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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstract of papers presented during the 54th National Conference of The Anatomical Society of India, 2006 held at Amrita Medical College, Kochi, Kerala (1 - 55)


Vol. 56, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007-06)

1. Double Mandibular Foramen

V. Rajram
Madurai Medical College, Madurai

The mandible shows extensive variation in size and weight during an individual’s lifetime. It has to show extensive variation in size and weight as the food habits differ.

The mandibular ramus is quadrilateral, with two surfaces, four borders and two processes. The lateral surface has oblique ridges in its lower part. The medial presents, a little above center, an irregular mandibular foramen, leading into the mandibular canal, curving downwards and forwards into the body to its mental foramen. The mental foramen may be doubled or tripled, but the mandibular foramen is usually single. In this mandible, double mandibular foramen is noticed and presented for its rarity and curiosity.

2. Anatomy of Arterial Blood Circulation

Keshaw Kumar
M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad

To compare the anatomy of systemic and pulmonary blood circulation tissue of structures related to systemic circulation (left ventricle, ascending aorta, left coronary artery) and structures related to pulmonary circulation (right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, right coronary artery) was obtained from constant levels during autopsy from 300 human adults not suffering from any cardiovascular disease.

Wall thickness and lumen circumference of all these structures were measured and pulsatory power, pulse pressure and volume of blood entering the lumen during each heartbeat were calculated according to laws of arterial pulsation (Kumar 1993) in all these structures related to systemic and pulmonary blood circulation.

In an individual not suffering from any cardiovascular disease these ratios (3:1 and 1:1) remain always constant and are known as”Keshaw Constants”. Any deviation or alteration in the”Keshaw Constants” in an individual is the indication of cardiovascular disease in that individual either in the form of left / right sided cardiac failure or in the form of cardiac coronary inefficiency. Equal volume of blood circulates in the systemic and pulmonary circulations during each heartbeat and it is known as”Keshaw Concept of blood volume equality”.

3. Perinatal Factors And Autism

Mini Kariappa
Jubilee Mission Medical College, Trichur.

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder seen in children between the ages of one and three years.

Various perinatal factors have been implicated in its causation such as longer duration of labour, low Apgar scores, signs of fetal distress, operative procedures, maturity of the fetus.

Each of these factors have been examined and observed in 150 cases studied and their details will be presented at the conference.

4. Reconstruction Of The Total Length Of Ulna From Its Fragments

N.K.P Institute of Medical Sciences and L. M. Hospital, Digdoh, Hingna, Nagpur

In many circumstances as a medicolegal expert, the stature of a deceased individual has to be calculated by using the regression equation from the available skeletal material in the form of complete skeleton or isolated long bones or from reconstructed length of a long bone from its available fragments.

The study was conducted on 145 adult human normal ulna from dissection hall cadavers of Medical Colleges in Nagpur. The total length of each ulna bone was divided into 9 segments by taking various definite morphological landmarks. The length of segments was measured with the help of specially designed osteometric board. The standard deviation, Coefficient of variation and the ranges of all the segments to the total length were determined. By using statistical formulae the proportion of various segments to the total length of ulna was derived. To assess the validity of this work statistical evaluation was done by 95% confidence interval of the proportion of fragments.

5. Study Of Accessory Renal Artery

Girish V. Patil

S.Nijalingappa Medical College, Karnataka

Accessory or Aberrant renal artery is the main vascular supply to one of the segments of the kidney. This study is done to know the incidence of occurrence of accessory renal artery and its relevant clinical importance in humans. 100 human kidneys were obtained during postmortem from forensic medicine department of VIMS, Bellary and were studied by dissection and silicon cast method.28% of them had accessory renal artery which is highly significant surgically.This study will help the nephrologists during segmental resection of the kidney and the presence of the accessory renal artery should be considered as one of the aetiological factors for Hydronephrosis. The details will be discussed in the conference.

6. Dermatoglyphics In Relation To HypertensionPrimary and Secondary

Tridib Kumar Sett and Anirban Sadhu

R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata.Distt

Hypertension (primary as well as secondary) is quite a common disease and is one of the most common causes of death in persons past middle age due to its antecedent complications.

Among so many factors proposed as aetiology of this dreaded disease, hereditary factor is suggested to be a strong contender. Dermatoglyphic pattern which can readily be revealed by finger print study, is a well recognized marker of heritability. Moreover, this study can be made with relatively little funding. Keeping this in mind, a fairly good number of hypertensive individuals of both the sexes will be put through the test of fingerprinting and the results so obtained will be analysed and evaluated statistically.

7. Morphometric Study Of Lumbar Pedicles In Delhi Region Of Northern India

Latika Arora and Vishram Singh

Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad

Morphologic parameters of adult lumbar vertebra were studied in 25 male and 30 female vertebrae. Horizontal and vertical diameters were measured with the help of sliding vernier caliper. Horizontal diameter increased from L1 to L5 with range being between 815 mm in male and 7 14mm in females. Observations of vertical diameter showed an increase in measurements from LI to L5 vertebrae. The range of vertical diameter in male vertebra was 14 to 21 mm and in female vertebrae of 14 to 19mm. Thus results of morphometric study of selected human vertebrae may help to provide data for implantable devices and spinal instrumentation.

8. Occipitalization Of The Atlas With Other Associated Variations Of The Skull – Report Of Two Cases

Mahesh Sharma, Balbir Singh, Kanchan Kapoor

GMC, Chandigarh.

Congenital fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone is the common denominator of a galaxy of skeletal defects. Skull anomalies may result in sudden unexpected death. Two dry skulls were obtained and identified for variations from the dept. of Anatomy. These were photographed and radiographed. Various measurements including cranial index, measurements of foramen magnum, basal angle and basal impression were taken. Both the skulls showed complete occipitalization of atlas with the occipital bone. Continuation of confluence of sinuses only to the left transverse sinus was observed in both the skulls.

In addition, one skull was asymmetrical in shape. Foramina transversaria in this specimen were bilaterally reduced to admit only a safety pin. The thickness of wall of the other skull was asymmetrical on the two sides. It also showed a shelf like bony triangular projection (dural band/ spur), which was attached to the upper margin of the groove for transverse sinus on the right side. Cranial indices of both the skulls were greater than 80 (brachycranial/brachycephalic). Basal angles were within the normal range (120°-140°).

These variations are discussed in light of its developmental aspect and clinical significance.

9. Talar Facets Of Calcanei And Their Clinical Significance

C. Madhavi, V. M. Walter and V. M. George

Christian Medical College, Vellore

Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of talar articular facet configuration of calcanei and to determine the relation between these variations to degenerative changes in subtalar joint. In 223 calcanei of unknown sex and age, talar facet configurations were recorded and angle between the anterior and medial facets were measured. Sclerosis was measured from the X-rays of these calcanei. Lipping and arthritic changes were recorded by visual inspection. Six types of talar facet configurations were observed. The mean angle was minimal (128° and 128.05°) in type II (separate anterior and middle facets) and type IV (all three talar facets fused) calcanei respectively and maximum (141.47°) in type III (absence of anterior facet) calcanei. Sclerosis was greater (5.9667) in type III and least (3.8669) in type VI calcanei. Lipping and osteophytes were noticed in 44 out of 223 calcanei of all types. Statistical analysis did not reveal significant correlation between the facet configuration, angle and sclerosis. Type I (fused anterior and middle facets) configuration was the predominant pattern (69%). New configurations (Type V and VI) were also observed in this population. The fourth facet (Type VI) observed in this population may be due to the articulation between the calcaneum and the facet on the inferior part of the anterolateral aspect of the body of the talus as the foot everts and externally rotates in flat feet. There was no association between the talar facet configuration and osteoarthritic changes in calcaneum.

10. Radial And Ulnar Deviation At The Wrist Joint

Dharwal Kumud and Kapilla Satya

SGRIMSandR, Amritsar.

The radial and the ulnar deviation at the wrist joint was measured in 200 young north Indian (Punjabi) adults at three different positions of the arm namely at 90o flexion, 90o abduction and elbow flexion. The results were compared with other studies done. The deviation was also compared between the right and the left side; between the males and the females and at different positions of the limb. This study of joint mechanics is helpful in providing the normal parameters to diagnose the disease state, the prognosis in any treatment, degree requirement of corrective procedures and the residual disability left after the injury.

11. Accessory Right Renal Artery

Jayagandhi.S, V.K.Nim and Aruna.S

PIMS, Pondicherry

As renal vessels are developmentally the part of rich plexiform network of channels, variations in their arrangement is ought to be expected. However, the knowledge of vasculature of kidney, has become a topic of interest for both Anatomist and clinicians in the recent past, especially with the advent of renal transplantation surgeries. We encountered one such variation of renal arteries in a male cadaver, while doing routine dissection in the department of Anatomy, P.I.M.S. On careful dissection right kidney was found to have two renal arteries supplying it, both of which took origin from the aorta. The superior artery was smaller in diameter and was supplying the upper pole of the kidney. It entered the renal parenchyma directly piercing it. The main renal artery was given by aorta at normal vertebral level of L1. After giving the lower segment branch close to the aorta the main right renal artery terminated near the hilum as anterior and posterior divisions. The anterior division entered the renal parenchyma anterior to the hilum and posterior divisionposterior to the ureter respectively. On further dissection the anterior division was found to give apical, upper and middle anterior segmental branches. Posterior division continued as posterior segmental artery. So, the aberrant renal artery which took the origin form the aorta directly is actually an accessory apical, segmental artery. As the knowledge of the renal arteries forms as essential part of the surgeons knowledge an attempt has been made to discuss the embryological and clinical significance of the above variation observed.

12. An Unusual Presentation Of Langer’s Axillary Arch

Ramakrishnan P.K and Muniappan.V

RMMC, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu

In a routine dissection of the axilla, the left upper limb of an adult male cadaver presented a fleshy muscle, 6 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, which arose from latissimus dorsi in the midposterior axillary fold. It extended upwards and medially, passing dorsal to the axillary neurovascular bundle. Its short tendon bifurcated into two bands, the medial band attached to the coracoid process and the lateral band attached to the undersurface of coracobrachialis. In addition a short fibrous slip radiated from its upper end to gain attachment to the subclavius. This is an unusual presentation of Langer’s axillary arch muscle. The axillary arch reported here is unique in that it passed dorsal to the axillary vessels and brachial plexus, which is not the usual case. Further tracing however revealed that the muscle passed ventral to one nerve, the posterior division of the upper trunk of brachial plexus (which continued as the axillary nerve) to the point of compressing it. The axillary arch was also unusual in that it was attached to three structures simultaneously unlike the normal pattern. Variations of this area should be kept in mind in surgical interventions. The incidence, features and embryological origin of this supernumerary muscle are discussed with special emphasis on its surgical applications.

13. Variations In The Branching Pattern Of CoeliacTrunk-ACase Report

R.Chitra,.K.Krupadanam and K.Anasuya.

N.R.I Medical College, Chinakakani, A.P.

The knowledge of the variations in the branches of coeliac trunk is necessary for the surgeries of stomach, spleen and liver. The coeliac trunk is a short wide vessel arising from the front of aorta at the level of T12 and immediately divides into left gastric artery, splenic artery and common hepatic artery normally. When a male cadaver is dissected for the coeliac trunk, the following variations are observed. Its length is 2.5cms and left gastric artery arose at 2.5cms and· before that left phrenic artery arose and supplied the left part of the diaphragm. Then the coeliac trunk continued for 2 cm and divided into common hepatic artery and splenic artery. This length of the coeliac trunk led to the different patterns of course of the splenic artery and common hepatic artery. This variation is important in the surgeries of that region.

14. Comparison Of Angles Of Face With One Angle At The Base Of Cranium By MRI Craniometry

Molly N. Paul and Pearl Paul.

Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana.

Craniometry by MRI allows many chords and angles to be assessed in the living. The values of four of these angles are being compared here in this presentation of one thousand cases, males 625 and females 375; from birth to above 80 years of age.The percentage distribution of the proportions between the angle of face (m-b-n = mentum to basion to nasion) and the angle at the base of cranium (n-bh = nasion to basion to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum) are giving very mild or nil sex dimorphism.

The age at which these angles reach their maximum size are therefore before birth. there is growth in one of these angles seen after birth; so angle ans – b – n is to be used as a parameter of growth. whereas the arms of the angles grow with age, the other angles do not change after birth.

Craniometry by MRI is the best method, readily applicable in the living, absolutely accurate, and essential for the communities in india.

15. Variations Of Posterior Abdominal Arteries – A Case Report

M. Singhal, Balbir Singh and Kanchan Kapoor


During routine dissection of an adult male cadaver in Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Chandigarh a triad of anomalies was found. There was presence of left inferior vena cava. The right inferior vena cava was normal. There were associated bilateral variations of the renal and suprarenal arteries. Such conglomeration of anomalies has not been reported so far.

A left sided inferior vena cava was found which passed anterior to the aorta to enter the left renal vein. There was absence of the oblique communicating channel between the right and left inferior vena cava which forms the left common iliac vein. The left renal vein had two tributaries emerging from the hilum. Asegmental branch of the superior renal artery was seen intervening between the two tributaries of left renal vein. Moreover, it was located posterior to the left superior renal artery at the hilum. The right renal vein and relations of right hilar structures were normal. There was presence of double renal arteries on both the sides.

16. Study Of Foramen Ovale And Spinosum In Sphenoid Bone Of Human Skull

Arun Kumar S. Bilodi

Sri Dev Raj U.R.S Medical College, Karnataka.

The study was carried out to know the percentages of incidences of variations in the shapes sizes numbers and presence of bony growths around the margins of foramina ovale and spinosum. One hundred unknown dry human skulls from the bonesets possessed by the students of Sri Devaraj URS Medical College Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka constituted the materials for the study.

Each skull was examined for the presence of Foramina ovale and spinosum. Their shapes and sizes were noted. Their maximal length and breadth on both sides were studied from each skull. Also from each skull, bony growths in the form of spines tubercles bridges and bony plates around the margins of all foramina ovale on both sides were also observed. Their percentages of incidences were also calculated. Then they were compared and correlated with other workers. Photographs were taken from each shapes. This study has profound neurosurgical (as in trigeminal neuralgia) and Diagnostic importance (as in tumours, and in various types of epilepsy). No study has been done in this area, hence studied and reported.

17. Study Of An Anomalous Foramen Lateral To Occipital Condyles In Human Skull

Rajani Singh, Navneet Kumar And A.Sahai

KGMU, Lucknow.

Morphological study of occipital bone in human skull was done. The study was carried out in the department of anatomy KGMU Lucknow using 385 adult human skulls.

In three specimens, the foramen was present on the left side on the skull. On the right side, there was single foramen. No skull showed foramen on both sides. In two specimens, along with foramen, posterior condylar canals were also patent. The foramen was situated lateral to occipital condyles at the base of cranium. In posterior cranial fossa, it opend postero lateral to jugular foramen. From the present study it can be concluded that this foramen was abnormally placed posterior condylar canal which might have been due to aberrant course of posterior condylar emissary vein or passage for the entry of an aberrant meningeal artery.

18. Abnormal Origin Of Obturator Artery: A Case Report

M Bandyopadhyay, P Chakraborty Parthapratimpradhan and S Biswas.

C.N.M.C, Kolkata

Obturator artery commonly is a branch of anterior division of internal iliac artery. After its origin it passes on the lateral pelvic wall. Routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy at one medical college at Kolkata, West Bengal, a rare variety of origin of obturator artery from posterior division of internal iliac artery was found.

19. An Uncommon Content Of Inguinal Hernia – A Case Report

(1)P.B.Chakrabarty, S.Sarkar, S. Majumdar, M. Bandyopadhyay and (2)P. Kundu.

(1)C.M.C, Kolkata, (2)B.S.M.C, Bankura.

Indirect inguinal hernia is a common type of hernia associated with persistence of processus vaginalis after birth.

During the routine dissection of a male cadaver of about 50 years of age we found left sided indirect inguinal hernia. The content of the hernial sac was exposed and a part of sigmoid colon with its mesocolon was found, which is relatively rare.

20. Gall Bladder Mesentry – A Case Report

Sridevi N.S, Roopa Kulkarni And R.N. Kulkarni

M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore

Gall Bladder mesentery is of significance for surgeons as the mesentry can go in for torsion which interferes with the blood supply to the organ.

Out of 200 cadavers dissected at M.S.Ramaiah Medical College over a period of 20 years. This variation was found in one case.

In one adult female cadaver aged around 45years, Gall Bladder was identified with mesentry. It was about 2.5cm extending from superior surface of Gall Bladder to the inferior surface of right lobe of Liver. This is an uncommon finding. But according to earlier studies it occurs in 4% of dissection room specimens. Developmental and clinical significance will be discussed.

21. Caudate Lobe -A Variation

Suma.H.Y, P.T.S.Prasad

Raja Rajeshwari Medical College, Bangalore.

Caudate lobe is located on the posterior surface of the liver between inferior venacava and fissure for ligamentum venosum. It has a caudate process to the right and papillary process to the left. In this case an enlarged papillary process was found and its clinical relevance has been studied.

During routine dissection, a grossly enlarged portion of the caudate lobe to the left was found which is the first in more than 400 cadavers dissected in this institution.

The enlarged portion of the caudate process is its papillary process. It assumes importance in ultrasonographic studies as it may be mistaken for enlarged lymph node at porta hepatis. Further details will be discussed during the presentation.

22. Histogenesis Of Cerebral Cortex In Different Gestational Age Groups Of Foetal Brains

B.N.Rao, M.Pramilapadmini

M.I.M.S, Nellimarla,A.P

Histomorphological differences in cerebrum of 50 human foetuses have been recorded. CR length of foetuses age varied from 12 wks (7cms) to 40wks (38 cms).

Foetuses have been divided into 3 categories on the basis of presence /absence of sulci and gyri coupled with CR length. The classical 6 layered pattern has not been seen in all gyri. Cell density and thickness of the laminae varied among different gestational age groups in different cortical regions. Average gyral width was more than average sulci width. 4 cortical laminae were distinct in all age groups. The neurons of cerebral cortex were small in size with dark thick nucleus with inconspicuous cytoplasm.

23. Bilateral Variations In Nerves And Vascular Pattern In The Upper Limb (A Case Study)

S. Meshram, S Rawlani, VK Chimurkar, M.M Shah and M. Belsare.

JNMC, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra.

The present report describes a case of bilateral variations of median nerve, musculocutaneous nerve and brachial artery in a cadaver, out of total twenty five cadavers during routine dissection in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha.

Median nerve receives a communicating branch from musculocutaneous nerve, after the musculocutaneous nerve pierces the coracobrachialis muscle. This communication is present bilaterally.

The median nerve descends on lateral aspect of brachial artery in whole of its course in both the arms. The brachial artery which is lying on medial aspect of median nerve crosses, the nerve superficially in cubital fossa. The brachial artery then divides at the level of neck of radius into radial and ulnar artery. The deep head of pronater teres separates the ulnar artery from median nerve in a right side while on left side the deep head of pronater teres is absent, thus median nerve is not separated from ulnar artery.

Knowledge about this course will be of used to surgeons to avoid injury while performing surgeries in arm and cubital fossa.

24. Abnormal Azygos Venous System: A Case Of Multiple Variations

L Ramanathan, Mangala M. Pai, R Vadgaonkar and Latha V. P

KMC, Mangalore, Karnataka

A case of multiple variations of the azygos venous system along with abnormality in the course of thoracic duct was detected during routine anatomic dissection of the posterior mediastinum. The right ascending lumbar vein united with the subcostal vein and formed the azygos vein which presented an abnormal course. The azygos vein ran obliquely, briefly lying in the midline, to cross the vertebral column and ascended upwards on its left side. The vein then coursed back to the right side, arched over the hilum of the right lung and terminated in the superior venacava. The hemiazygos vein was quite narrow in diameter, but received its usual tributaries and communicated with the azygos vein twice. An oblique communication channel was present that connected the accessory hemiazygos with the hemiazygos vein. The entire course of the thoracic duct was observed to be on the left side. Accurate descriptions of venous connections and lymphatic system have importance in mediastinal surgeries.

25. Ossified Anterior Longitudinal Ligament in Midthoracic Region

Lt Col Sushil Kumar and Lt Col M S Ahuja

Armed Forces Medical College, Pune.

The anterior longitudinal ligament is described as a strong band which extends along the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies from basilar part of occipital bone to the front of upper sacrum. It is thicker and narrower in the thoracic than in cervical and lumbar regions. It is strongly adherent to the intervertebral disc and loosely attached to the vertebral bodies.

A rare case of ossified anterior longitudinal ligament in the mid-thoracic region with its clinical implications will be discussed.

26. Study Of Greater Palatine Foramen in Indian Skulls

Yati Phatak

PDMMC, Amravati

One hundred dry, adult human skulls, of Indian ethnic background, and homogenous in arch form and full eruption of third molars, were examined to measure the location of the greater palatine foramen. The usually accepted description (opposite the second molar) of the relative position of the greater palatine foramen to the upper teeth was found in only 30% of the skulls studied. This study shows the most common position of the foramen to be opposite or distal to the third molar. The direction of opening of the foramen into the oral cavity was observed to be in an inferior or vertical direction in 75% of the 100 skulls; in 25% of the skulls the direction was anterior or horizontal. A bony projection, similar to the mandibular lingula, was observed extending from the posterior margin of the foramen in 20% of the 200 separate foramina examined. The bilateral symmetry between the sides of the skulls studied was remarkable.

Also diameter of foramina was studied by using various wires and compared with previous studies. This study is used for studying growth of palate, racial and sexual variations.

27. The Inappropriateness Of The Term Vertebrate

M Natarajan, Lopa Mehta and Manu Kothari

SGSMC and KEM Hospital, Mumbai.

To question the mighty term vertebrate is to border on blasphemy and invite a fatwa not only from biologists but anatomists as well. Suffice to declare that the term vertebrate is evidently irrelevant.

The term vertebra/vertebrate is rooted in Latin vertere meaning to turn. It is closely related to Sanskrit vartan, parivartan and the like. By extension vertebra/vertebrate is made to denote joint/jointed. Lamarck in hurry appropriated term vertebrate for animals with a backbone called vertebra. Nothing justifies Lamarck’s legacy. The much larger invertebrate kingdom comprises many species which deserve the appellation vertebrate for their remarkable ability to twist and turn as also their being endowed with too many joints. Any arthropod should be the prime inheritor of the exalted status of vertebrateness. Even the unicellular amoebum is a versatile vertebrate that can execute acrobatics in absence of a single joint. The so called vertebrates are late comers in evolution and must be known as metavertebrates, namely a phylum that evolved from the much larger boneless vertebrate kingdom falsely called invertebrate.

What Lamarck, and later Cuvier wanted to emphasize was the osseousness or the bonyness of the so called vertebrates. Hence a logical substitution for vertebrate is osseate. The manifest nimbleness in the Piscean and Reptilian clan must have inspired the linkage of osseouness to the backbone also called vertebra. Cranium is more universal than the vertebral column and therefore the term vertebrata be replaced by Craniata. Let vertebra be renamed notobra in line with sternebra both a part of being osseata.

28. Radius: Bone For Determination Of Sex

J. Waghmare, M.Laeeque, A.A. Mahajan and S.K. Ghosh.

MGIMS, Sevagram, Wardha. (M.S.)

Establishing the identity of the deceased from the skeletal remains is an important question to be answered by the forensic experts in medico-legal cases. Multivariate analysis of radius can help to solve the above question.

In the present study initially the following measurements of the radius were taken, eg. Weight, circumference of head, circumference of distal end, maximum diameter of head, minimum diameter of head, transverse diameter of mid shaft, width of distal end and length of ulnar notch. Total 198 (133 male and 65 female) were taken for study. The data collected from above morphometric analysis was subjected to multivariate analysis and the coefficients for the above parameters were obtained.

The sex of the body from which radii were obtained could be ascertained with full accuracy in 91.9% radii. The analytical approach will be very helpful in identification of the individual in medicolegal field.

29. A Craniometric Study Of The Human Skulls By Taking Cranial Index (Cephalic Index) In The Mumbai (Konkan) Region

VM Salve and Mehera Bhoir

Narayana Medical College, Nellore, A.P.

The study was carried in Topiwala National Medical College, Mumbai and other Medical colleges in Mumbai region. The aims and objectives of the study is to obtain cranial measurements, calculate the cranial index and classify the skulls according to cranial index.

On 90 adult human skulls in good condition; it was found in the study that brachycephalic type of the skulls are 10%, mesochephalic type of the skulls are 35.55% and dolicocephalic skulls are 54.44%. So it was concluded that more than 50% skulls are dolicocephalic.

30. Maxillary Lateral Incisor Morphometry In North Indians – A Dimorphic Study

Agnihotri.G(1), Kaushal.S and Patnaik VVG

G.MC, Patiala and GMC, Amritsar

Teeth provide excellent materials in populations for anthropological, genetic, odontologic and forensic investigations. Their morphometry is known to be influenced by cultural, environmental and racial factors. The maxillary lateral incisors display greater variation in form than any other permanent tooth except the third molars. The teeth by their formation and structure are indispensable in predicting sex. Tooth size standards based on odontometric investigations can be used in sex determination. Nair et al (1999) have demonstrated the existence of a sexual dimorphism of 3.1 % in South Indian population for the maxillary lateral incisors. The present morphometric study was conducted on 60 male and female casts obtained from students of Government Medical College, Patiala. The results indicate:

There exists a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in Maxillary Lateral Incisor morphometry.

The Incisor Index determined for the North Indian population came out to be higher for males. This indicates that the lateral incisor is distinctly smaller than the central incisor in females.

31. Variations In Glenohumeral Joint Mobility Of Overhead Throwing Atheletes, Adaptive Mobility Versus Soft Tissue Laxity – An Analysis

Faith Ragland and Shanthi Faith

Dr SMCSI MC and Hospital, Trivandrum

Expectations greater than ever before are placed on the athletes of this decade to achieve in the international sporting arena Today’s athletes are required to train harder, for longer and more often in a scientific and precise manner to meet the demands. This study attempts to focus on the kinesiology of the glenohumeral joint of the throwing athletes of South Indian population, their effects on the proprioceptive deficits of the joint, shoulder injuries and to throw light on the rehabilitation protocols, in order to reduce the risk of injuries 15 professional javelin throwers and 15 non-throwers irrespective of gender in the age group of 20-30 years were taken.

To asses the variations in the rotational range of motion between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders of throwers and nonthrowers separately, using paired sample t-test and two tailed independent t-test.

Proprioceptive deficit is analyzed at a predetermined angle of 45° between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders of throwers The difference between the predetermined angle and the repositioned angle is then calculated and statistically analyzed using standard deviation.

32. Caudate Lobe Of Liver: Portal Branches

Rajalakshmi Rai, Latha V Prabhu and Anu V Ranade

KMC, CBS, Bejai, Mangalore

The anatomy of caudate lobe of the liver has technical and possibly, oncologic implications for surgeons The entire caudate lobe is an independent anatomic segment supplied by the primary branches originating from the left and right branches of the portal vein as well as from the bifurcation of the portal vein The present study describes the branching pattern of the portal vein in the caudate lobe (Couinaud’s classification) of the liver which could be of use in planning certain surgical procedures Among the 20 formalin fixed cadaveric livers studied by minute dissection method, trifurcation of the portal vein was observed in 2 specimens and the remaining showed the normal right and left branching pattern Although many combinations of portal branches were found in the caudate lobe, the pattern of portal branching were classified into 2 types: the Spiegel lobe was supplied principally by the branches originating from the left branch of portal vein and the paracaval portion by the bifurcation of the portal vein mainly and right branch of the portal vein also But it is recommended that segmental resection of the caudate lobe should not be performed on the basis of any common pattern of ramification of portal vein.

33. A Rare Case Of Formation Of Double Ansa Cervicalis

T.R Rao, Prakashchandra Shetty and Suresh R

K.M.C Manipal, Karnataka.

Ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves found in the anterior wall of the carotid sheath in the carotid triangle. The descendens hypoglossi branch of hypoglossal nerve joins the descendens cervicalis, formed by branches from the second and third cervical nerves, to form the ansa cervicalis. The ansa cervicalis nerve formation is relatively complex, as its course and location along the great vessels of the neck vary. In the present case, on the right side of the neck of a 55 year old male cadaver we observed a rare case of formation of double ansa cervicalis, due to the variation in the course of Cl fibres.

34. Sexual Dimorphism Of The Human Sternum Based On Width And Weight

Shahin Hunnargi and NG Herekar

K.M.C, Manipal, Karnataka.

Amongst the millions of human beings living on this earth, no two persons are ever alike in all their measurable characters. The osseous skeleton is the only structure to resist the effect of putrefaction and decomposition for longer time. This is useful for sexing the individual and its racial characteristics. A study of 115 adult, fully ossified, dried sternums (75 males and 40 females) of Maharastrian population was done. The parameters calculated were; width of manubrium, width of 1st and 3rd sternebrae, thickness of manubrium and body and the weight of the dried bone. Univariate statistical tests were applied to assess whether the differences between mean of each parameter was statistically significant or not. Also by using”Demarking Points” tests were carried out for this population by using formula: mean ± 3 S.D.

35. Osteo Radio Necrosis Of Mandible A Case Report

T. Sumalatha, TK Rajasree, M Ravinder and Rajagopal

Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad.

A 55-Year-old male with history of smoking developed cancer of floor of the mouth three years back. He was advised radiotherapy which he underwent and completed the full course. After one year he developed severe pain and swelling over right side of the mandible which was diagnosed as Osteo Radio Necrosis Of Mandible. He was then treated both conservatively and by surgery. The Structural changes of mandible will be discussed at the time of presentation.

36. Correlation Of” Marma Vignan” Of Ayurveda With Descriptive Anatomy

R.Ramana Rao

B.A.M.S, M.I.M.S, Nellimarla, A.P

Susrutha the renowned Ayurvedic Surgeon made a description of Marma Vignan. The word marma is derived from”Maarayanthi Iti Marmani” meaning the vital points of human body and the causation of death in case of injury to them by whatever source. Marmas are 107 in number. The componential division of Marmas is 11 mamsa, 41 sira, 20 sandhi, 27 snayu, and 8 asthis. On the basis of time taken for damage or death the componential division is 19 sadhyah pranahara, 33 kalantara pranahara, 33 visalyaghna, 44 vaikalyakara and 8 rojakaras. An attempt is being made to correlate the anatomical parts that are involved is various marmas and their subsequent componential divisions details will be discussed at the conference.

37. Unpublished Variation Of Axillary Artery Branch

SS Sarada Devi, MD Abid Ali and K.V.Vijaya saradhi

BMC, Yenkapally, Moinabad, Hyderabad.

Variation in the branching pattern of the axillary artery, like high bifurcation and anomalous origins of branches, is well documented. However, in a male cadaver of 65 years, rarity in abnormal branching patterns is observed on the right side.

A single vessel arising from 1st part of Axillary artery is observed at the upper border of pectoralis minor. The superior thoracic, thoraco-acromial, lateral thoracic, thoraco-dorsal, subscapular and posterior circumflex humeral arteries are arising from this vessel.

Distribution, course and relations will be discussed.

38. Variations In The Origin And Course Of Sinoatrial Nodal Artery

N Hima Bindu and SS Sarada Devi

BMC, Yenkapally, Moinabad, R.R.Dist. AP

SA Nodal artery was studied by dissection in 50 adult human cadaver hearts, in Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad. SA Nodal artery arose from right coronary artery in 66% of hearts and from left coronary in 28% of hearts. In 6%, SA Node is supplied by both coronary arteries. Variations in the origin and course of the SA Nodal artery will be discussed.

39. Triangle Of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Anesthesia


Dharmsinh Desai University, Nandad,Gujarat

The current scenario regarding the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Anesthesia (IANBA) is the instinct that works and not the evidence based practice. There are several techniques- both intraoral and extraoral- for IANBA. For normal mouth opening, the conventional (Halstead) technique is usually employed.

The conventional IANBA fails in about 20 % cases. The bony attachments-upper and lower- of pterygomandibular raphe provide two points-C and B respectively. The third point Ais where the temporal crest is crossed by a line connecting the deepest point (D) of coronoid notch with the point C. The temporal crest gives attachment to the deep tendon of temporalis muscle.

The triangle ABC is osteological but the landmarks for the triangle can be felt and seen in the mouth. It appears that it is within this triangle that the needle should penetrate the mucosa. However, details have to be worked out keeping in mind anatomical variations, age and degree of edentulousness of the patient. It is to be found out at what height, and how far laterally from the PMF the needle has to pierce the mucosa. Obviously, feedback from the clinicians who are in a privileged position to apply the concept presented here, would be greatly helpful in eliminating current obscurity as to the precise point of penetration.

The presentation will also discuss the prevailing terminological ambiguities.

40. The Subclavius Posticus Muscle: Its Phylogenetic Retention And Clinical Relevance

S D’Costa, P Shetty, Mangala MP and LV Prabhu

KMC, Mangalore, Karnataka.

During routine dissection practice a supernumerary muscle was found on the right side infraclavicular region of a male cadaver. This muscle was arising from the superior surface of the first rib and its costal cartilage and inserted to a thick ligament that extended from the medial end of the suprascapular notch to the capsule of the acromioclavicular joint. This accessory muscle slip was innervated by a branch from the nerve to subclavius. According to its location and innervation the aberrant muscle was considered to be the subclavius posticus. The anatomic relationships of the muscle make it clinically significant.

41. Infracranial Nonmetric Variation In South Indian (Dakshina Kannada) Population

Madhankumar S.J, SR Nayak, LV Prabhu and AKrishnamurthy

Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore

To compare population distance between South Indian (Dakshina Kannada) population and Gujarati (North Indian) population using Infracranial Nonmetric traits.

Fully ossified infracranial adult bones of unknown age and sex, which are free from any pathological changes were collected from Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Each bone was observed under 4X magnification and the presence or absence of each variant was noted on each side separately to record the side dimorphism. The sides were combined and compared with similar data of Pal et al., (1987).Comparisons of the incidence of various variants for the two different Indian populations were carried out using Multivariate distance statistical method by C.A.B.Smith. Chi-square test (x2) was applied to test side difference.

The population divergence between Dakshina Kannada and the Gujarati population were found to be statistically significant (p <0.001).

Our study confirms the usefulness of the infracranial non-metric traits for population comparison and reveals the side dependency of eight traits and the significant population divergence between the two Indian populations.

42. A Rare Variation Of Profunda Femoris Vein In The Popliteal Fossa

Jiji.PJ, SD’Costa, LV Prabhu, SR Nayak and S Skariah.

Kasturba Medical College, Karnataka.

Venous pattern in the lower limb is of great surgical significance, particularly while ligating the veins to prevent the spread of thrombus. Normally profunda femoris artery is accompanied by a profunda femoris vein (deep femoral vein) which begins at the adductor magnus with various tributaries and drains into the femoral vein at the femoral triangle. Very rarely the profunda femoris vein establishes communication with the popliteal vein. We present an anomalous profunda femoris vein which runs in the popliteal fossa as a direct communicating channel between the popliteal vein and the femoral vein.

43. Variation In The Origin Of Musculocutaneous Nerve- Case Report

Mishra SK, Dutta BK, Rath.S and Nayak AK

V.S.S. Medical College, Burla.

During the conventional dissection of cadavers for under- graduate students in V.S.S. Medical College, Burla, for the session 2005-06(10 Nos), the right axilla of a male cadaver was exposed for details of Brachial plexus and related structures. It was observed that a direct branch was arising at a higher level from lateral cord of brachial plexus and supplying the coraco brachialis muscle; while the main musculo-cutaneous nerve entering the substance of arm muscles. Such additional/accessory branches in relation to the origin of musculo-cutaneous nerve will be discussed.

44. A Rare Occurrence Of Four Headed Biceps And Triceps Brachii Muscles In The Ipsilateral Arm: Case Report And Review

A Krishnamurthy, SR Nayak, Madhan KSJ, LV Prabhu, V Saralaya and MM Thomas

Kasturba Medical College,Mangalore, Karnataka

Anatomical variations of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii have been described by various authors, but the occurrence of four headed biceps brachii and triceps brachii in an ipsilateral arm is rare and not reported before in literature. During routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India, we came across various unusual variants in the left arm of a 67 year old male cadaver. The variants include a four headed biceps, a four headed triceps, communication between the musculocutaneous and median nerves, and high origin of deep brachial artery from the axillary artery. The occurrence of these anomalies and its clinical and morphological significance are discussed.

45. Effect Of Lead Toxicity On Substantia Nigra Of The Rat

Bharihoke V, Verma S And Prakash R

University College Of Medical Sciences, Delhi

The widespread presence of lead on the earth has been a concern to the health workers. Many effects of lead toxicity have been shown histopathologically while other conditions still need to be confirmed at the microscopic level. Chronic exposure to lead leads to impairment of dopaminergic transmission at the striatum and hypothalamic levels in the rat (Memo et. al. 1981). This study was carried out in order to see if lead actually effects the dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra of the rat or not.

45 adult albino rats were divided into three groups of 15 animals each consisting of a normal, control and experimental groups. The experiment group was given a daily dose 0.05mg/body weight lead acetate in water, made acidic with acetic acid at pH 5.5 for 30 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 31st day by perfusion with 10% formal saline. Serial paraffin sections of the midbrain were stained with H and E, Glees silver and Cresyl violet stains. The substantia nigra was studied under the light microscope.

Patchy degeneration of neurons of the substantia nigra and crus cerebri was seen in the experimental animals. These changes explain the manifestation of Parkinson type syndrome associated with chronic lead toxicity.

46. The Study Of Foetal Thymus At 18th Week Of Gestational Age

Sawant Sharadkumar P

Seth GSMC, K.E.M.Hospital, Mumbai

To study the microscopic differentiation and organization of foetal thymus at 18th week of gestational age.

35 foetuses of 18th week of gestational age were obtained from the department of obstetrics and gynaecology after M.T.P. Thymuses were dissected, sectioned and stained for microscopic study.

It was observed that the microscopic differentiation and organization of foetal thymus is completed at the 18th week of gestational age.

47. Effect Of Radiation Emitted From Cell Phone On The Developing Liver Of Chick Embryo:A Light Microscopic Study

Ingole IV, Ghosh SK

M.G.I.M.S., Sevagram

With the phenomenal increase in the number of cell phone users all over the world, health hazards associated with the exposure to radiation emitted from cell phone has become a matter of great concern for the population in general and the cell phone user in particular. Power intensity, frequency of radiation and duration of exposure plays an important role in causing biological effects due to absorption of radiation energy. Considering these factors the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of radiation on the developing tissues of chick embryo which is an ideal experimental animal. For the study, three sets of fertile hen eggs were incubated upto the completion of 6th, 8th and l0th day and then sacrificed. Each set comprised one group exposed to radiation from cell phone and the control group incubated without exposure. Embryos were processed for paraffin embedding and sectioning. Light microscopic study was done after staining with H and E and PAS. Developing liver showed different degrees of degeneration in the embryos from the exposed group in spite of the embryos looking healthy at the time of being sacrificed. The extent of degeneration varied with the duration of exposure and the distance of embryo from the cell phone.

48. Non-Metric Analysis Of Symphysial Surface Of Pubis For Age Estimation

BG Mahesh, R Kulkarni, S Shetty and RN Kulkarni

M.S.Ramaiah Medical College,Bangalore.

The medial surface of the pubis which is covered by hyaline cartilage in an intact body forms symphysial joint with corresponding surface of the opposite pubis. It presents irregularities in its symphysial surface which shows age changes. This has its importance in the field of forensic medicine as one of the parameters for estimation of age. The details of the finding and statistical analysis in two hundred hip bones will be discussed during the presentation.

49. Measurement Of The Angle Between Central Sulcus And Superior Border Of Cerebrum In South Indian Population

RS Gadagi, R Kulkarni, S Shetty and ASingh.

M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

In the present study an effort is made to measure the angle between superior border and central sulcus of the cerebrum. In many text books with both Indian and Foreign editors the angle has been mentioned vaguely. Knowing the angle between central sulcus and superior border helps to locate precisely the precentral gyrus in both unmasked fixed brains and in patients. This information can aid in localization of lesions and co-relation with functional changes and also in mapping the surface area of the cerebrum. The details of variations will be discussed during the presentation.

50. Age Estimation By Attrition Of Teeth

Mangesh.S. Selukar and B S Lala.

Government Medical College and Hospital, Latur.

Evaluation of age of unknown deceased persons is a very important factor for identification purpose, both in Anthropology and forensic science. Age changes in Teeth can be a important criterion in this regard. Identification of age from teeth may be the only useful method, when skull constitutes the only skeletal specimen available. Amongst the methods of personal identification, dental identification is one of the most accurate and important method in deceased persons.

In present study 56 teeth were studied of known age group. The collected teeth were stored in 10% formalin of which >2 mm sections were prepared for micrometric measurement. Tooth sections were mountated with DPX on glass slide. Parameter values of Attrition (A) were independently noted against the known age of tooth. Observation and conclusion will be presented at conference.

51. Ossification Of The Ligaments Of Inter-Vertebral And Costovertebral Joints In The Thoracic Region

Yogesh. M, R Kulkarni, S Shetty and RN Kulkarni.

M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore

A wide variety of diseases have been known to affect the inter vertebral joints. During the routine examination of dry and processed thoracic vertebrae, a rare specimen of fused thoracic vertebrae caused due to the ossification of most of the ligaments of inter vertebral and costo vertebral joints was observed. The details of the observation, probable cause and statistical analysis will be discussed during presentation.

52. Abnormal Branching Pattern Of Brachial Plexus And Axillary Artery: A Case Report

Rani Anita, Chopra Jyoti, Rani Archana and Manik Punita

KGMU, Lucknow, U P

Brachial Plexus and axillary artery are well known for their variations. During routine dissection of the upper limb, it was found that the upper Subscapular nerve which is a branch of posterior cord, was not arising from the same. It was therefore traced proximally in the posterior triangle of the neck, where it was seen originating from the upper trunk of brachial plexus in common with the Suprascapular nerve. In addition, a slender twig from the middle trunk of brachial plexus was seen, which was supplying serratus anterior muscle along with the long thoracic nerve. An unusual branch from the second part of the axillary artery was found which was supplying subscapularis muscle. Secondly, a common arterial trunk was seen arising from the third part of the axillary artery which was dividing in two branches: lateral thoracic and subscapular artery.

Detailed description and review of variations of brachial plexus and axillary artery with their clinical relevance will be discussed during the presentation.

53. Role Of Diazepam In Relieving Stress Induced Alteration In Testosterone Level Of Albino Rats

(1)Chopra Jyoti, Pandey SN, Srivastava RK and (1)Rani Anita

(1)KGMU, Lucknow, G.SVMMC, Kanpur

Body and mind are so intermingled with each other that any mental stress or emotions can cause bodily changes as effectively as bacteria and toxins. In the present study we intend to see the stress relieving effect of diazepam. The study was carried out on 60 male albino rats that were divided into 3 groups. Group A served as control, rats of group B were immobilized and rats of group C were given injection Diazepam during immobilization. The restraint stress was given for 4 hours per day for 2 months. After that they were sacrificed and blood sample was taken. In the stressed rats (group B) the serum testosterone level was decreased significantly, whereas in Diazepam treated group the fall in serum testosterone level was not significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that diazepam partially antagonizes the effect of stress.

54. Isoproturon Induced Histopathological Changes In The Testis Of Albino Rats

R Archana, Sahai A, Srivastava AK and R Anita.

King George’s Medical University, Lucknow.

Isoproturon is a well known herbicide possessing a broad spectrum activity. Occupational or experimental exposure to herbicides alter the testicular steroidogenic function resulting in spermatogenic failure and decreased male fertility.

Three groups of animals l0 in each group were taken for the present study i.e. control group, isoproturon 400 mg / kg treated group and isoproturon 800 mg / kg treated group. The rats were anaesthetized by intraperitoneal administration of Nembutol and their testis were fixed by ‘in vivo’ perfusion technique with Bouin’s fixative. Tissues were processed for making paraffin sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Distorted shape of the seminiferous tubules, desquamation of germ cells, interstitial oedema, central cellular mass in the lumen of tubules, depressed spermatogenesis, degenerated Leydig cells and vacuolation in oedematous interstitial spaces were seen.

55. Studies On Neurochemical And Neuroanatomical Changes Caused By Long-Term Exposure Of Nicotine.Tewari A, Sahai A, Siddiqui MS, Sharma PK, (1)Agarwal AK and Rani A

KGMU, Lucknow and (1) M.G.Marg, Lucknow.

Whereas numerous studies have explored the consequences of fetal or adult nicotine exposure, little or no basic research has been conducted for nicotine exposure in adult rats, period in which regular cigarette use typically begins. We administered nicotine to adult rats for 60 days orally via cannula, using dose rate (5mg / day, 10 mg / day), results were compared to control adult rats, given vehicle in identical manner. After exposure, we assessed muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in the, cerebellar cortex, hippocampus, using (3H) QNB and dopaminergic D2 receptor binding in the corpus striatum. A decrease in the number of striatal dopaminergic receptor binding was detected in the male adult rats. We also obtained evidence for hippocampal cell damage in adult male rats exposed to nicotine, characterized by increase in total membrane protein concentration indicative of a decrease in overall cell size. In order to further understand, the neuroanatomical changes in cerebellum which is a target site for nicotine action was sectioned, stained with Hematoxylin and eosine and cresyl violet. However, more pronounced changes were observed in 10 mg nicotine exposure. The results suggest significant impairment in muscarinic cholinergic receptor and DA D2 receptor as a part of effect of long term exposure of nicotine. Neuroanatomical changes further strengthen the hypothesis of cerebellar region as a target site for nicotine induced cerebellar ataxia.

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