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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts - 1 - 50

Author(s): Members

Vol. 55, No. 1 (2006-01 - 2006-07)

1. Maxillary Sinus In Relation To Adjacent Regions In Developing Human Foetuses:

Ghaus F, Faruqi NA.
J.N. Medical College, AMU, Aligarh.

37 human foetuses were divided into 5 groups (Group I,<17 weeks; Group II, 17-20 weeks; Group III, 21-25 weeks; Group IV, 26-30 weeks; Group V, >30 weeks).Distances of sinus from orbit, oral cavity, face and infratemporal fossa were measured in both sexes on both the sides. Distance of maxillary sinus from adjacent regions reflected its exact location. Maxillary sinus was nearer the orbit than palate in small foetuses of < 17 weeks of intrauterine life and this relation was maintained through out intrauterine life. Location of sinuses in anteroposterior direction was variable during foetal growth. In smaller foetuses, the sinus was nearer the face than infratemporal fossa but in more grown foetuses there was tendency for the sinuses to move backwards due to faster growth in the thickness of anterior walls. Distance of sinus from adjacent regions was variable on the two sides. Maxillary sinus seemed to be nearer the adjacent regions in female foetuses than male ones.

2. Cranio-Facial Anthropometry In Newborns And Infants:

Agnihotri G., Sood V., Singh P., Singh D.,
DMC, Ludhiana.

The face is a complex anatomic unit and it is best to evaluate each distinct region of the face separately taking care to relate the various parts as a whole. These soft tissue facial landmarks are known to be influenced by age, race and sex and it is imperative to identify a balance between them before constructive surgery . Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits, an individualized norm can be established to optimize facial attractiveness. As such a study was devised in the Anatomy department, D.M.C. and H in which measurements were made on 60 infants (30 males and 30 females) aged between 14 months and 60 newborns (30 males and 30 females) with a view to establish the criterion of facial anthropometry for this age group in North Indians. A special emphasis was given in this study to sexual dimorphism. 1) The mean value and range for all the parameters was determined for the North Indian population. 2) A statistically significant sexual dimorphism was noted to exist in ear length (p<0.01) and length of the philtrum ( p < 0.05) . Head Circumference, Intercanthal distance, Nasion to nose tip, lower lip to chin and mouth width did not show any significant sexual dimorphism. 3) The mean value of philtrum width and the philtral commisural ratio were determined for the North Indian population. Philtrum width = oral width/3.2 . This relationship is expected to assist in planning philtral construction in cleft lip patients .

3. A Rare Case Of Double Meningocoele: An Anatomical Rationale:

Singh P., Soni A., Singh R.J., Sood V.
DMC and H, Ludhiana

Congenital fusion defects of neural tube and associated tissues are classified as spinal dysraphism. They result from defective closure of neural tube during fourth week of development. Neural tube defects affect the tissues overlying the spinal cord: meninges, vertebral arches, muscles and skin. Neural tube defects occurring at multiple levels is a rare event. One such case of a ten day old baby having double meningocoele; one at the level of cervical region and other at the upper thoracic region is being reported. The development of neural tube, and rationale

4. Failure In The Development Of Palatine Shelves In Mice Following Cyclophosphamide Exposure During Intrauterine Life:

Prakash, Gajendra Singh*, Sukh Mahendra Singh*,
Dept. Of Anatomy, Institute Of Medical Sciences. School Of Bio-Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

Cyclophosphamide when administered to pregnant mice on day 10,11 or 12 of gestation in the dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight causes cleft palate and or cleft lip along with other craniofacial abnormalities. Serial sections in coronal and transverse plane exhibited both incomplete and complete cleft palate depending on day and dose of treatment. Day 12, cyclophosphamide treatment in dose of 20 mg/kg body weight resulted in complete failure in the development of palatine shelves. These findings strongly suggest disturbance in mechanism involved in the normal development of palatine shelves. Anti-inflammatory drugs including Hydrocortisone and mechanical induction including amniocentesis by different mechanism result in cleft palate, but these do not reflect complete absence of palatine shelves. Total absence of palatine shelves is suggestive of antimitotic activity of cyclophosphamide to its maximum accompanied with augmented apoptosis induced by it that too in specific day and dose of treatment. This finding adds to the theories involving mechanism of cleft palate.

5. Fertilization Is Diplodization:

Lopa Mehta, Manu Kothari, Vatsal Kothari and M. Natarajan Seth,
G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai.

Fertilization is a misconceived term and merits an abortion. Fertility is euphonetically traceable to phalati W. Adding organic manure or urea to soil improves its fertility but in no way indicates insemination which is what connotes the entry of sperm into the ovum. Sperm is not a fertilizer but brings in its wake the missing half of the 2n chromosomal complement. Sperm is haploid or hemicyte which torpedoes its nuclear head into’ another hemicyte called the ovum. Thus so called fertilization is diploidisation.

In case the ovum is diploid to start with, it is capable of parthenogenesis, a state of spermless/fatherless reproduction. This fairly common event underscores the supreme necessity of the ovular cytoplasm to have a 2n nucleus, commonly by diploidization or uncommonly on its own due to failure of separation of the polar body.

The celebrated Dolly phenomenon and the cloning bandwagon thereafter more than illustrates the above. The sine qua non of cloning is the ovular cytoplasm that is fully capable of perfect reproduction provided it gets a diploid nucleus from any somatic cell from head to foot. Such a phenomenon necessitates a prior excision of the ovum’s haploid nucleus. Cloning thus is mimicry of the so called fertilization except the fact that it utterly devalues the importance of the gametic nucleus male or female. That the progeny from cloning do not fare well is another story.

The major revelation from cloning is the fact that the entire embryonic genius resides in the ovular cytoplasm which illustrates the universal supremacy of the cytoplasm over the nucleus. Cytoplasm is the king, the nucleus takes the orders.

6. The Vertebral Level Of Termination Of The Spinal Cord In Human Fetuses.

M. Matum Singh, Singh, N., Saratchandra Singh, Th. Narayanbabu Singh C.H. Rajendra Singh, S. Arunchandra Singh. Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal.

125 human fetuses were studied to find out the level of termination of the spinal cord at different gestational age.

Material and Methods: 125 human foetuses of both sexes were collected from the Department of Obst. and Gynae. RIMS Hospital, with the permission of Medical Superintendent and with consent of the party concerned. The whole length of the spinal canal was exposed and the lower from L5 to L3, in 26- 30g.w. from L5 to L3, in 31 to 35 g.w. from L2 to L4 and in 36- 40 g.w.from L4 to L2.

The present study revealed, faster regression of the level of termination of the spinal cord during the first half of pregnancy. At full term the level of termination ranged from L2 to L4.

7. Lingual Artery:

Maria Kala, N. Jayasree, N. Ratnakar Rao, Ravindranath, Ranadheer Reddy and Rani Teresa
Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P.

Aim of study is to report variations of lingual artery Material selected for study are foetuses which were collected from Government Maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, and Chandra Kanta Memorial Hospital, Warangal and other private Nursing Homes. Systematic dissection was done on 50 foetuses out of 62 foetuses collected with variable gestational periods i.e., from 24-32 weeks. The external carotid artery was exposed and origin, course and termination of Lingual Artery has been observed. Its variations together with a brief review of literature will be discussed.

8. Morphological Study of Placenta of Normal And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Patients:

Nazmeen N. Silotry, M.Natarajan Seth G.S.M.C and K.E.M.H. Parel, Mumbai.

Aim To study the difference in the morphology of placenta of normal and Pregnancy induced hypertension patients Materials and methods 100 placentae were studied morphologically. Out of these 75 placentae were of normal patients and 25 placentae belonged to pregnancy induced hypertension patients. The weight, volume, shape and surface area of the placentae were recorded and a comparison was done between the morphological features of both the groups. The weight of the placenta was found to range between 451-500 Gms in normal group and between 401-450 Gms in pregnancy induced hypertension group. The volume of placenta was found to range from 401-450 ml in the normal group and between 351-400 ml in pregnancy induced hypertension group. There was no significant difference in shape and surface area of the placentae of both the groups. Thus the weight and volume of the placentae was found to be less in Pregnancy induced hypertension patients.

9. Bilateral Ossification of Ligaments, Tendons and Capsule – A Case Report:

Manik P, Rani A, Chopra J,
K.G. Medical University, Luknow.

During routine bone processing, a skeleton was retrieved in the department of Anatomy, King Georges’ Medical University, Lucknow, which showed fusion in the vertebrae of cervical as well as thoraco – Iumbar region. A careful examination of the body skeleton showed bilateral ossification of the ligaments, tendons and capsule at many places. They were ligamentum patellae, tendo-calcaneus, ligamentum teres of the lower limb, supra-spinous ligament of the upper limb and the lateral costo-transvese ligament in the region of thorax. Most of the vertebrae showed well developed osteophytes at the margins of the vertebrae anteriorly. The possible causes and the consequences of the above anomaly will be discussed during the presentation.

10. Effect Of Radiation Emitted From The Cell Phone On The Developing Kidneys Of Chick Embryo:

Ingole I.V., Ghosh S.K.,
M.G.I.M.S., Sevagram.

Quantum jump in the number of cell phone (Mobile Phone) users has been causing a general concern about the possible harmful health effects due to exposure to electro magnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from cell phones.

Several deleterious effects associated with radio frequency radiation have been reported by different researchers. Conversely some of the studies have failed to reproduce the reported effects at all. It is known that intensity, frequency and duration of exposure to radiation play a major role in causing effects due to induction and absorption of radiation energy. Such radiation exposure is not confined to the actual user but spreads to its immediate surrounding. Considering these important factors, the present work has been undertaken to investigate the effects of exposure to radiation from cell phone on the developing tissues. For the present study, fertile hen eggs were incubated in three sets. Each set was divided into a control group incubated without giving exposure and an exposed group incubated simultaneously in a separate incubator under similar conditions. During incubation, eggs were exposed to radiation emitted by the cell phone for different duration for each set. Three sets were sacrificed respectively on 6th 8th and 10th day of incubation. Eggs were chilled. Embryos were taken out and processed for paraffin embedding and sectioning. Sections were stained with Handamp;E, PAS and for alkaline phosphatase. Developing kidneys showed different degrees of degeneration, which varied with the duration of exposure as well as with the distance of embryo from the source of radiation.

11. Portal Vein-a Preliminary Study Of Its Course:

M. Ranadheer Reddy, N. Jayasree, N. Ratnakar Rao, and G.Ravindranath, Teresa Rani, Maria Kala. KMC, Warangal. A.P.

Foetuses of different age groups were collected from Government and Private Hospitals in Warangal District of Andhra Pradesh. All the 50 foetuses were fixed with 10% formaline in our Department for Periodical Study.

All the foetuses were dissected and termination of portal vein has been observed.

Information about portal vein is important for upper abdominal surgeries. Portal Vein course and its variations will be discussed along with review of literature.

12. Anencephaly – In Full Term Live Baby – A Case Report:

Jayagandhi S. and Thangaraj S.P.
PIMS, Pondicherry.

Neural tube defects are common congenital anomaly of the nervous system. Though the embryological and genetic reasons are well documented. Cases are still reported. Survival of these foetuses are very rare after birth. Rarely foetus may survive whenever the brainstem functions are intact. We came across one such incidence where, a full term new born baby presented with anencephaly with meningo- encephalocele delivered in the department of OBS and Gynaecology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, which survived for one week duration, the possible reason for these defects and its survival will be discussed and genetic reasons are well documented. Cases are still reported. Survival of these foetuses are very rare after birth. Rarely foetus may survive whenever the brainstem functions are intact. We came across one such incidence where, a full term new born baby presented with anencephaly with meningo­encephalocele delivered in the department of OBS and Gynaecology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, which survived for one week duration, the possible reason for these defects and its survival will be discussed.

13. Facial Artery:

Maria Kala, N. Jayasree, N. Ratnakar Rao, G. Ravindranath, Ranadheer Reddy, and Rani, Teresa, KMC, Warangal, A.P.

Nearly 62 foetuses have been colleted from Government Hospitals namely Govenment Maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda and C.K.M. Hospital, Warangal and also from private nursing homes.

For the present study 50 foetuses with 24 to 32 weeks have been selected for systematic dissection to expose the external carotid artery. Facial Artery has been observed on both sides in relation to its origin, course and branches in cervical region.

14. Multiple Congenital Anomalies – a Case Report:

P.D.Varghese, M.Mohammed Sulaiman,
Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala.

Aim of study is to study the internal organs of a stillborn baby with congenital anomalies.

Stillborn foetus was dissected.

Right lower limb was absent. There was herniation of abdominal contents. Other details observed will be discussed during the presentation.

15. Mullerian Duct Anomalies Causing Infertility:

Elezy M.A, V.P. Paily*
Govt. Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala. *Jubilee Mission Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala.

Aim of study is the congenital anomalies of uterus and vagina studied as a cause of infertility.

Case reports of 5 patients with primary infertility which showed both vaginal and uterine anomalies. Details will be discussed during presentation.

Various types of uterine duplication and vaginal anomalies result from arrests of development of uterovaginal primordium during the eighth week of development. This may cause infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, which may be corrected effectively by surgery.

16. Ectopic And Accessory Scrotum A Case Study:

Sheela B., Elezy M.A., Usha K.K.
Govt. Medical College, Thrissur

Aim of the study is to demonstrate ectopic position of scrotum and other congenital anomalies.

Ectopic scrotum is a rare anomaly that includes an anomalously positioned hemiscrotum. Usually, the ectopic scrotum is found near the external inguinal ring, but it may assume several forms. Accessory scrotum is a small empty pouch of scrotal tissue attached to the scrotum or the perineum. A recent review has identified 16 reported cases of a suprainguinal ectopic scrotum, 4 cases of a femoral ectopic scrotum, and 19 cases of accessory perineal scrotum. The testis generally accompanies the hemiscrotum to its abnormal position and may be normal or dysplastic. These congenital lesions of the scrotum can occur as an isolated anomaly but often are accompanied by abnormalities of the upper urinary tract. Accessory perineal scrotum also has been observed in association with anorectal malformation.

17. First Arch Syndrome With Multiple Anomalies:

Karpana V. Patil
Govt. Medical College, Aurangabad.

The first arch syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited congenital defect. But here in our case we found along with malformations of ext. and middle ear other anomalies of tongue tie and congo Indirect inguinal hernia in a 7 year boy: His father and his brother were normal. He was having completely absent pinna and ext. auditory canal on one side and on other side there was only stenotic EAC without any well developed pinna. His spiral C.T. with 3D reconstruction revealed completely absent malleus and incus in one year and slightly deformed middle ear ossicles on either side.

The patient was operated for stenotic EAC (canal plasty) and for tongue tie and inguinal hernia. He was having almost 70 dB hearing loss on PT A in one ear and on other side he was having 50 dB loss.

18. Apoptosis In Syncytio-trophoblasts Of Human Normal Full Term Placenta

Neerja Rani, Dhingra R., Bhatia N., and Kumar R.
AIIMS, New Delhi

A total of 20 normal human full term human placentae were collected from AIIMS labour room immediately after normal vaginal delivery. Four peripheral regions at (3,6,9 and 12 o’clock position) and one central region near the attachment of umbilical cord of normal placenta were taken to study the normal pattern and uniformity of apoptosis in the term placenta. It was then fixed in10% neutral buffered formalin and processed for paraffin blocks. 5 µm thick sections were cut and mounted on 10% poly-L-Iysine coated slides. The sections were then subjected for TUNEL technique. The sections were viewed under light microscope and the number of apoptotic cells were counted using image analyser.

Apoptosis was apparent in nuclei of syncytiotrophoblasts cells in peripheral as well as central part of placenta and apparently there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic nuclei in these two regions. These results suggest that apoptosis is a normal phenomenon which possibly is uniformly spread in the entire placenta at term. But any deviation in the apoptotic index may reflect the possible role of apoptosis in diseases like diabetes, pregestational hypertension, preeclampsia, heart disease and renal disease etc. Increased number of apoptotic cell may also play a role in premature aging of placenta, which may result in intrauterine growth retardation.

19. Sexual Dimorphism In The Histogenesis Of Human Fetal Gonads At Different Gestational Ages:

V. Usha Rani, V. Subhadra Devi, C. Yamini Devi, J.V. Krishna Murthy and N. Srikantha Rao,
Department of Anatomy, S.V. Medical College, Tirupati.

Morphological and histological features of testes and ovaries at different gestational ages were studies in a representative sample of embryos and fetuses ranging from 6 weeks to full term. After recording the weight, Crown-rump and Crown-heel lengths of the fetuses were preserved in 10% formalin for one week. Gonads were removed from the abdominal cavity or inguinal canal or scrotal sac (in more than 12weeks old fetuses) by careful dissection. Gonadal tissue were processed employing routine technique for formalin preserved tissue and embedded in paraffin. The paraffin blocks were sectioned 5 micrometers thick and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In the embryos and fetuses of less than 12 weeks gestation the abdominal and pelvic parts were subjected to serial sectioning and staining after routine processing and paraffin embedding. The time of appearance and sequences of differentiation of gonads and its relational to fertility shall be presented.

20. VEGF And Its Receptor-VEGFR-2 Expression In Human Placenta At Different Gestations:

G. Rath, R.Tripathi, S. Salhan*, C. Sarkar**,
Dept. of Anatomy. *Dept.of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, VMMC and S. J. Hospital, **Dept .of Pathology, AIIMS.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent secreted angiogenic inducer of blood vessel formation and are thought to play a substancial role in placentation. The present study was undertaken to determine the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2 in human placentae at different gestations. Placental samples from 7-40 weeks were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. Expression of VEGF and its receptor-VEGFR-2 was analysed by immuno histochemistry in paraffin embedded tissue sections in the first and second and third trimester (n=45) using specific monoclonal antibodies. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package SAS 8.0. The expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 showed mild to moderate intensity of reactivity in placenta at different gestations. Immunolocalization of

VEGF and VEGFR-2 in different groups were observed in mainly syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast and hofbauer cells if present, and endothelial cells with diffuse staining in the villous core. They were found to be significantly upregulated and correlated in syncytiotrophoblast (p=0.001, p=0.001), cytotrophoblast (p=0.001, p=0.003) endothelial cells (p=0.001,p=0.001) and Hofbauer cells(p=0.001, p=0.001) with advancing ages of gestation. This upregulation of VEGF and VEGFR-2 in different cell types strongly suggests their association with placental development.Also,these elevated expression levels and interactions of VEGF and VEGFR-2 may result in stimulating placental development in paracrine and autocrine manner.

21 Case Report Of A Rare Twin:

N. Jaya Sree, N. Ratnakar Rao, G. Ravindranath, Ranadheer Reddy, Therisa Rani, Mariakala,
KMC, Warangal. Andhra Pradesh.

A female aged 35 years with 8 months Amenorrhoea has been admitted in a nursing home with labour pains. On examination foetal heart sounds were absent. She delivered per Vaginum two dead foetuses. Both foetuses were abnormal.

22. Placental Changes Associated With Idiopathic Intra Uterine Growth Restriction:

Sharmistha Biswas, J.C. Chattopadhyay and S.K.Ghosh,
Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Wardha,

M.S. between the findings from placentae of both the cases were made. Placental weights of IUGR pregnancies ranged from 220 gm to 395 gm, and placental volumes ranged from 170ml to 380 ml. These values were less than those of normal control group where placental weights ranged from 340gm to 480 gm; placental volumes ranged from 260 ml to 450 ml.

Light microscopy revealed increased intravillous and perivillous fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knotting, more avascular villi and villi without complete trophoblastic lining in placentae of IUGR as compared to that of the control group. By histomorphometry, it was found that total volumes of villi in cases of IUGR placentae ranged from 64.9 cm3to 144.8 cm3, which were markedly less than those of the controls (ranging from 1 06.6 cm3 to 211.5 cm3). Also, the surface areas of villi were less in cases of IUGR ( range: 4.72 m2 -1 0.81 m2) as compared to the control group (range: 8.06m2-13.17m2). The reduced surface areas in cases of placentae ofIUGR babies might be one of the factors for reduced intrauterine growth without any known cause.

23. Vascularity Of Umbilical Cord And Their Effects Of Foetus – Serial Study – II:

N. Ratnakar Rao. N. Jayasree, G. Ravindranath, Ranadheer Reddy, Mariakala, Rani Teresa
KMC, Warangal A.P.

A random collection of one hundred and twenty full term placentae with umbilical cords, from different hospitals were studied in detail.

Only two specimens were with still born foetuses. Anomalies of organs were observed on dissection along with variations in umbilical arteries.

A review of literature regarding congenital abnormalities along with vascular variations in umbilical cord revealed and explained their correlation.

With the present study we could come to a provisional conclusion of percentage of such anomalies in the local population.

24. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve In Foetus:

S. Teresa Rani, N. Jayasree, Mohan Rao, N. Ratnakar Rao, and G. Ravindranath.
KMC, Warangal, A.P.

Foetuses from Government Hospitals and private hospital at Warangal, Andhra Pradesh have been collected with in 10 Hrs after delivery. Foetuses considered for present study are intra-uterine deaths at different stages of gestation.

Specimens were injected with 10% formaline and preserved in the same solution. To observe the Course of Recurrent Laryngeal nerve on both sides, all the specimens were dissected in the neck extending up till superior mediastinum.

25. Teratogenic Effect Of Insulin Induced Hypoglycaemia On The Developing Rat Embryos:

Rakesh Kumar Diwan, And G.L. Shah
IMS, BHU, Varanasi.

The present investigation is designed to observe congenital anomalies on some internal organs like kidney, liver and heart of rat embryos.

A single dose (20 IU/) of Insulin (Torrent pharmaceuticals) was injected intraperitoneally in CF strain pregnant female rat (average wt. 200-250 gm) on gestation days 7, 8 and 9. Control pregnant rats were injected with normal saline. On day 20th of gestation, treated rat embryos werc collected to observe the gross malformation and histological changes in the heart, liver and kidney. On histological examination of kidney, severe glomerular degeneration was observed while there was disturbance in cyto-architectural pattern of liver cells along with degeneration. Central vein of liver was also found to be dilated.

Longitudinal section of the heart showed thick musculature with narrower lumen in comparison to that of control.

26. Study Of Whorl Pattern And Psychological Complexities In Medical Students:

B.N. Rao, M. Pramila Padmini
MIMS Nellimarla.

Noel taquin speculated psychological connections of whorls in individuals and wondered whether the whorl pattern commonly found on certain types of prints indicated to some psychological deficiency and defect of moral perception. Compton considered whorl as a fixed sign. It is often found on 4, 1, and 2nd finger in order of frequency.

Rolled fingerprints of 106 medical students of MIMS constituted the study material. Spiral whorls, plain whorls, cental pocketed loops, twin loops, and double whorls are found. The frequencies are as follows:

Spiral Whorl (Left): 12.26%, 14.15%, 10.37%, 18.86%, 3.77% (Right): 10.37%, 10.37%, 10.37%, 17.92%, 8.49%

Plain Whorl (Left): 1.88%, 0.94%, 0.94%, (Right): 80/0, 3.77%, 1.88%, 1.88%

Central Pocketed Loops: (Left): 8.49%, 16.98%, 11.32%, 33.96%, 15.09% (Right): 12.26%, 17.92%, 6.10%, 26.41%, 10.37%.

The details of supposed psychological complexities will be discussed at the conference.

27. Survey On Frequency Of Dermatoglyphic Related Personal Attributes In Medical Students Of MIMS:

B.N. Rao, M. Pramila Padmini And Malleswari, MIMS Nellimarla.

Dermatoglyphics are constant and individualistic. their notably variable characteristics are not duplicated in other people. The use of fingerprints as indications or attributes or character traits has a long history. There are chinese folk and hindu folk fingerprint formulae.

The aim of the study was to evaluate dermatoglyphic patterns in 106 medical students of MIMS and to establish the relationship of whorl, loop, arch to the tradition expressed by fred getting and kojima and also to find out the variation ifany.

Arches Are Not Found On Any Of The Fingers. Ulnar Loops Are Common On Both Hands. Radial Loops Are Next Common.

28. Proteus Syndrome – A Case Report:

Amala Institute Of Medical Sciences, Thrissur, Kerala.

Proteus syndrome is a complex disorder involving malformations and overgrowth of multipletissues. The syndrome was originally described by Cohen and Hayden (1979) and designated Proteus Syndrome by Wiedman et al. (1983). According to Happl’s hypothesis (1987) the syndrome is the result of Somatic Alteration of a dominant Gene leading to mosaic effect. The locus of the gene is still unidentified. The lethality of this gene is believed to be the result of the non-mosaic mutations. The condition presents various cutaneous, vascular, osteogenic and connective tissue manifestations. According to another hypothesis the condition may be a post zygotic somatic embryonic recombination resulting into various cell groups. So far only about 120 documented cases are available worldwide. The condition, therefore is rare.

In this paper a rare case is reported displaying abnormal partial growth of the upper limb with widespread destruction and functional loss.

29. Study Of Palmar Dermatoglyphics In Mentally Retarded Children:

Vaishali B. Bhagwat, Mrs. M. M. Meshram, Bahetee B. H.,
S. R. T. R. Medical College, Ambajogai.

Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmar and plantar region.

A state of mental retardation may be produced by various endogenous and exogenous influences acting independently or in concert with each other. Recently dematoglyphic patterns have been utilized as a diagnostic tool in various disorders like mental retardation.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the dermatoglyphic features and to note any specific variation or diagnostic features in the mentally retarded children. The study comprising of 400 subjects (200 mentally retarded, 200 controls) was carried out in the department of Anatomy Government Medical College, Nagpur.

The following parameters were studied: a) “ATD” angle b) Sydney line c) Simian crease.

A significant crease in the mean value of ‘atd’ angle, increase frequency of simian crease and Sydney line was found in the mentally retarded children as compared to the control.

30. Ambiguous Genitalias, A Case Study:

Prasad Kulkarni, Shabana Borate, S.D Gangane, V. Salaskar, A.Khan, Mrs.Bharati,
GMC, Mumbai.

Two patients of ambiguous genitalia were referred to genetic department .On cytogenetic study karyotype revealed were 46,xx and 46,xy.To rule out translocations PCR was carried out. Details of study will be discussed during presentation.

31. Waardenburg’s Syndrome, A Case Study:

Shabana Borate, S.D.Gangane, V.Salaskar, A.Khan, Mrs Bharati,
GMC, Mumbai.

Siblings with profound congenital deafness and heterochromia were referred to genetic department f o r karyotyping and genetic counseling .The details of study will be discussed during presentation.

32. Torus Mandibularis (Buccal Exostosis) – A Case Report:

C. Mrudula,T.V. Ramana Chary, T. Rajashree, N. Himabindu, OMC, Koti, Hyderabad, A.P.

A rare anomaly known as TORUSMANDIBULARIS was found accidentally in a female aged 29 yrs . This condition is confused generally with bone producing soft tissue masses of oral mucosa. Torus is considered to be developmental anomaly but gets manifested in adult life. History, symptoms, its genetic basis, approach for diagnosis, complications and treatment will be discussed.

33. Radiological Evaluation Of Mandibles of A Family With First Branchial Arch Syndrome:

Mahdi Hasan, Gyan P. Singh, Vijay P. Sharma, KGMC,Lucknow.

Persons from two generation of family with first branchial arch syndrome, also known as Treacher Collins syndrome were examined for signs traditionally associated with this syndrome. The father (43 years) and a son (14 years) exhibited features of this syndrome where as the mother and two siblings (1 male, 1 female) revealed no visible anomalies. A cephalometric technique of evaluation by means of medial axis analysis and inflectional tangents was designed to capture the mandibular deformity. The mandibular cephalometric findings of the trait bearers were compared with non-trait bearing family members and normal data from the Department of Orthodontics, U.P.K.G. University of Dental Sciences, Lucknow.

It has been demonstrated (Grayson et al., 1986; Amer. J. Orthodont. 89: 393-398) that the peculiarly concave curavture of the lower border of the mandible is a syndrome-specific characteristics.

The curve of the lower border of the mandible may be described geometrically by the angular relationship between line tangents drawn at points of inflection along its surface. The medial axis is a line that passes through the “middle” of a non-symmetric form. It is constructed as a set of line segments connecting the centers of circles of maximum size that fit within the form. The medial axis branches where the form bifurcates. Superimposition of the TC and normal mandible tracings showed downward and backward deformity of the symphyseal region. The use of conventional landmarks (Go-Me) to measure the mandibular deformity leads one to interpret it as extreme concavity rather than a downward and backward warping of the anterior segment of the mandibular body. The antegonial notch previously seen as a concavity on the inferior border of the mandible is presented as a function of downward deformation in the region of the symphysis menti.

Financial Assistance (to MH) from Indian National Science Academy is gratefully acknowledged.

34. Dermatoglyphics In Congenitally Deaf And Mute:

Sharma A, Sood V., Singh P, Agnihotri G., DMCandamp;H., Ludhiana.

To study the role of dermatoglyphics in congenitally deaf and mute subjects,a study was conducted on hundred subjects with congenital deafness and mutism. A control group of fifty subjects with normal hearing having similar sex distribution was taken.

The finger prints of all these cases were taken on white paper by the ‘ink and paper’ method with the help of printer’s ink. Both handprints were taken and labeled accordingly. The fingertip patterns, the total ridge count, hypothenar area patterns, interdigital areas and ‘atd’ angle were analyzed. The deaf group show statistically significant (p<.05) higher frequency of whorls in males, higher incidence of arch pattern on hypothenar area in both sexes, higher percentage of pattern frequency in third interdigital area in both sexes and a higher percentage of patterns in fourth interdigital area in males. Analysis of dermatoglyphic patterns i.e. fingertip patterns, hypothenar area, third and fourth interdigital area patterns can be used as a quick method in a new born hearing screening program, to be followed by further clinical testing wherever needed.

35. Short Limb Polydactyly Syndrome:

A.C. Dhamangaonkar, Seth G. S. Medical College, Parel, Mumbai.

Lethal bone dysplasia syndromes are rare and are extremely heterogenous conditions. With use of antenatal sonography, skeletal anomalies are easily diagnosed and pregnancies are terminated. Foetal autopsy is important to assess the other assossiated anomalies and nature of syndromes.

A 22 weeks foetus was terminated for short limb dysplasia. Foetus weighing 275 gms had large head with depressed nasal bridge, narrow thorax, distended abdomen, limb rhizomelia, mesomelic shortening and postaxial polydactyly of right hand and foot.

36. Genetics – Unwanted Baby Of Anatomist?:

Sharadkumar Sawant ‘Seth G.S. Medical College, Hospital, Parel, Mumbai.

Why is the department of genetics routinely not managed by the staff members of anatomy department?

Most of the time it is managed by department of paediatrics, gynecology etc. Without any contribution from the department of anatomy.

A questionnaire was distributed to 50 anatomists for their views. The result of questionnaire will be presented in the conference.

37. A Study Of Y-Chromatin In Azoospermic And Oligozoospermic Men:

Praful P. Nikam, R. Shende, R.A. Kamhle, I.G.G.M,C.” Nagpur

Chromosomal abnormalities have been known to be one of the important causes of infertility. Azoospermia and Oligozoospermia are the major factors for infertility. To investigate the abnormality of Y-chromatin in the apparently azoospermic and oligospermic case, I undertook this project.

For the study, 63 cases of infertility including 42 azoospermic and 211 oligozoospermic men, in the age group of 20-43 were studied. This study group was compared with 20 normal fertile men as control group. The buccal smears of these cases were taken, stained with Quinacrine mustard dihydrochloride and then observed under fluorescence microscope with blue filler. The Y-body (Y-chromatin) was observed and compared for size, shape, intensity and number. Out of the infertile men, 6.34% had small Y body, 9.52% had big Y body, 1.6% had double Y body and 84.12% infertile men had normal size Y -body.

We conclude that chromosomal analysis as well as sex chromatin study is necessary in the investigation of male infertility. The detailed description is included in the paper.

38. Study Of Palmar Dermatoglyphics In Congenital Heart Disease:

A.N. Wanjari, K.G. Palikundwar, GMC, Nagpur, M.S.

The current study is undertaken with an aim to evaluate relationship of dermatoglyphic pattern between cases of congenital heart disease and controls.

The study comprised of 100 patients of congenital heart disease and 100 controls . The hand prints obtained are analyzed and tested for statistical significance between the two groups. The study reveals significantly decreased whorls and increased ulnar loops in all the studied groups of congenital heart disease with maximum frequency of ulnar loops on the fifth finger. Whereas, radial loops and arches show overall decrease and increase respectively in all the groups except that in Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

Palmar pattern is found to be significantly increased in hypothenar area in all the studied groups of congenital heart disease except in the fourth interdigital area ( ID4) in all the groups and in the third interdigital area (ID3) in other group of congenital heart disease.

Simian crease shows significant increase in the cases of Patent ductus arteriosus(PDA). However, groupwise distribution of Simian crease is yet to be reported.

39. Herdity Versus Heredity:

Lopa Mehta, Manu Kothari, Vatsal Kothari and M. Natarajan,
Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai.

Heredity in genetics and medicine is much like atma in religion discourses – everyone talks about it without anyone defining it or comprehendingly describing it. English lexicons aptly supported by Sanskrit ones trace heredity to abandonment. The sense is of someone going away leaving behind for you some money estate or treasure. Heredity looks like mythology.

Meiosis is a deparenting exercise through random recombination and crossing over that sees to it that every sperm/ovum differs from its fellow and very much from the owner. The intergametic variability is a trillionfold. Meiosis could be renamed as deparenting exercise. This fully subserves the Darwinian idea of descent with variation.Another factor which annuls heredity is the concept of polygenic/multifactorial inheritance. All common disorders and common characteristics are so derived and are exempt from the burden of heredity.

In any given human herd the world over a corporate genotype seems to be working to give a fixed incidence of a particular disease/anomaly generation after generation. At random it is one cleft palate in a 1000 births, 2% of people having epilepsy/schizophrenia, out of 33000 people exhibiting ALL and all told one person out of every 5 developing cancer. The consistency is remarkable and refuses to alter over centuries. An individual at the behest of the herd takes upon himself/herself the burden of a particular problem, I thereby sparing many others of the same. We have chosen to, call this mechanism as Herdity that is easily verifiable over a large range of normal and pathologic phenomena.

40. Study of Nucleolar Organizer Region By Ag-NOR Staining In Azoospermic Subjects – A Case Control Study:

J.C. Chattopadhyay, S. Biswas, A.M. Tarnekar, J.Anbalagan, S. K. Ghosh and A. K. Pal.,
MGIMS, Sevagram.

A cytogenetic study was carried out on fifteen (15) subjects of azoospermia of age groups between 24-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-41 years and equal number of age matched control males with proven fertility. Ag-NOR staining of Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) of ‘D’ and ‘G’ group chromosomes was performed using standard protocol followed in our laboratory. The NOR polymorphism in terms of shape and size, average number of NOR per cell (in a complete metaphase) and satellite associations of D-G group chromosomes were observed. It was noted that average numbers of NORs per cell were less in azoospermics as compared to that of age matched fertile controls. Significance of less number of NORs in azoospermic subjects in comparison to the controls will be discussed.

41. Study Of Finger Pattern Dermatoglyphics In Diabetic Cataracts:

Sherke A. R., Parchand M. P.,
People’s College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal.

To study finger print pattern in diabetic cataract patients.

The study consists of 400 subjects (200 patients and 200 controlls). Finger prints were taken by ‘Ink Method’.

Prints were analysed and results were tested for statistical significance. Significant increase in whorl pattern in patients. TFRC and AFRC values were also found to be statistically significant in patients. Result of the study may be useful to diagnose the disease at an earlier age.

42. Abnormal Branching Pattern Of Brachiocephalic Trunk – A Case Report:

Kabadi A.M.,
J.N. Medical College, Belgaum.

On routine dissection in a male body the brachiocephalic trunk bifurcation into common carotid artery and subclavian artery and along with this one more small branch was given which descended downwards and medially supplying the sternohyoid muscle and it was not thyroid ima artery supplying thyroid.

As such abnormal branching of brachiocephalic trunk is not mentioned in books and hence such variation should be given practical importance as they pose danger in neck surgeries

43. Variations In Origin And Course Of The Splenic Artery:

S.K. Pandey, S. Bhattacharya* and S.K. Tripathi, IMS, BHU, Varanasi. *B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

Three hundred twenty (264 male and 56 female) dead bodies were dissected for variations in origin and course of the splenic artery in both sexes. The dead bodies were obtained from the Department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, IMS, BHU, Varanasi. The artery took origin from the celiac trunk in 91.7% male and 85.7% female cases. Direct origin of the splenic artery from the abdominal aorta was noted in 7.2% male and 12.5% female cases. It was interesting to note that the splenic artery infrequently originated either from the common hepatic or superior mesenteric artery in 1.1% male and 1.8% female cases. The splenic artery had suprapancreatic course in 76.5% male and 62.5% female cases followed by anteriopancreatic in 16.7% male and 26.8% female, intrapancreatic in 4.2% male and 7.1% female and retro­pancreatic in 2.7% male and 3.6% female cases. The splenic artery had anterior course to the splenic vein in all cases. In two male cases the splenic artery in its proximal course made a loop, which was embedded in the substance of the pancreas. The terminal end of the loop was divided into four branches, which is a rare variation not reported in the literature. It was interesting to note that the artery after originatig from the celiac trunk immediately divided into two or more branches, which had supra and antero-pancreatic course in five cases. The knowledge of such variations is mainly derived from the anatomical studies in routine dissections. The purpose is to study the anatomical variations in origin and course of the splenic artery, which are of interest for anatomists, radiologists and surgeons alike.

44. Anamolous Origin Of Cystic Artery From Gastroduodenal Artery:

Rajashekhar Y. Dundaraddy, G. M. Mahesh*,
Department of Anatomy KIMS Hubli. *Dept. of Anatomy Shanti Ram Medical College Nandyal.

Variations in the arterial supply of the liver and Gall bladder are extremely common, however origin of cystic artery from Gastroduodenal artery is rare.

The Gall bladder is normally supplied by a single cystic artery which arises from the right hepatic artery and soon divides into two branches and supply the Gall bladder.

Cystic artery may also show number of variations both in its manner of origin and course, such variations of the cystic artery are commonly seen during cholecystectomy.

Cystic artery may arise from LHA, CHA, GDA, in addition cystic artery have been reported arising from the coeliac artery, Superior mesenteric artery,Superior pacreaticoduodenal artery, right gastro epiploic artery and from the aorta itself. The data collected in the present study may help the Post graduates and surgeons.

We have studied 40 specimens of liver with Extrahepatic biliary apparatus by detailed dissection method and we have observed in one specimen cystic artery arising from gastroduodenal artery.

Variations of the cystic artery and its branches and relations with the biliary structures emphasize the importance of the arterial dissection in biliary surgery.

This shows the importance of thorough knowledge of the cystic artery variations that often occur and may b e encountered during both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Uncontrolled bleeding from the cystic artery and its branches is a serious problem which leads to severe hemorrhage, shock and death.

45. Variations In The Origin Of Branches Of Femoral Artery – Case Reports:

Kalyan Bhattacharya, Sudeshna Majumdar*, Hasi Dasgupta**,
Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata. *Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal. **Institute Of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata.

The aim of the present study is to make the clinicians aware of the varying pattern of origin and branches of arteria profunda femoris (a major branch of femoral artery). This study may be particularly relevant to a number of clinicopathological events like fracture healing, the spread of infection and malignancy and the planning of the reconstructive surgical procedures.

Dissection of femoral artery of thirty three cadavers unveiled an interesting variation in the site, pattern,mode of branching and relationship of the main trunk of arteria profunda femoris with its parent trunk, the femoral artery. After dissection, neurovascular structures were painted separately and photographs of interesting ones were taken. The variations were noted in twenty four cases where femoral artery, arteria profunda femoris, medial circumflex femoral and lateral circumflex femoral were found to exhibit separate variations. Though these variations were in addition to the usual anatomic description; they can be corroborated embryologically so that surgeons can be aware of such variations while performing some invasive procedures on the femoral artery and its branches.

It is concluded therefore that the clinicians and surgeons should be made well acquainted with such variations while performing any invasive or diagnostic procedures on the proximal part of the femoral artery and its branches; especially the arteria profunda femoris.

46. Anomalous Higher Termination Of The Brachial Artery By Triplication A Case Report:

Ms. Vishnumaya. G.,
K.M.C., Manipal.

An unusual higher termination of the brachial artery was found in one case during routine dissection. On the left side of a male cadaver, the brachial artery terminated at the middle of the arm by trifurcating into a) its two terminal branches radial and ulnar arteries and b) profunda brachii artery. The median nerve was descending between the radial and ulnar arteries. Further below, in the cubital fossa, a superficial anastamosis between the radial and ulnar arteries was observed. The details of these variations and its clinical implications are discussed in the paper.

47. The Thyrothymic Trunk:

Dharwal Kumud
Sri Guru Ramdas Institute Of Medical Sciences And Research, Sri Amritsar.

During routine head and neck dissection of a female cadaver approximately 50 years of age, an anomalous artery to the thyroid gland was encountered. It was accompanied by a reduced caliber of the right inferior thyroid artery. On tracing the artery to its origin it was found to be arising from the brachiocephalic artery. This 4mm diameter trunk passed anteriorly for 6mm and then divided in 5 branches. Each successive branch in turn supplied right lobe of the thyroid gland, isthmus of the thyroid, left sternoclavicular joint, remnants of thymus gland along with right sternoclavicular joint and a long branch for anterior and posterior aspects of pericardium.

Shouldn’t the artery be better nomenclatured as the thyro-thymo- pericardial trunk? The clinical ramifications of the anomalous artery will be discussed at the time of presentation.

48. Variation In The Termination Of Popliteal Artery, A Case Report:

Priti. R. Chougule, Seth G.S.
Dept. of Anatomy, Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai.

During routine dissection of the lower limb of a cadaver, an interesting variation in the termination of popliteal artery was observed. The popliteal artery, instead of terminating by dividing into posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries, terminated by dividing into three asymmetrical branches: two larger branches were posterior tibial artery and peroneal artery and one very small branch was the rudimentary anterior tibial artery. Peroneal artery was found to pierce the interosseous membrane to enter the anterior compartment beyond which it continued as dorsalis pedis artery. The embryological basis of this variation and its clinical implications will be discussed.

49. Loop Formation Of Cervical Segment Of Internal Carotid Artery – A Case Report:

Nirmal A.D, J.H.Sharieff,
Govt Medical College, Mysore .

The Internal carotid artery is one of the major arterial supply to the brain. Its course is important because any deviation from normal can result in signs and symptoms related to involvement of brain.

In routine dissection of head and neck by students, a variation in the cervical part of Internal carotid artery was observed in one cadaver. There was formation of a complete loop of the artery in the cervical region on the left side. After loop formation, the artery ascended and resumed its normal course throughout its further extent. ICA on right side was completely normal.

Though ICA is normally associated with bends and kinks in its course, a complete loop formation in the form of a circle is a rarity.

The above case will be discussed with the available findings.

50. Variation In Distribution Of Cystic Artery In The Calot’s Triangle Gross And Laparoscopic Study:

Ray S., Chinara P.K.Lecturer,
S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa.

Variation in arterial distribution can result in intraoperative catastrophe and subsequent conversion to open cholecystectomy, negating the advantages of minimal access surgery. A study was taken up at the Laparoscopic

O.T. and the central morgue of S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, and the distribution of cystic artery in relation to the common hepatic duct was studied. 100 cases of Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 50 autopsy cases reveal that the artery is anterior to common hepatic duct in 12% cases (4% – male, 8% – female) in autopsy and 8% in Laparoscopy (2% – male, 6% – female).

The artery has been observed posterior to common hepatic duct in 24% (6% – male, 18% – female) during autopsy and 11% in Laparoscopy (2% – male, 9% female).

Double cystic artery supplied directly to gall bladder has been observed in 9% (2% – male, 7% – female) in Laparoscopy.

The cystic artery assumes a special relationship with the common hepatic duct and is of importance during cholecystectomy. Usually the artery passes posteriorly to the common hepatic duct arising from the right hepatic artery. But variations can occur, much to the disadvantage of the surgeon especially the Laparoscopic surgeon who has got limited view of the hepato-biliary area. The details of the procedure and result are discussed.

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