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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts (251 - 300)

Author(s): Members

Vol. 54, No. 1 (2005-01 - 2005-03)

251. Significance of Facial and Masticatory Muscles in Restoring The Esthetics in Completely Edentulous patients - A prosthodontist's perception.

*Joshi.MS, **Joshi SD and **Joshi SS

Rural Dental College & Rural Medical College, PIMS Loni

The role of muscles in generating various facial expressions and contortions is a well-appreciated fact, so also the role of masticatory muscles in chewing.

For a prosthodontist it has a slightly different connotation as, while rehabilitating a completely edentulous patient he has to consider a vital Esthetic component as well. Thus, actions of various muscles, separately and as a group affect the complte denture fabrication.

The modiolus has been extensively analyzed, assigning it various shapes and dimensions, which is subject to variations and is an important node of integration of activities of lips, cheeks and oral fissure.

The Masticatory muscles help in recording the various jaw relations and their tone in maintenance of a correct posture for jaw relation records.

The detaisl regarding the Facial and Masticatory muscles, as seen from a Prosthodontist's point of view will be presented and discussed

252. Kelinefelters Syndrome and its Variants

Rima Dada, Kumar R, Jena M, K Kucheria

AIIMS, New Delhi.

Klinefelter syndrome (KFC) is the commonest sex chromosomal abnormality and the commonest genetic cause of male infertility. About 12-15 percent, cases are mosaic with variable phenotype. Many cases of KFS remain undiagnosed because of substantial variation in clinical presentation and insufficient professional awareness of the syndrome itself. Early recognition and hormonal treatment of the disorder can substantially improve quality of life and prevent serious consequences. Most reports do not differentiate KFS from the variants. In the present study 145 cases of male infertility were analyzed cytogenetically. Twenty-five well spread G banded metaphases were karyotyped using image analyzer (cytovision, applied Imaging). In the mosaic cases 50 metaphases were analyzed. Six mosaic variant cases with more than one cell line were analyzed at the molecular level by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) to detect low-level cryptic mosaicism. Semen analysis was done according to WHO guidelines (1999). We found 11 cases with KFS, nine cases were KF mosaics and 7 were mosaic variants. These variant mosaic cases were: Case 1- 47, Xxy (60%)/48,XXYY (16)/46,XX (20)/47,XYY (4), Case 2 - 47,XXY (91)/48,XXYY (3)/48,XXXY (3)/46,XY (3), Case 3-47XXY(60)/48,XXXY (26)/49,XXXYY (14), Case 4 - 46,XY(50)/47, XXY (30)/48,XXYY (20), Case 5 - 46,XY (53)/48,XXXY (40)/49,XXXYY (7) case 6- 47/XXY/48, XXXY. FISH detected an additional cell line of 50, XXXXYY (1%) in case 1. these variant cases had additional feature than of KFS like mental retardation, difficulty in expressive languge, slurred speech, Mitral Valve prolapsed and adjustement problem with peers. FSH and LH were makredly evlevated and testosterone levels were slow. All cases were azoospermic. FISH as an adjunct to conventional cytogenetics helps in identifying cell lines not identified cytogenetically. Thus variant cases should be considered as a distinct entity as they have additional cardiovascular and other clinical features and should thus be managed accordingly.

254. Axial and Palmar Triradii and "atd" Angle in Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

Shabana Borate, * LS Khanzode

Grant Medical College, Mumbai, Government Medical College, Akola.*

Aim of study:

To find out whether a specific dermatoglyphic pattern exist in axial and palmar triangular and in ‘atd' angle in cleft lip and cleft palate patients.

Materials and Methods:

The study consist of 220 subjects ( 120 patients and 100 normal controls). Palmar prints were taken by ‘ink method". Prints were analyzed and results were tested for statistical significance.


The position of axial triradius was distally displaced and there was significant increase in total number of palmar triradii. The ‘atd' angle was significantly wider as compared with controls.


The results of this study are highly promising and supportive of genetic etiology in cleft lip and cleft palate.

255. Umbilical Vascular Coiling & Nuchal Abnormalities

Rao NR, Jayasree N & Rajasree TK, G. Ravindra Nath

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal.

A random collection of one hundred placentas with umbilical cords from different hospitals were studied in detail.

In one specimen, nuchal abnormalities were observed on dissection along with non-coiling of one umbilical artery.

Literature also showed certain nuchal abnormalities associated with non-coiling of umbilical cord. An attempt is made to make a similar observation in local population, observing 100 specimens.

256. Uterine Septum - A threat to Obstetric Career

Dr. Vaishali V Inamdar, Dr Pratima R. Kulkarni

Government Medical College, Aurangabad. MH.

Each paramesonephric duct is developed as longitudinal groove like invagination of coelomic epithelium on the lateral side of mesonephric ridge. The cranial end of duct opens in coelomic cavity, while its caudal \end grows as a solid tube which subsequently canalizes. The PMN duct grows caudally lateral to the mesonephric duct, in 8 th week it crosses the mesonephric duct ventrally, thus PMN ducts of both sides come close to each other and form the uterovaginal canal. The cranial part of the canal forms uterus. If there is failure of fusion of inferior parts of PMN ducts, it results in uterus diadelphis. In some rare cases, uterus appears normal externally, but internally it is divided by a thin septum.

We are presenting a case of Mrs.Kantabai Wankhede, 25 years old lady, residing at Naigaon, Dist. Nanded. She had previous 2 II trimester abortions with cervical encirclage done in this pregnancy at 16 weeks. Then she presented with threatened preterm labour at 34 weeks, which was managed by tocolytics, antibiotics and steroids, and the pregnancy was continued up to 38 weeks. Her clinical examination was suggestive of breech presentation with. Arcuate uterus.

Obstetric USG - E/o single, live intrauterine gestation with breech presentation & presence of thick septum in fundal region.Elective LSCS was done. Intra operatively the septum was found to be extending from fundus to lower segment, which was the culprit for her bad obstetric history.

257. Childhood Polycystic Disease of the Kidney (Autosomal recessive polycystic disease of the kidney) - A case report

P. Satyavathi Devi, Dhruva K. Isaphani, G. Narasimha Reddy, Kishan Reddy, Dr. V. Srinivas

PIMS, Karimnagar (AP)

The dead body of a female neonate of one-day age is brought to the department of anatomy from the Prathima Hospital, Karimnagar. The body is preserved by injecting 10 percent formaline in to the umbilical cord. It is observed that the dead body is having an abnormally large abdomen, but no other external anomalies. Then the abdomen and chest are opened by a median vertical incision from the supra sternal notch to public symphysis.

There are huge bilateral, cystic, retroperitoneal masses occupying the entire abdominal cavity. The liver is pushed more towards the thorax. The gastrointestinal tract is seen mostly in the median line. Caecum and vermiform appendix are sub hepatic in position. Other parts of large and small intestine are seen but shorter and smaller. Meconeum is formed anal orifice is patent. Pancreas, spleen, suprarenal and female genital tract are formed and present in their normal positions. Photographs are taken when the masses are in situ.

The masses are found to be kidneys. Left kidney is removed and subjected to sagittal and serial sections and sent to pathology department for biopsy. The suprarenal, bits from liver, spleen, lung, pancreas lung and Para-aortic lymph nodes were also sent for biopsy. The biopsy report confirmed that the case is infantile polycystic kidneys (ARPKD), cortico medullary distinction is lost and no apparent renal parenchyma. The etiology is discussed with the help of the information given in recent embryology text books.

258. Effects of Brufen (Ibuprofen + Paracetamol) on the Skeletal Muscles of Albino Rats

Rajani Singh, N Chandra, Manju Naresh

KG Medical University, Lucknow & MLN Medical College, Allahabad.

Brufen is most the commonly prescribed analgesic drug, is being very frequently and indiscriminately prescribed and used. The side effect of this drug on various tissues are reported in the literature but no account of histological changes after in the take of brufen on skeletal muscle have been found in the literature available.

Material & Methods:

The experiments were performed on adults albino rats in the department of Anatomy at MLN Medical College, Allahbad.

Albino rats were divided into two groups - one experimental, 2 control group experimental group consisted of 6X3 =18 males and 6X3 = 18 females. Control group consisted of 6 males and 6 females. Control group received 2 ml of distilled water orally. Experimental group received varied amount of brufen orally for six weeks.

Two control and six Experimental rats were sacrificed at weekly interval for six weeks.

Muscle tissue was procured from thigh and was processed and paraffin sections were prepared. After staining with haematoxylin and eosin, the tissue was observed under the light microscope and photomicrography was done.


Degenerative changes were seen in the muscle tissue.


Hence, the administration of brufen for long time in high doses leads to muscle generation and therefore should be avoided.

259. Effects of Pesticides on the Body Weight of Albino Rats

Rani Archana, Sahai. A, & Srivastava AK.

KGM University, Lucknow.

Pesticides hold a unique position among environmental contaminants. The World Health Organization has estimated that approximately 5 lakh pesticide poisonings occur worldwide each year.

Carbaryl and Isoproturon were taken to see the effect on the body weight of albino rats as they are widely used in agriculture.

These groups of animals were taken for pesticide i.e. control group, low dose treated group and high dose treated group. In each group the number of animals were 8.

The body weight of the rats was measured at 10 days interval up to 60 days by weighing machine and the percent weight gain was calculated.

The percent weight gain with both the pesticides was found to be decreased as compared to control and the values were statistically highly significant.

260. Teratogenicity of Topiramate in Rats

Anand Mishra, and Mandavi Singh

Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

Abstract: Topiramate, dissolved in distilled water was orally intubated to pregnant female rats of CHARLES - FOSTER strain from gestation day 9-12 in the dose of 40-, 100 and 200 mg. Control rats were similarly intubated distilled water. The rats were sacrificed on day 21 by deep chloroform anesthesia and fetuses collected. On examination, the fetuses showed significant reduction in weight and size. In a few fetuses, limb anomalies such as brachydactyly, syndactyly, ectrodactyly and flexion deformities were observed. Scattered patches of hemorrhage were also observed on the surface of body.

On histopathological examination of brain, the sub ventricular zone of cells was found to be thicker. The laminar formation of cerebral cortex was disturbed. The blood vessels were dilated with intervening edema in the brain substance giving spongiform appearance. A few necrotic patches with gliosis were observed. The severity of anomalies increased with increasing doses. These changes suggest that topiramate produces gross as well as microscopic fetal malformations. Therefore, in human beings it should be prescribed with caution if required during pregnancy.

262. Dermatoglyphics in Essential Hypertension in Western Maharashtra Population

Kulkarni DU, Herekar NG.

RCSMGMC, Kolhapur.


To find out various dermatoglyphic markers in patients suffering from essential hypertension diagnosed and proved by Medicine Department, General Hospital Sangli and General hospital, Miraj were selected for this study. One hundred healthy subjects were selected as controls for comparisons. All control cases were above 50 years because development of essential hypertension beyond this age is very rare.


Method used here to obtain finger and palm prints for Dermatoglyphic analysis was "standard ink method."


From present study it is clear that increased "total finger ridge count (TFRC)" and deceased "atd" angle can be used as dermotoglyphic markers in essential hypertension. Other parameters like Fingertip pattern, Palmar patterns, Palmar crease pattern did not show any statistical significant variation.


When these dermatoglyphic markers are studied in association with study of family history, we can predict the possibility of development of essential hypertension at a younger age so that person can take preventive measures from his young age to prevent the development of essential hypertension. If it is not possible to prevent its development, at least he can delay it, which will reduce the incidence of complications.

263. Study of Palmar Dematoglyphics in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

Veena HS, Humbarwadi RS, Potturi BR.

JN Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka


Palmar dermotoglyphics has been and is being studied in many diseases and alterations in normal pattern have been noted. It has been an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermotoglyphic patterns.

Millions of people chew gutkha, but not all of them suffer from oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). It seems likely that a genetic predisposition could be an underlying mechanism. Can we pick those individuals through some genetic markers like dermatoglyphics? Taking these facts into consideration the present study aims to analyze palmar dermatoglyphics in OSMF and find a relation, if any.

Materials and Methods:

The study consists of 60 gutkha chewing subjects (30 with OSMF and 30 without it). Finger and palm prints were taken by ink methods. Prints were analyzed and results were tested for statistical significance.


Among various dermatoglyphic parameters analyzed following statistically significant findings were observed.

1) Decreased in a.t.d. angles among gutkha chewing OSMF patients when compared to normal gutkha chewers in both right and left hands. 2) Increase in pattern frequency in thenar/I1 area in OSMF patients. 3) Increase in pattern frequency in I4 area in OSMF patients.


This is an ongoing study and the results are quite promising. Such studies have to be conducted on larger population in order to establish a strong correlation between palmar dermatoglyphics and oral submucous fibrosis,

264. On the scope and method of anatomy

Kumar KV

Guntur Medical College, Guntur. AP

Descriptive anatomy, whatever purpose it had served, has its limitations. Modern anatomy should not content itself to just describe the structural features of the human body, but should unravel the regularities and organizational principles behind the morphological features and should generalize the accumulated facts.

The scope of anatomy encompasses systemic, regional or topographic anatomy; sectional and surface anatomy; gross, microscopic and ultra structural anatomy; pathological and experimental anatomy with all its functional and applied aspects. Applied anatomy encompasses sport surgical and clinical sciences. The final aim of any study is to control and thereby modify the structure in the desired direction.

A good course in anatomy should base its foundation on systemic anatomy and aim to master the living anatomy with whatever means available, i.e., regional, sectional surface studies etc.

The tendency world wide is to reduce the duration for under graduate anatomy course. So anatomists should strive to develop concepts in the minds of students rather than making them memorize details that could be taken up later on. Imaging should be recognized as the foremost method of studying living anatomy and anatomists should get access to it and aster the technique.

The purpose of this article is to attract the best minds to the study of anatomy, which should be made lively and student friendly. The ASI should utilize its good offices to persuade the MCI to start DM courses in Embryology, Genetics and Imaging for anatomists.

265. Anatomy & Physiology of Contortions

M V L Kothari, L A Mehta, M Natarajan

Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai

The contort is to twist and turn a part or the whole of the human body into positions and shapes unexplainable to orthodox anatomy or physiology. The assumed limitations which decide how much and what way the human body could bend more lie truly in the minds of the so called scientists and not in the human body.

Olympics from 1896 onwards have shown unit until today that all limits and all records are meant to be shattered.

Centers of medical learning have been metropolitan with subjects whose lifestyles are constrained by the conveniences inevitable in a city. A chair by itself is enough to set a permanent limit to the extent to which the hip and the knee can be moved. These limits then become the standard adopted by medical texts whereby extension at the hip is not greater than 30 degrees. Able contortionists in one go make a mockery of all anatomy texts.

All infants suck their great toe a habit that can stay throughout life provided practices ceaselessly throughout life. There are stories of Indian yogis drinking their own urine by taking their phallus into the mouth.

The moral is that if themed sets no limit then the entire locomotors system gleefully obeys the limitlessness of the body's contortability. A contortionists' body looks much like that of anybody else but with collagen, muscle and nerve centres turned very differently from the run of the mill people. It is the Virginian story of "They can because they think they can." Maslow's "Father Reaches of Human Nature" is one invocation into exploring the limitless repertoire of the human body.

266. Research in Anatomy - International scenario

Satya Prasad V

JSS Medical College, Mysore

People including the anatomists question what is there to do research anatomy? This has made me to express my view that as anatomists we can venture into our basic subject relating to all possible areas. In fact, there is an advantage of being an anatomist. These facts are being utilized by the anatomists all over the world and by doing so they are competing with all other faculties equally in the international research with extraordinary contributions. I had an opportunity to witness excel of anatomists in recently held 16th Congress of International Federation of Associations of Anatomists at Kyoto, Japan and also at 4th international Symposium on trace metals in humans - New perspective at Athens, Greece. The theme of the conference at Japan was "Gene to Body". Theme should speak all that an anatomist can do and that is what anatomists at international level are at. Some of the topics in the congress were like Lipid Rafts- structure and function; Molecular motors, kinesin super family proteins, KIFs and mechanisms of intracellular transport. By seeing the standards of the articles and presentations by the renowned anatomists as an Indian anatomist, I felt there is need for complete revolution of research in anatomy in the Indian context. Every Indian anatomist should know the fact there is no limitation to do research in anatomy more so there are no prescribed field limitations for the research. This fact anatomist should publicize and defend with pride among their colleagues of other faculties only then we can compete with the international anatomists and can make the contributions at the international level and with that standard.

267. Comparison of Various Methods in the Making of Anatomy Models - A Study

C.S. Janaki, Kodhandaraman U, Hameed S, T Mohan

Meenakshmi Medical College and RI, Kancheepuram

Various metals are used in the making of Anatomy models. The various materials are used in the study are clay, plaster of paris and fiber & resin. The superiority of a material over another studied on the basis of 1) cost, 2) strength, 3) Ease of making and 4) Durability. The merits and demerits of the prepared models using these materials were also studied. Fiber is found to be superior to other models.

268. Animation In Embryology Teaching: You can do it!

*Manvikar Purushotham Rao, *SN Kazi, * RJ Patil,

** V Balasubramanyam and ***Shruti Manvikar

*DY Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune, St. Johns Medical College, Bangalore.

*** MES Balsikshan Vidya Mandir English Medium School, Pune


Teaching embryology is never been easy task. The concept of a three dimensional structure has to be communicated with teaching aid that are actually 2 dimensional. The fourth dimension namely, the time cannot be made to understand verbally. The sequential changes occurring over a period of time cannot be effectively shown by chalk and blackboard or an OHP transparency. Animations are the sequential pictures shown across this fourth dimension; "time", cartoons are the best examples of animations. Needless to say, animations grab the attention of every one.

Use of animation in embryology is extremely facilitatory, the concept that cannot be put across by a thousand words can be shown effectively by animation of shortest duration.

However, to create a module of embryology animation, knowledge and operation of animation software like Macromedia, Flash and Author ware is essential. Services of an artist are needed to draw the frame by frame pictures of to be used in animations. This is a big hindrance in the minds of anatomy teachers. Authors have made an attempt to diffuse this resistance. An animation of development inferior vena cava was attempted using software readily in MS windows and MS Office. MS paint shop and power points user friendly. There is no need for a professional artist.

Material and method:

Personal computer with Pentium III or Pentium IV processor. 2.4 gZ, 40 GB hard disc, 128 MB RAM, 1.4" floppy drive, CD ROM, key pad, mouse with scroll key, key pad, operating system: Windows 98 and MS Office 2000 Programs used: Power Point, MS Paint brush.

A screenplay of sequence of diagrams was written and was constructed using MS paintbrush. The entire diagrams were put in sequential order on power point according sequence. Animation tool was used with the sequence of events as required.


Many websites are available which have embryology animations of, But these sites give demos but the module is downloadable on payment. The authors, intend to discuss that such simple animation can be created with a reasonable working knowledge of computers. The module of development of inferior vena cava will be shown during presentation.

270. Comparison between self-study and group discussion without facilitator with facilitator

Jyothi P. Narkhede

Seth GSMC & KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai

The medical curriculum is vast. A first MBBS student needs to do a lot of self-study to cover the syllabus. It is therefore essential that each and every student needs to develop skill for self-study.

A pro forma was prepared considering the following points:

Level of concentration, understanding, recall, motivation, focus on the subject, positive learning environment and chance to improve oneself., a five point rating scale was used,. The pro forma was given to hundred students of second and third MBBS. 70 students responded to the questionnaires. The feedback shows group discussion with facilitator is better method of learning.

Key words: pro forma, group discussion with or without facilitator, self study.

271. Digital Anatomy: Its utility and future.

Gulrez Nadeem

Dept of Anatomy, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh

With the development of superior computer knowledge and higher resolutional invasive instruments, I personally feel the need to use the combined effect of both these knowledge areas with Anatomy to develop a new field of Digital Anatomy. The need for Digital Anatomy is motivated by the belief that Anatomy is the basis of all bio-medical sciences (including clinical medicine). Manifestation of health and disease can be regarded as attributes of Anatomical structures, raging in size from molecules to body parts. Therefore my goal is to represent anatomy in a comprehensive and consistent way, which should meet the needs of all Biomedical Applications that require Anatomical knowledge. Moreover, a logical and consistent representation of anatomy should facilitate two parallel tracks for representing anatomical information.

  • 1. Generation of graphical models derived from cadavers and comparing them with Clinical imaging data of the patient.
  • 2. Symbolic modeling of the structures and relationships that constitute the human body which could be immense help to the student of medical science, especially anatomy.

272. Cyberology - Study of Cytofibres

M. Natarajan, MVL Kothari, LA Mehta

Seth G.S. Medical college, Parel, Mumbai

The nontermination of muscles into bone has been convincingly demonstrated. The trunk of the elephant the gestational uterus, the human heart or the squid itself are very powerful boneless wonders. Bone does not anchor a muscle but only deflects it.

Taking away from anatomy the concept of bone as the beginning and end of muscle raises the question of the boneless origin and termination of any muscle. From spherical morula to the elongated homoeobax the human body has circularity without a beginning or an end. The same truth applies to a muscle whose so called origin when traced to the muscle ends in its insertion which when extended further meets the origin. This is best illustrated by the evident circularity of the abdominal wall that begins at the tip of the spine and returns to it.

The term muscle implies a mouse with a head, body and tail like in the biceps brachii. We suggest that the head origin and the tail insertion are laid down paripassu with the body or the trunk in such a way that the origin is in and through the muscle to become the insertion.

The uninterrupted continuity of collagen from mastoid through the entire digastric muscle up to mandible is a macro model of fractal micro reality. Such a model explains and incorporates the trihelicality of tendon fibers.

273. Influence of teaching Aids in learning curriculum of private medical college students

Rajan T, Jayalakshmy. R, Anitha, T, Kotiswary,S, Srinivasan KR.

Aarupadai Veedu Medical College & Hospital, Kirumampakkam,
Pondicherry, Saseender, JIPMER, Pondicherry
Satish P. TMC, Tanjore, Pradeepa P. SMC, Chennai

Many efficient doctors and scientists to the community are yielded through many medical college present in all over the country., their incomparable knowledge are gained by the different teaching methods which is followed routinely in all medical colleges.

This study was carried out to find out the type of teaching aid that can make the bellow average and average intellect students of private medical college to better understand the medical subject.

The study was conducted for 3 yrs from 2002-2003,50 average intellect students from each batch were selected based on previous test marks. On every week Wednesdays morning between 8 and 9 am (first hour class) general embryology topic was taken for all the three group for 2 months. The class was taken by efficient teacher by different type of teaching aid.

Group a (2000-2001) - Using black board and chalk piece

Group (2001-2002) - Using only models

Group C (2002-2003) 0- Using slides on projects and CD's on LCD.

After 15 days interval the students were allowed to write theory and practical exam. Their papers were valuated by two different teachers from other college. Feedback from students regarding these three teaching aids was obtained by questionnaire. The outcome will be discussed at the time of presentation.

274. Variations in the Splenic Red Pulp of Some Mammals

Lt. Col BK. Mishra, HOD,

Army College of Medical Sciences, Delhi Cantt.

This work was primarily done to check for the blood storage function of the spleen and mainly the capsule and trabeculae of the spleen had been studied. In order to compare the spleens of large mammals, the buffalo, the goat and the sheep were studied and compared with the spleens of the laboratory animals, the white rat, the guinea pig and the rabbit. During the course of this study, however, some interesting variations in the red pulp, as in the arrangement of reticulin fibers in the marginal zone and in perifollicular region, presence or absence of sinusoids, presence or absence of cordal arrangement of cells were observed in various animals. The observa-tions are presented.

Key words: Spleen, red pulp, large mammals, variations

276. Incidence of Metopic Suture

Dr Prakash BS & Prof. BR Ramesh

Dr BR Ambekar Medical College, KG Halli, Bangalore.

A series of two hundred dried skulls were studied for non-metric variations, persistence of frontal suture in five skulls were observed, called metopism. The incidence, importance will be discussed in detail.

278. Incidence of the 5th Pair of Sacral Foramina

Balachandra N, Ramesh BR , Ratnam BPP

Dr BR Ambekar Medical College, KG Halli, Bangalore.

During routine osteology demonstration for undergraduate students, a sacrum with 5 pairs of foramina was found. On further study, two more sacra with five pairs of foramina were found.

The percentage of incidence and significance will be discussed during presentation.

279. Sex Determination in North Indians Using Mandibular Canine Index

Kaushal S*, Patnaik VVG*, *GMC, Patiala, Sood V, Agnihotri G

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana.

Rao et al (1983) used the mandibular canine index for sex determination and found it to give satisfactory results. However, they did not consider occlusion. Muller et al (2001) concluded that Rao et al's method can only be used in case of correct lower anterior dental alignment and by using the standard mandibular canine index of the local population. No such study has been conducted so far on north Indian subjects. Gabriel (1958) has emphasized that any measurements on teeth unaccompanied by age, race and sex must be treated with great reserve. The present study endeavors to establish the effectiveness of mandibular canine index in predicting sex in north Indian population considering correct dental alignment. In addition, Barrett et al (1963) those measurements on casts are more reliable than intra oral measurements have reported it. The present study compares the effectiveness of mandibular canine index in predicting sex from cast's vis-à-vis intra oral measurements.

  1. Dental Dimensions and calculated mandibular canine index were found to be higher for males.
  2. Mandibular canine index is useful in predicting sex of north Indian population with correct dental alignment to an extent as high as 75%.
  3. The results are satisfactory both for intra oral measurements as well as on casts.
  4. The method is more reliable in case of females in conformity with the findings of Rao et al (1983) and Muller et al. (2001).

281. Anomalies Associated with Occipitalisation of atlas

Archana Sharma, Vinod Kumar, AK Asthana Satyam Khare and Shilpi Jain

Subharati Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi-Haridwar Bypass Road, Meerut. UP

Occipitalisation of atlas is one of the anomalies at the craniovertebral junctions. 2030 dried human skulls of both sexes were examined for occipitalisation of atlas in the department of anatomy of various medical/dental colleges in UP state.

The skulls with occipitalisation of atlas were examined for anomalies of space for vertebral artery, anterior and posterior condylar canal. It was also found that occipitalisation of atlas have high prevalence of spina bifida.

The inference of this study will be discussed during paper presentation.

282. Anomalous Foramen at the Basilar Part of the Occipital Bone: A case Report

Navneet Kumar, Anita Rani,

KG Medical University, Lucknow.

The basilar part of the occipital bone extends antero-superiorly from the foramen magnum and fuses with the sphenoid in the adult. The superior basi-occipital surface is in the form of a broad groove, which contributes in the formation of CLIVIS. This surface is related to lower pons and medulla oblongata, as well as the basilar venous plexus and therefore is an important area for neurosurgeons.

In an ongoing project of accessory and anomalous foramen on the basilar part of the occipital bone, this was opening near the pharyngeal tubercle externally.

An extensive literature search, could not found any description of such an anomaly, thereby the case is rare one. Topographical details probable contents, clinical significance, along with the other anomalous foramina on the clivus will be detailed in the conference.

283. Bilateral Anteriorly Deficient Foramen Transversarium of Human Atlas Vertebra

Avinash Abhaya, MS Siddiqui,

KG Medical University, Lucknow.

Atlas, the first cervical vertebra contributes to the maximum anatomical variations of the cervical part of spine. Foramen transversarium transmitting vertebral vessels and accompanying sympathetic plexus is an oval opening in the transverse process and is a distinctive feature of cervical vertebrae. Although thinned or partially deficient, costal lamella of foramen transversarium may be seen in C7 vertebra (Williams et al, 1995). A rare bilateral anterior deficiency of the foramen transversarium of atlas vertebra of adult configuration and architecture of unknown sex and race was noticed during routine teaching to medical undergraduates with dry macerated bone. The anterior and post arches were normal and the lateral masses were also normal bilaterally. The embryological basis contributing to the above bony anomaly in the light of its clinical significance will be discussed.

284. Study of Inter parietal and Pre-inter parietal Bones in South Coastal Area of Andhra Pradesh

Devi Sankar K, Sharmila Bhanu K & Vimala K

Narayana Medical College &GH, Nellore (AP)

Anomalous ossification of squamous occipital bone gives rise to inter parietal and pre-intra parietal bones. The incidences of these bones were studied in 49 adult skulls, irrespective of their sex, belonging to south coastal area of AP.

The occurrences of inter parietal (IP) bones were found to be single in four skulls (8.2%), Unilateral and bilateral in one (2.0%). Pre-inter parietal (PIP) was single in one unilateral and bilateral in one (2.0%) skull each. The occurrence of IP and PIP bones were found to be highest in our observation when compared with findings of other authors. The details are discussed during presentation.

285. Study Of Craniometic Indices Of Medical Students Of Amc 2002

Dr. B.N.Rao, Dr. V. Suneeta, Dr. N. B Devi

MIMS, Nellimarla, A.P

Craniometric survey of medical students was conducted by Dr.R.Krishna Rao way back to 1930 at AMC.Vizag. A resurvey was conducted in 2002 to find out any deviations and the proportionate parameters of face, nose & orbit are analyzed.

Mean cephalic index (BC group)- 78.4

Mesaticephaic Mean cephalic index(OC Group) - 81.85

Brachi cephalic Mean auricular height -62.8

Hysicephalic Mean nasal index - 36

Mean orbital index - 62.8

The details of study will be discussed in the conference.

286. Biphalangeal Fifth Toe In South Indian Population

Sungathy J*, Anu Susan K**, and S. Vttivel*

Christian Medical College , Vellore

The human foot has a big toe and four lateral toes. The big toe has only two phalanges but the lateral toes have each three phalanges. Presence of two phalangeal fifth toe was first described in 1492 by Leonardo da Vinci and was later reported by a few others. It was not reported in Indian population. The present study estimated its incidence in south Indian fetuses, children and adults. Seven month to full term fetuses were collected from the department of anatomy and stored x-ray images from the department of Radio diagnosis of the feet of children and adults were used. Twelve pairs of the feet of fetuses were used to identify the phalanges by alizerin red technique. The x-ray images (n=112) of children, aged 1 - 12 years, and adults (n=263) were grouped by gender and side. Twenty-one feet (87.5%) of the fetuses had biphalangeal fifth toe. Eleven x-ray images (9.8%) of children and thirty-one x-ray images (11.8%) of adults had biphalangeal fifth toe. The percentage of incidence of this anatomical variant in the south Indian population, probably, because the south Indian population is not a consistently shoe-wearing community and was more in the recent population than in the elderly, probably due to more use of footwear by the recent population.

288. Three Headed Biceps Brachii - A case report

G. Ravindranath, N. Jayasree, TK Rajasree, N.Ratnakar Rao

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal.

Cadaver 's allotted to 1st MBBS students were dissected according to the cunning ham's manual vol I of 15th edition. Though standard textbooks describe brachhi with two heads, a third head is not infrequent.

According to 38 th Edition Grays Text Book of Anatomy, in 10% of the cases, biceps brachii had 3 heads. In our routine dissection of 55 limbs one right limb biceps brachii had 3 heads which will be discussed in detail.

289. Absence of vertebral artery - A case report

K. Aravindhan,

PSG Medical College, Peelamedu, Coimbatore (TN)

The Vertebral artery, which is a branch of first part of the subclavian artery, is one of the main sources of blood supply of brain. This ascends deep to pre vertebral fascia and enters the foramen transversarium of the 6th cervical vertebra and passes through foramen of remaining vertebrae above and forms the Basilar artery by joining with its counter part after gaining entry into the forearm magnum. However, variations in its origin, level of entry into foramen transversarium have been reported including its unilateral and bilateral absence. During routine dissection absence of vertebral artery on the right side of the male cadaver was noted and reported here. Anatomical knowledge about the vertebral artery particularly its absence/hypoplasticity is very important for the surgeons to ligate the vertebral as well as common carotid artery to avoid neurological deficit due to vertebro basilar ischemia.

290. Variation in Course of Descending Colon and Superior Rectal Artery - A case report

Mohapatra B , M. Panda, S. Rath, A. Nayak.

VSS Medical College, Burla

During routine dissection in one out of 64 cadavers the following variations were observed in course of descending colon and superior rectal artery.

  • a. The descending colon after crossing left iliac crest proceeded horizontally to right iliac fossa where it was connected to caecum by a peritoneal band. Other peritoneal bands connected it to small intestine and pelvic peritoneum.
  • b. Then the colon descended in contact with right pelvic wall.
  • c. This horizontal segment formed a loop towards the abdominal cavity near right Sacro-iliac joint. The loop was having only a mesocolon. The rest of descending colon and pelvic colon were covered by peritoneum in front and at sides but not posteriorly.
  • d. The superior rectal artery was not in the sigmoid mesocolon but passed behind pelvic part of colon.

291. Agenesis of the Right Lung: A case report

Dr. S. Mishra and Dr. JM Kaul,

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

Lung agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly that occurs in almost equal frequency on both sides. The foetus usually presents a mediastinal shift. We present a case received on autopsy, which showed right lung agenesis without a mediastinal shift, and no gross abnormality observed externally. On dissection, the right lobe of the liver and coils of intestine had herniated into the thoracic cavity and had reached almost up to the root of the neck. There was rudimentary lung bud on the right side; the left lung was normal with distinct cardiac notch. The embryological basis of such an anomaly was analyzed.

292. Anatomy of cardiomyopathies (I): Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Pariplavi Mokkapati

Siddartha Medical College, Vijayawada AP

At the beginning of the 20 th century cardio-vascular disease (CVD) accounted for less than 10% of all deaths worldwide, while at the end, it has accounted for 50% of all deaths worldwide. The WHO estimates that by year 2020 CVD shall claim 25 million deaths annually worldwide. Nowhere have the expanding frontiers of science affected medicine as much as in our understanding and handling of CVD. In the field of cardiovascular medicine itself nowhere are recent technological advancements making a difference as in our understanding of the magnitude of the problems of CMs and in handling of morbidity and mortality.

CMs are primary disorders of cardiac muscle, which are genetically transmitted. They have been classified as dilated (DCM) hypertrophic (HCM) and restrive (RCM) based on morphology and function. DCM is the most frequently encountered form of CMs and a leading cause of cardiac failure soon develops, often with associated thromboembolic phenomena. Many individuals remain asymptomatic until marked ventricular dysfunction has occurred.

Diagnosis of DCM is based on patient and family history, physical examination and non-invasive cardiac studies such as roentgenography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography with/without Doppler studies.

The gross and microscopic anatomical features along with basic clinical genetics of the disease shall be discussed. There is a wide corridor connecting the molecular laboratory bench with the echocardiographic laboratory, the beside of the patient and ultimately, the medical student.

293. Hypertrophic Bladder Outlet Obstruction with Polycystic Kidney - A case Report

Daksha Dixit, PD Athavia, Dr. AP Chandrasekhar,

Lokamanya Tilak Municipal Medical College, Sion, Mumbai.

Case report of the cadaver of a 65 year old female showing gross hypertrophy of the bladder wall with a detrusor thickness of 1.5 to 2 cms. This was associated with gross dilation of both ureters and cystic enlargements in both kidneys.

An outlet obstruction of the bladder especially in males, due to benign enlargement of prostate is known to cause hypertrophy of the bladder wall, but this degree of hypertrophy, in a female, without an outlet obstruction is extremely unusual. The case report reviews the available literature on the subject along with immunohistochemistry to see if this hypertrophy is akin to hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in infants.

Key words: hypertrophic bladder wall, Hydro ureter, polycystic kidneys.

294. Mesoduodenum In Adult - A case Report

Patil Raosaheb J, Manvikar Purushottam R, Kazi SN

Dr. DY Patil Medical College, Pimpri. Pune

Mesoduodenum is an embryological entity. It is a part of dorsal mesentery enveloping extending on the posterior abdominal wall. At the finale of rotation of gut, certain portions of the dorsal mesentery fuse by zygosis and the gut gets plastered to the posterior abdominal wall. Hence, duodenum becomes a retroperitoneal structure. Mesoduodenum is seen in the first part of duodenum. The authors are presenting a case report of mesoduodenum in the adult.

Materials and Methods:

In routine dissection of a male cadaver aged about 50 years, mesoduodenum was noticed. It was covering all the four parts of duodenum. Head of the pancreas was present within themes duodenum and extended from the first part of duodenum to the duodeno-jejunal junction


The formation of mesoduodenum and its relation to the pancreas and the great vessels on posterior abdominal wall has been extensively discussed in relation to disorders like pancreatitis, retro duodenal haematoma and mobilization of duodenum and pancreas (Reich P. Schreiber HW, Lierse W 1988). Andreoulakis J, et al (2000) is of opinion that, embryologically, anatomically and surgically pancreas, duodenum and common bile duct should be treated as single inseparable unit because of embryological basis. Furthermore, the authors have placed emphasis on reconstruction of primitive mesoduodenum to achieve mobilization of the duodenum, which is useful for some surgical procedures. It is in this background the authors present this case report of mesodudenum.

295. Sacralization and Urinary Tract Diseases-Retrospective Radiological Study

RR. Fulzele*, MM Shah*, K. Singhania**, BC Bakane***

JN Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha, Maharashtra

Congenital and acquired diseases of upper and lower genitourinary tract are common problems encountered in clinical urological practice. Plain KUB X-Ray, intravenous pyelography (IVP) are baseline radiological investigations for evaluating these patients.

We screened 50 patients' X-Ray KUB and IVP irrespective of their age and sex, who suffered from calculus disease and various congenital anomalies of genitourinary tract (Multicystic dysplastic kidney, horseshoe kidney, duplication of ureter … etc.) and found that unilateral or bilateral sacralization is associated with these.

The details will be discussed during presentation.

298. Atherosclerosis in Cerebral and Renal Arteries: A Comparative Autopsy study

Anjali Aggarwal, Kapoor K, Singh B,

Govt. Medical College, Chandigarh.

Atherosclerosis is a generalized degenerative vascular disease of large and medium sized arteries occurring among all age groups and all races. This chronic disease process is the principal contributor of pathogenesis of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, gangrene, renal artery stenosis etc. Cerebral and renal atherosclerosis have not been studied as extensively as aorta and coronary arteries. So far only a single study on renal artery has been reported in India. In the present study, an attempt was made to study the disease not only in the cerebral arteries and renal arteries and renal arteries separately but also to compare the various aspects of disease process in these two vessels.

The study group consisted of non-catastrophic population above 30 years of age. Atherosclerosis in both the vessels was found to increase in terms of incidence as well as severity with age. Both groups of vessels showed gradual increase in incidence up to the sixth decade followed by a plateau. However, the extent of atherosclerosis was different in both the vessels. The prominent lesions in both vessels were the fatty streaks, fibrous plaques and complicated lesions were more evident in cerebral vessels. This shows that atherosclerosis once started does not progress at uniform rate in all vessels in both the arteries, the severity was found to increase with improvement of nutritional status. As far as site is concerned, in both arteries, lesions were more localized near their origin from the parent artery.

299. Abnormal Origin Of Inferior Phrenic Artery

Charan Tej Koyi, D Sree Lekha, B.T. Narayana Rao & S. Swayam Jothi

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

Forty-seven full term still born fetuses collected from the labor room of obstetric department, Government General Hospital, Guntur, and 10 adult cadavers from our college were utilized for the detailed study of oesophagus.

While observing the arterial supply of abdominal part of oesophagus abnormal origin of left phrenic artery from left gastro artery was found in 5 specimens.

In three fetuses, the left inferior phrenic artery was arising from the apex of the "U" shaped curve of the left gastric artery, giving 2 to 3 branches to oesophagus and then ramifying on the inferior surface of diaphragm and supplying left suprarenal from its terminal part, replacing the artery of its normal origin and distribution.

In two fetuses, the left phrenic artery was arising from the left gastric and was giving oesophageal branches and phrenic branches. The normal left phrenic artery was very small and was giving twigs to left crus of diaphragm and left suprarenal gland.

In one fetuses, there were two left phrenic arteries having different origin-one small branch of left gastric artery supplying oesophagus and left cupola or diaphragm and another arising from the coeliac axis gave branches to oesophagus, diaphragm and left suprarenal gland.

In one fetus the left inferior phrenic artery was arising from the abdominal aorta and the right from the celiac axis.

Of the 10 adult cadavers in one, right prhenic artery was arising from the coeliac trunk.

The abnormal origin of the phrenic artery is to be remembered in surgery of gastro oesophageal junction and in the repair of diaphragmatic hernia.

300. Trifid Posterior Papillary Muscle in the Human Heart

K. Yoganarasimha*, Narga Nair,Brijesh Kumar

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

In an autopsy carried out at the Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, the following unusual congenital cardiac anomaly was observed. In an otherwise normal, adult human heart, dissection of the left ventricular cavity revealed the following findings: the left ventricular wall was 1.8 cm. thick, with a normal endocardial surface. The left artrial wall measured 0.2 cm in thickness. The mitral valve circumference measured 7.4 cm. The mitral valve contained an anterior and a posterior leaflet, each of which was 2 cm in length. The chordae tendinae were normal in appearance. The posterior papillary muscle was trifid in appearance, while the anterior papillary muscle was found to be normal. The incidence & clinical relevance of the above mentioned observations would be presented at the conference.

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