pandit Madhusudan Gupta is said to have done the first dissection of a human dead-body at that college as started by John Drinkwater Bethune, an eminent educator in 1849 and also by some other historians. Gupta was an important person in the introduction and acceptance of anatomical studies in India. The other unknown interesting part of his career was studied and will be discussed during the presentation.

166. Cells Of Human Pituitary – Pars Intermedia

Savithri Krishnan

Medical College Trivandrum.

The human pituitary, pars intermedia, is the least explored part of the pituitary – the endocrine bandmaster. This study aims to appreciate the structure and cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe. About 100 specimens were included in this study ranging from fetuses above 18 weeks of gestational age to that of an 80 year old man. After routine histological processing the slides were subjected to various histological and histochemical staining methods. Cells of the pars intermedia were found to be mostly basophils which contatined mucoprotein and ACTH/MSH granules as shown by histochemical reactions. These basophils invaded the pars nervosa and the basophilic invasion increased with age. The invading cells were smaller and seen associated with blood vessels. It was concluded that majority of the cells of the pars intermedia were basophils, which secreted ACTH/MSH and these cells invaded the pars nervosa with increasing age. These invading cells probably contained MSH granules, which might explain the darkening of skin colour in old age.

167. Meckels Diverticulum – A Case Report

Kiran V Padeyappanavar, Ameer Khusru M Kazi, BM Bannur and SD Desai

Shri.B.M.Patil Medical College, Karnataka.

In 2 to 4 percent of people, a small portion of the vitelline duct persists, forming an out pocketing of the ileum known as Meckels (or) ileal diverticulum. In the adult, the diverticulum is located about 40 to 60 cms from the ileocaecal valve on the anti mesenteric border of the ileum. During routine dissection for undergraduates this anomaly was found in one cadaver. The details of the same will be presented during paper presentation.

168. Musculo-Cutaneous Nerve Not Piercing Coracobrachialis Muscle – A Case Report

Ameer Khusru M Kazi, Kiran V Padeyappanavar, BM Bannur and SD Desai.

Shri.B.M.Patil Medical College, Karnataka.

During routine dissection of upper extremities for first year M.B.B.S students, we found that one of the upper limbs showed variation in the form of Musculo-Cutaneous Nerve supplying coracobrachialis without piercing it. Detail discussion with photographs will be presented during case presentation.

169. Prevention And Limitation Of Synkinesis In Bell’s Palsy

K James Vijender Reddy,YSN Murthy,Praveen Kumar and Madhavi Srividhya

M.N.R Medical College, Sangareddy, Medak.

Bell’s palsy is a condition where there is paralysis (Partial or Complete) of facial muscles. This is caused by trauma to the VII cranial nerve, and is not permanent.

In Bell’s palsy – Synkinesis is characterised by uncoordinated or unsynchronized facial movements that occur along with normal movements, eg. when you smile the eyes may close.

A comparative case study was made based on this condition, where 16 male executives affected with this condition were taken; 8 of them were given muscle stimulation and mirror monitored individual muscle exercise and the rest were given only stimulation. The results will be discussed in the presentation.

170. Variations In Cephalic Vein

Amarendra M Kabadi and PS Jevoor.

J.N.Medical College, Belgaum,Karnataka

Knowledge of cephalic vein is helpful in giving intravenous injections,blood transfusion and construction of arterio-venous fistula at the wrist.

A study of cephalic vein was done on 25 cadavers in dept of Anatomy, J.N.Medical College, Belgaum. Some variations in cephalic vein were observed.

In one cadaver a vein of 4.8cm length and 0.35cm diameter was found to communicate with median cubital vein at level of 3.8cm below lateral epicondyle with cephalic vein at level of 1 cm above lateral epicondyle. This communicating vein from median cubital vein ascended upwards laterally to join with cephalic vein.

In another cadaver a vein of 12cm length and O.36cm diameter was found to communicate median cubital vein at level of 1 cm below medial epicondyle to cephalic vein at level of 12.5cm above lateral epicondyle. This communicating vein from median cubital vein ascended upwards laterally to join with cephalic vein.

Knowledge of such communication carry practical importance for surgeons while doing surgeries in this part of upper limb.

171. Tibial Hemimelia – Report Of A Rare Case

Suresh. B. Bidarkotimath. and PS Jevoor

J.N.Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka

This study helps to know the developmental anomalies of long bones in the lower limb and helpful in genetic counseling.

In our college hospital at Belgaum a male baby aged 5months, reported with a history of incomplete development of the right leg since birth. On examination the right leg was short and as per study x-ray, there was no development of the lower third part of right tibia.

As per the literature this congenital disorder does not have specific reasons but the probable factors have been postulated by several authors which include, exposure to radiation, environmental disorders, autosomal or recessive factors, and consanguinity of marriages.

As the lower limb bud appear by the end of the fourth week of intra uterine life, formed by mesenchymal core of mesoderm covering on ectodermal cap, the said factors including, indirect causes are said to interfere in the path of normal growth of limb bud, leading to such developmental defects. In such cases the aim of treatment will be to compensate the loss of length of the tibia, by artificial limb. In severe deficiency cases amputation followed by prosthetic rehabilitation are recommended.

172. Autonomic Innervation Of Aero Digestive Tract

R S Humbarwadi

SSMC, Davangere, Karnataka.

At one extreme is the studied scientific opinion that laryngeal sensation considered alone, has a relatively unimportant role in swallowing. Some patients with dysphagia can relearn to eat with sufficient training of the swallowing manoeuvre and it is seen that normal swallowing can occur spontaneously even with complete anaesthesia of upper aerodigestive tract.

At the other extreme however, is logical and biological necessity of rich sensory innervation at the aerodigestive tract to protect the lower respiratory passages from any aspirate during swallowing or vomiting. Current studies on dysphagia show that intact laryngeal sensation is just as important for overall function.

Forty six internal laryngeal nerves (ILN) were dissected in cadavers. The arrangement of the ILN was detailed and photographed..

A ganglionated neural plexus was observed in the larynx which can be noticeably divided into a superficial thyrohyoid part and a deep sacculo-piriform part.

The undeniable anatomical presence of an integrated autonomic neural plexus in the larynx emphasizes the importance of the role of sensation in swallowing.

173. Unilateral Multiple Nipple In A Female Cadaver – A Case Report

Elezy MA, Krishnakumari KS and Amar Jayanthi

Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala.

During dissection multiple nipple was noted in a female cadaver. Polythelia is a condition where accessory nipples have formed due to the persistence of fragments of the mammary line. Accessory nipples may develop any where along the original mammary line. But usually appear in the Axillary region. Mammary line or ridge is found in the 7th week embryo in the form of a band like thickening of the epidermis. Details will be discussed during the presentation.

174. Incidence Study Of Multiple Renal Artery Anomalies

Girijamony VK, Amar Jayanthi and Indira VIGovernment Medical College, Kozhikode.

Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala

To study the incidence of multiple renal arteries and to reinforce awareness of such variations.

The anatomical construction of renal arteries and their associated anomalies were studied in the available cadavers of Dept. of Anatomy, Medical colleges Kozhikode and Thrissur. The origin” course, termination and relations of arteries supplying kidneys were noted. The percentage and incidence of renal artery anomalies were observed.

Renal arteries showed unilateral as well as bilateral variations. The results and conclusion of the study will be presented at the Conference.

175. Incomplete Closure Of Pleuro-Peritoneal Canal – A Report

AAmar Jayanthi, MAElezy and Ann George

Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala

To demonstrate the unusual variations of diaphragm and associated congenital anomalies.

During routine dissections a case is reported in an adult female cadaver having unusual variation in the attachment and development of diaphragm. This was compared with the features observed in other cadavers. The muscle was clearly dissected and photographed. The attachments were defined. Microscopic study of the hernial content was done.

The left crus of diaphragm was found to arise by two tendinous slips. There was a rounded defect of 1 cm diameter in the muscular part of diaphragm on the left side. The parietal peritoneum on the inferior surface of diaphragm along with fatty tissue was found to herniate through this defect. The left inferior suprarenal artery was also found to pass through the hernial orifice. The microscopic findings and etiology of such unusual herniation will be discussed.

176. Absence Of Right Musculocutaneous Nerve And Variation In Branching Pattern Of Median Nerve In Arm (A Case Study)

Sontakke Y, Fulzele R, Marathe R, Gajbhiye V and Chauhan A

JNMC, Sawangi, Wardha. M.S.

During the routine dissection of 20 cadavers in J.N.M.C., Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, the right Musculocutaneous nerve was not found in an adult male cadaver. The motor branches to the muscles of anterior compartment of the right Upper arm (i.e. Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii, Brachialis) found to arise from the branch of the right Median nerve and the same continued as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. When traced upward it is found that the fibers of this branch of median nerve were found to coming from the lateral root of Median nerve. Left sided structures were normal.

Such variations are important for surgeons while performing surgeries of Axilla and Upper arm.

177. Anodontia – A Case Report

Chauhan A, Fulzele R, Marathe R and Sontakke

YJNMC, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharastra.

Abnormal formation of teeth may be manifested as deviation in number, size and composition. These abnormalities in dental developement more frequently and more likely to have serious impact in the permanent dentition than in temporary. The most frequently occuring anomalies are the presence of supernumerary teeth or developmentally absent teeth.

Teeth may be considered to be developmentally missing when it cannot be discerned clinically or radiographically and no history exists of its extraction.

Anodontia is a condition in which all teeth fail to develop and is extremely rarely encountered in a pure form without any associated abnormality.

A 19 years old male is found to have anodontia (congenital absence of teeth).

178. Right Pelvic Kidney With Rare Vascular Anomalies

G.amudha and Aleyamma Fenn,

PSGIMSandR, Coimbatore.

Variations are common feature in renal vessels. Multiple anomalies are relatively rare and this knowledge is very important for Urologists and Interventional Radiologists. Multiple Anomalies were observed in right kidney in routine dissection in an elderly adult male cadaver. Right pelvic kidney, polar blood vessels in upper pole, renal artery taking origin from left side of abdominal aorta and right renal vein draining into left renal vein along with left suprarenal vein. The left kidney was normal.

Presence of such multiple anomalies may be due to the complex development of renal vessels. These findings are significant because they have lot of clinical importance.

179. Variation Of Right Coronary Artery – A Case Report

C Krishnaveni, K.Krupadanam And K.Anasuya

N.R.I Medical College, Chinnakakani.

During routine dissection of cadaver following Variations are observed in the course of coronary artery. Right coronary artery arose from anterior aortic sinus and runs in right part of atrioventricular groove it dwindled abruptly and continued as slender branch upto the crux and ended there. Right conus branch arose directly from anterior aortic sinus (the right coronary artery has not given the posterior interventricular branch).

Left coronary artery arose from left aortic sinus which is larger and further immediately divided into anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery followed the normal course.

The circumflex branch reached crux and continues as posterior interventricular branch in posterior interventricular sulcus anastomoses with anterior interventricular artery .Left conus artery arose from anterior interventricular branch and anastomoses with right conus artery at base of pulmonary trunk. This anastomoses known as (annulus of Vieussens ).

180. Preparation Of Museum Specimens

D.Suseelamma, Shiva Kumar, HR Sarada Sharma, KK Chaithanya and V linga Swamy. Kamineni Institute Of Medical Sciences,

Narkatpally, Nalgonda (Dt.), Andhra Pradesh.

To prepare the museum specimens is a challenging job.In our department we have prepared museum specimens with different methods. Materials used were cellulose acetate butyrate, barium sulphate,10% potassium hydroxide and resin. Formalinised and fresh specimens were used for preparation of specimens by using the above materials. Potassium Hydroxide method is best for Liver and Spleen. Casting and Barium Sulphate are suitable for Placenta. Results will be discussed at the venue.

181. Age Related Changes In Cortical Thickness In Women

P Santhanam, P Singh And V Sood

DMC and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab

Age related radiometric changes in cortical thickness of 2nd metacarpal have been observed by many workers for detecting osteoporosis. Cortical thickness is a very important parameter which can be measured with ease using a simple X ray, X ray view box, graph paper and sharp tipped vernier callipers. The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana, Punjab. Consent form was filled and cortical thickness was measured on the X rays of 2nd metacarpals of both right and left hands in the age groups of 25-34,41-50, 51-60 and 61 years and above, in 60 females belonging to North India. Cortical thickness was found to decrease after age 40 years, consistent with the age of onset of menopause in Indian women (45-50 years). There was an accelerated decrease in the cortical thickness after age of 50 years. Rate of loss is 7.11% per decade for the left hand and 6.55% per decade for the right hand in conformity with other studies. The decrease is more in left hand than in right hand. This simple parameter is useful in the evaluation of osteoporosis.

182. Does Low-Lying Pubic Tubercle Predispose To Inguinal Hernia?

Usha Dhall, ABhardwaj And J.C.Dhall

Pt.B.D.Sharma P.G.I.M.S, Rohtak.

Inguinal hernia is the commonest abdominal wall hernia. The present study was done to find out if low lying pubic tubercle had any correlation with occurrence of inguinal hernia. Spinotubercular (ST) distance i.e. vertical distance between interspinous and transtubercle lines was measured in plain anteroposterior radiographs of pelvic region in 50 patients of inguinal hernia and compared with 50 control subjects not suffering from any hernia. Greater ST distance was observed in patients as compared to control irrespective of age, weight and height. It is concluded that low-lying pubic tubercle seems to predispose to the occurrence of inguinal hernia.

183. Difference In The Vulnerability Of Brain And Spinal Cord To The Toxic Effects Induced By Foreign Proteins

S Sangeetha, R Sridhar Skylab, V Sankar, TC Santiago and V Thillai Sekar

Dr.A.L.M PG Institute Of Basic Medical Sciences, University Of Madras, Chennai,CIBA-Chennai

Foreign proteins (prions) have toxic effect on the body, especially on central nervous system. Aim of this pilot study was to observe the neurotoxic effect of foreign protein on spinal cord. Albino rats weighing about l20-l50gms were grouped as normal, vehicle treated, single dose and multi dose. Intramuscular administration of foreign protein was given. The animals were sacrificed and the spinal cords were dissected. The tissues were processed and embedded with paraffin wax. Sections were taken at 5-20ì thickness and stained with HandE, Toludine blue and Loyez stains. Even though no significant changes were observed in behavioral study, significant changes such as neuronal cell loss and reactive gliosis at some places were seen in cortex but not in spinal cord. This indicates that brain especially cortical neurons are susceptible to the toxic effects of foreign proteins whereas, spinal cord may be less susceptible. The difference may be due to the differences in the permeability of blood brain barriers of brain and spinal cord. Further studies would be required to verify this speculation.

184. Modified Intraluminal Suture Occlusion Of Middle Cerebral Artery In Wistar Albino Rat

Muthuvel Vijayan K, Mary Antony Prabha .A, Ramesh Kumar.R And Muthusamy. R

Dr.A.L.M Post Graduate Institute Of Basic Medical Sciences, University Of Madras, Taramani, Chennai

To create a focal cerebral ischemia in an animal model Middle cerebral artery (MCA) was targeted to mimic the human cerebrovascular disease. Till 1988 focal cerebral Ischemia was induced in rats by transcranial approach as described by Tamura et al, 1981. This method was considered as more invasive and it creates a permanent ischemic model.

Later Enrique Zea Longa in 1989 developed a simple, relatively non-invasive and reversible regional cerebral ischemic rat model, by inserting a nylon monofilament with tip blunted near flame into internal carotid artery via a nick in the External carotid artery to occlude MCA. The reversible MCA occlusion model has been in use by many researchers with slight modifications till date.

In our study we encountered some difficulties to create a successful cerebral ischemia in Wistar albino rats as described by Enrique Zea Longa. We did certain modifications to overcome the problems and confirmed the success of MCA occlusion by autopsy after surgery, Histopathological examination and behavioral assessments of the animals.

185. Nailing Index – A Tool To Orthopaedic Surgeons

P Kaur

Adesh Institute Of Medical Sciences And Research, Bathinda (Punjab)

With the advancement in treatment of bony fractures by internal fixation, the measurements and their norms assume a surgical significance. For Anthropologists, Medico-legal experts and Surgeons, the variability of norms and its range is a problem because standards are known to differ due to variations in climate, diet, heredity and geographical area. Therefore the standards, which are to be applied to draw the conclusions, must be derived from the metric and statistical survey of the population. In the present study, the standards for North Indian population have been defined. Upper end length and trochanteric length of 100 North-Indian femur have been measured and applied to calculate the nailing index. The findings were compared with western countries figures available in literature. The average value of nailing index for North-Indians was found to be 21.4, which is higher than that in Chinese (19.3) and lower than Koreans (23.0) and Japanese (22.7). The importance of nailing index has been highlighted for Orthopaedic Surgeons.

186. Nasal Parameters In Adult Indian Punjabi Male

Jat Sikhs And Banias Singla M, Sood M, Patnaik VVG, Kaushal S and Bhatnagar DP

BJSDC, Ludhiana, India.

Nasal features are most characteristic of ethnic and racial differences in facial morphology. Nose has been described as keystone among the facial features for determining individuality. The present study is conducted on 300 adult male Jat Sikhs and 300 adult male Banias of Punjab of Indian origin with the aim of establishing basic nasal parameters of these two endogamous groups and to find out whether these groups could be differentiated on basis of nasal morphology. To accomplish this purpose, nasal breadth, nasal height, nasal length and nasal depth of both endogamous groups were measured, and nasal index and elevation of nose index was calculated.

In Banias, as compared to Jat Sikhs, nasal height and nasal length was less, but nose was broad and nasal depth was more. The Jat Sikh male possessed mesorhinae and chamaerhinae noses, where as in Banias, there was transition from leptorhinae to mesorhinae noses. It was seen that statistically ‘highly significant’ (p<0.001)differences exist in nasal breadth, nasal height, nasal length, nasal index and elevation of nose index in the two endogamous groups, but the nasal depth was statistically ‘very significant’(p<0.01).

187. The Effect Of Palash (Butea-Monosperma)Seeds On The Ovary Of Mice

Neelam Gupta And Gajendra Singh

Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

Butea monosperma (Palash) has been in use in clinic practice in Ayurveda for many years as a contraceptive. The powder of the seeds of Palash (Butea monosperma) when given orally to ladies after menses for three consecutive days, results in failure to conceive (causing failure of pregnancy).

In the present study an effort has been made to study the effect of Palash (Butea monosperma) seeds on the ovary of mice as an animal model. The powder was administered orally mixed with distilled water in the dose of 2 gm/kg bodyweight to female mice of reproductive age for three consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 10 days after treatment and ovaries were collected. The ovaries were studied histologically after H and E staining.

The principle observation was degeneration of ova in all the follicles, which were seen in different stages of follicular atresia. None of the follicles showed presence of ovum. When compared to controls, the study was suggestive that the powder of Palash (Butea monosperma) seeds destroys specially and selectively the ova in the follicles at whatever stage of development they were present in the ovaries and, therefore, the animals would certainly become non productive.

The finding will be presented and discussed.

188. Accessory Parotid Gland And Its Clinical Implications

Prajna Paramita Samanta, Kum Kum Rana,Riyazul Qamar Khan and Srijit Das

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

We report an interesting case of accessory parotid gland in a male cadaver. This accessory gland was located below the main parotid duct and related to the buccal branch of the facial nerve on its surface. Multiple ductules connected the gland to the main parotid duct. The accessory parotid gland was located at a distance of 2.5 cm from the angle of the mouth. The presence of the accessory parotid gland may be related to congenital developmental anomalies. This accessory parotid gland may also be a site of tumor. Proper anatomical knowledge of the accessory parotid gland is clinically important for performing sialographic studies and surgeries on the face.

189. Effect Of Lorazepam On Basal Ganglia Of Rat’s Brain

Namita Mehrotra and RN Jadhav

HIMS, Dehradun

Lorazepam is a fast acting short duration benzodiazepines which acts on GABA receptor. It is commonly used for sedative anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antiemetic and amnestic activity. Aim of present study is to see adverse effect oflorazepam by observing its histopathological effect on brain. Lorazepam was administered intraperitonealy to 20 albino adult rats as single dose (subacute dose) daily for 2 weeks. A control group of 20 rats were similarly injected with same amount of vehicle. After 2 weeks rats were sacrificed with ether anaesthesia and their brain were examined under light microscope after paraffin wax preparation.

On histological examination of brain, we examined specifically basal ganglia in which we observed fibrosis and gliosis which was seen after haematoxylin and eosin ‘staining and also confirmed by silver staining.

190. Morphology Of Liver

Madhur Gupta, Lavina Sodhi, Neeru Goyal and TD Yadav

PGIMER, Chandigarh.

Liver size is related to the functional reserve of the liver. The present study was conducted to assess liver size and to find its relationship with body parameters. Liver specimens were obtained from 50 cadavers, aged 19-65 years. Body parameters viz age, body height and body weight of cadavers were noted. Body mass index was calculated: (weight (kg)/ height (m2)) and body surface area was calculated from a normogram. Volume of the liver was taken by water displacement method. Liver diameters were measured with vernier calipers. The external surface of the liver was also studied for the presence of fissures, to see whether they demarcate any vascular segment and blood vessel beneath them. The mean maximum transverse diameter of the liver was 199.4±24.5mm, mean maximum vertical diameter was 149.5± I 8.7mm and vertical diameter at falciform ligament was 96.8±13.9. Volume of liver was 1140.l5±244.68ml. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between maximum anteroposterior diameter and body mass index (P<0.05) and between vertical diameter at falciform ligament and body weight (P<0.01). Significant correlations were also seen between liver volume and body surface area (P<0.001), body weight (P<0.01) and body height (P<0.05). 1-3 fissures were seen in 70% specimens, which on dissection showed underlying veins draining into inferior vena cava in 40% cases. The presence of accessory fissure at the site of inter-segmental vein may help the surgeon during resection of the liver segments.

191. Morphometric Analysis Of Adult Femoral Articular Cartilage

Neeru Goyal, Madhur Gupta, Kusum Joshi and Aditya Aggarwal

PGIMER, Chandigarh

Articular cartilage shows a high degree of cellular organization complemented by structural matrix. Morphometric analysis of adult normal articular cartilage has been studied using image analysis software. 16 articular cartilage specimens (16-40yrs) were obtained from medial femoral condyles of cadavers and processed for paraffin sections. 5ì thick serial sections were stained with HandE, photographed using digital camera and analyzed using Image Pro Express software. Average thickness of the articular cartilage was found to be 2.08mm (1.89- 2.29mm). Upper one tenth was zone I and rest were equally divided into II, III and IV zones. In the superficial zone I, the cells were fusiform having length and breadth ranging between 6.53- 28.16ì (mean 15.55ì) and 2.3810.54ì (mean5.21 ì) respectively and the area ranged from 21.33-149.18ì2 (mean 66.49ì2). In zone II, III and IV, cells were oval to round. The diameter of cells in zone II ranged from 6.6- 19.9ì(average 11.84ì) and area from 56.18-337.12/12 (mean 133.84/12). In zone Ill, the diameter of cells ranged from 5.16- 18.46/1 (mean 11.34/1) and area from 105.42346.77ì2 (average 174.75ì2). The cells of zone IV had maximum diameter ranging from 10.02- 18.56ì (mean 14.32ì), area 53.51-235.02ì2 (mean 165.07ì2) and the cells were found to be hypertrophied. Large variation in the areas of the cells was observed in all the four zones. The cells were further classified as small, medium and large according to their area and majority of the cells were found to be medium sized. The zonation of articular cartilage could be identified in all specimens ranging from 16-40yrs.

192. Demonstration Of Decrease In Elastic Fibres From Aorta To Superficial Palmar Arch By Verhoeff’s Staining Method

M.Chandra Mohan, SK Siraj, B Naveen Kumar and Ravi Varma V

Mamata Medical College, Khammam, A.P .

We know that elasticity of arterial wall decreases from aorta to distal arteries. To demonstrate these elastic fibers we require a special stain, because H and E do not stain these, where as the elastic fibers are mildly acidophilic, but their staining with eosin is erratic. In 1908 Verhoeff demonstrated elastic fibers by using a special stain which was afterwards named as Verhoeff’s stain. For this purpose we have taken artery specimens from dead fetuses and those tissues are fixed in 10% formalin. Special stained slides were prepared from these tissues. The details of which will be presented at the time of conference.

193. Sub-Hepatic Caecum And Appendix – A Case Report

Janardhan Rao, M Chandra Mohan, SK Siraj and B Naveen Kumar

Mamata Medical College, Khammam, A.P.

Earlier workers have carried out studies and the position of vermiform appendix was ascertained by an analysis of 10,000 cases by Wakeley in 1933 According to Wakeley 1933: 1) Retrocaecal- 65% 2) Pelvic -32% 3) Pre ileal -01 % 4) Post ileal -0.4%

But we found in our routine dissection of abdomen, Sub hepatic caecum and appendix which has embryological and surgical importance

194. Inheritence Of Autosomal Translocation 46, XY, t (1:22) Associated With Male Infertility

C S Nagarajappa

V.M.K.V. Medical College, Salem

Male infertility is caused by various factors. Genetic factor is one of the important factors among them.

The aim was to investigate how the chromosomal anomalies can cause male infertility.

9 family members extending over 3 generations including the proband were investigated (proband was infertile for 9 years). Their lymphocyte culture and karyotypes were done by standard methods. The proband was subjected to clinical, seminal, histopathological, hormonai and chromosomal evaluation. Chromosomes at mitosis and meiosis were analyzed.

Karyotype of the proband, his mother, two sisters and a nephew exhibited abnormal chromosomal constitution i.e. 46, XY, t (1:22) in case of males, and 46, XX, t (1:22) in case of females.

Structural abnormalities of chromosomes can cause permanent sterility. However in this investigation only males suffered infertility but not females.

195. Anti-Stress Effect Of Centella Asiatica And Clitoria Ternacea Plant Extracts

Hemamalini and Muddanna S Rao.

K.M.C. Manipal

Brain is a dynamic structure. Its neurons are sensitive to nutrition, drugs, toxins and even for stress. It is well known that hippocampal CA3 neurons degenerate in stressed animals. In the present study we have aimed to evaluate the antistress role of leaf extract of Centella asiatica (CeA) and root extract of Clitoria ternacea (CTR). Adult albino mice (3 months old) were divided into 4 groups: normal control, restraint stressed, restraint stressed + CeA treated, restraint stress + CTR treated. Mice in the CeA and CTR group were treated with CeA and CTR extract along with stress. After the treatment, mice in all the groups were sacrificed, hippocampal tissue was processed for Golgi staining. CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida. Dendritic intersections and branching points were quantified using concentric circle method. Result showed a significant increase in the dendritic branching points and intersections in mice stressed and treated with CeAand CTR extracts. These data suggest that CeAand CTR have anti -stress effect.

196. Cytogenetic Evaluation Of Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease)

Agarwal S, Anand C and Gulati SM

LHMC and Smt. S.K Hospital

Thromboangiitis obliterans constitutes a significant percentage of all patients presenting with peripheral vascular disease in India. This study was undertaken to explore the possibility of any cytogenetic abnormalities in the karyotypes of patients suffering from this disease. A study group consisting of thirty patients suffering from Thromboangiitis obliterans, another group consisting of thirty chronic male smokers and a third group of thirty non-smoker healthy males of comparable age group were selected. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of subjects were used for cell culture by modified Hungerford technique (1965). Metaphase spreads obtained were subjected to Giemsa banding by modified Seabright technique (1971). Minimum of twenty metaphase spreads on each slide were observed and any aberrations recorded. Under light microscope the metaphase spread were photographed and karyotype prepared according to Denver classification. The results of our study show no significant numerical or structural abnormalities.

197. Double Superior Vena Cava -An Anomaly On Embryological Basis – A Case Report

Raghavendra V. P.

J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere, Karnataka.

During the routine dissection of thorax of male cadaver aged around 50 years in the Department of Anatomy, J.J.M Medical College, Davanagere, we came across Right and Left Superior Vena Cava. Both the vessel have the same caliber. The Left Superior Vena Cava opening directly into the larger caliberd coronary sinus and Right Superior Vena Cava opens into the right atrum.

As this venous anomaly of thorax is of great importance in the Cardiothroacic or vascular surgeries it is discussed in detail.

198. The Tribal Truths – The Anatomical Reality

Nivedha. R and Balagopal S

Sri Ramachandra Dental College, S.R.M.C and R.I, Chennai

Complexities in tooth wear and salivary secretions vary accordingly to the geographical location in which people live. One of the main factors which influence these variations within the same species is the diet. Diet is a direct link between man and his environment. It is the single most important factor underlying behavioral differences among living primates, early hominins and the civilized man. This study was undertaken to study the various anatomical and salivary changes in the tribal population of the Irulas. This is the first ever dental study reported for this tribal population. The findings provide a marked variation in their oral environment and a new insight to salivary analysis

199. Valve Of Internal Jugular Vein And Jugular Ectasia

Melani Rajendran, Venkata Sai and Bhavana

Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai

Internal jugular vein cannulation is commonly performed but most physicians are not aware of the existence of internal jugular venous valve the position of the valve may vary from individuals.

In 20 cadavers, the valves of the internal jugular vein were dissected out and their positions were identified.To ascertain the internal jugular vein,colour doppler study of about 38 patients were done.

Two cases had venous ectasia with valve above the superior bulb, when the patient did the valsalva manouvere venous ectasia became prominent. In 14 cases, valves were found, above the superior bulb, in others at the jugulosubclavian junction and in four cases, valves were absent.

These valves play an important role in preventing the retrograde blood flow to the brain and hence to identify the positions of valves by any radio-imaging techniques is essential before any surgical procedure.

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