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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts (151 - 200)

Author(s): Members

Vol. 54, No. 1 (2005-01 - 2005-03)

151. Labyrinthine Network Of Anatomical Terms

Dharwal K, Dharwal M

Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Amritsar

A query has been posed to the galaxy of worthy anatomists, the revered teachers of anatomy, about some beleaguerers in the subject of anatomy. There seems to be rationale for the omissions, commissions, discrepencies and irrelevant nomenclatures of certain structures in the human body, thus creating a mammoth labyrinth for a new entrant to the world of anatomical sciences. A few examples of such jumbled up terms are the innominates (bone, artery, canal), the neck, the cervix of uterus and the cervical ligament; the caecum and the foramen caecum; the thyroids (the cartilage, the gland); the broad ligaments; the foramen vertebrales and so on. Certain structures enjoy a different definition in anatomy or physiology or surgery viz., the nephron; the anal canal and its white line; and the fascial spaces of hand. So the need of the hour is to do some concrete work to rectify this twisting flux.

152. Implementation Of Integrated Seminar And Its Outcome

Dutta S, Saxena SK

Sikkim Manipal Institue of Medical Science, Tadong, Sikkim

Faculties of many medical colleges are working hard to improve the motivation level among the students. We have implemented integrated seminar among the basic science subjects i.e., anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry to motivate students for active learning with integration as well as to improve communication skill. Hundred students were made in small group. Each student was asked to consult specified mentor for his or her difficulties before the presentation. All hundred students were asked to read the seminar topic and made compulsory attendance for their active participation. Seminar topic was kept in such a way that the specified topic was covered by didactic lecture by all concern departments before commencement of the specified seminar topic. Open questionnaire session was kept at the end of the presentation of all participants. Faculties of all concern departments were present throughout the session. The results were analysed .

153. Attending conferences…

Jayanti V, Kulkarni RN, Padma L

MSRMC. Bangalore

Conferences are conducted in various fields and at various levels like state, national and international levels. Delegates attend this from various places. Our aim was to find out delegates opinion regarding attending these conferences.

A questionnaire is prepared and circulated among the staff and their opinion about attending conference is drawn.

154. Can "Name" Reduce Ibuprofen Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage? - A Light Microscope Report in Rat Model.

Indirani K, Abraham P & Desigamani K

Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen are commonly used to treat pains of different origins. Long term use of such drugs produces adverse effects on gastric mucosa. The underlying mechanism for ibuprofen induced damage is not clear. Literature states that nitric oxide produced in the mucosa, under physiological condition, plays a role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity; however, excessive production is detrimental to the mucosa and vasculature. The present study therefore aimed to histologically support the biochemical testing of the hypothesis 1) ibuprofen induced gastric mucosal damage is mediated via increased production of nitric oxide and 2) ‘L-NAME- an inhibitor of nitric oxide production, can reduce the ibuprofen induced mucosal damage'.

Adult male Wister rats were used for the study. The animals were maintained as prescribed for animal study. They were divided into groups Group1 received ibuprofen, group 2 pretreated with NAME before ibuprofen injection, and group 3 received only NAME and group 4 served as control. After appropriate time interval, blood samples were taken for biochemical study & the animals were sacrificed, stomach was cut open, washed with saline, a small piece of it was processed for microscopic study & mucosa from the rest of the stomach was scraped for biochemical study. LM results supported the biochemical conclusions that increased production of nitric oxide may be one of the mechanisms of ibuprofen induced mucosal damage in stomach and administration of NAME - a non selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, reduces the adverse effect of ibuprofen on gastric mucosa.

155. Ultra structural Changes In Placental Barrier of Bidi Smokers: A Histomorphometric Analysis

Rath G.* Jain AK, Mukherjee A.

V.M.M.C.* and Institute of Pathology, I.C.M.R, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi.

Placental barrier plays a significant role in exchange of nutrients and other micro molecules between maternal and fetal circulation. An attempt has been made to study the placental villi of fifty bidi smoking women under TEM. In case of bidi smokers the placental villi showed increased number of dilated spaces with decreased organelles in syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast. In these cases, increased number of syncytial knots and cytotrophoblastic hyperplasia were observed depending on the number of bidis per day. The number of vasculosyncytial membranes per villi were also decreased as the pregnancy proceeded. Slightly dilated endoplasmic reticulum, increased number of mitochondria, fibrils, fine filaments, free ribosomes, were discernible in endothelial cells of the smokers placenta. Using a morphometric method for analysis the basement membranes and placental barrier were measured throughout pregnancy. The mean thickness of trophoblast basement membrane as compared to non-smokers) were found to be increased and was maximum by the third trimester of pregnancy. Also, placental barrier thickness was more in heavy smokers than non-smokers. Significant hyperplasia of cytotrophoblast and increased area of syncytial necrosis were also recorded.

156. VIPRA - II

Kulkarni MN

SDM Medical College & Hospital, Dharwad

A survey of 700 students of various faculty of medical sciences was conducted to know the feelings of candidates when they are facing vivaand Practical in professional college. In viva & Practical the candidate is face to face with examiners specially externals. A sort of apprehension, anxiety, fears, doubt or mixed feelings of emotions are prevailing in the minds of candidates.

157. Pedicle Size - First Sacral Vertebra

Ranganath, V, Aruna N, Balasubramanyam V.

Posterior transpedicular screw fixation has been widely used for the management of unstable lumbosacral spine caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, congenital defects and neoplasm.

The present study reports the size of the pedicles of the first sacral vertebrae. 43 dry sacral vertebrae from the bone collection of St. John's Medical College, Bangalore we used for the study. Cephalo-caudal height, antero-posterior width, transverse angle and depth of S1 pedicle were measured using Vernier caplipers and a goniometer. The mean measurement was pedicle height: 2.23 cms, Pedicle width: 2.26 cms, transverse angle 29.48 degrees and depth of the S1 pedicle: 4.03 cms have been recorded.

158. Marie-Strumpell's Spondylitis (Poker ba - A case report

Sharmila Bhanu P, Vimala K, Devi Sankar K

Narayana Medical College, Nellore. AP

A male cadaver from Govt. Hospital, Nellore with a case history of ankylosing spondylitis was buried for bone collection.

Macerated bones showed fusion of 6th & 7th cervical vertebrae, 2nd - 5th and 9th - 11 th thoracic vertebrae, 2nd - 4th lumbar vertebrae, left sacro-iliac joint & left 1st rib and sternum.

In addition, narrowing of inter-vertebral foramen, ossified ligaments and tendons were also observed. All the bones showed osteoporosis. In ankylosing spondylitis patients, inflammation of ligaments and tendons cause severe pain and tenderness in the joints and stiffness in the back and bent posture.

159. The Anatomical Study of Clubfoot

Chinara PK., Arora G and Sahu B.

SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa.

Clubfoot, also known as congenital talipes equino varus (CTEV) is one of the commonest congenital deformities of the foot, since the Vedic times.

The present study was carried out to know the basic anatomical structures and changes involved in the clubfoot. This has a clinical relevance, as clubfoot is a composite deformity involving many soft tissues, ligaments, joints, bone etc., a total of 34 patients of clubfoot were studied, consisting of 48 clubfeet. All the patients were subjected to clinical and radiological evaluation. The clinical examination revealed that the sole was directed upwards and medially, the heel was pulled up and looked knob like. Medial border of the foot was shorter and concave while the lateral border was convex and longer, callosities on pressure bearing areas etc. However, these findings varied on individual basis.

All the selected cases of clubfoot requiring surgery were observed in the orthopaedics operation theatre, to know the gross structures involved. The contracture of tendo achilles with the involvement of posterior capsule of ankle joint, the capsule of sub talar joint, the capsule of talonavicular joint and the subluxation of talonavicular joint were found to be the most common structures involved. Other soft tissue like tibialis posterior flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, the various ligaments of the foot, plantar fascia etc. were also found to be involved but on individual basis depending on the age of the patient, severity of the condition etc.

The anatomical study would act as a good adjunct to plan different modalities of treatment for clubfoot cases. The study is of paramount significance in each individual case for the whole some management of such perplexing foot problem.

160. A Cadaveric Study In Adult Indian Mandibles For Comparative Evaluation Of Anatomical And Radiographic Location Of Mandibular Foramen, Mandibular Canal And Mental Foramen

Ghatak S, R Sunil, Bandopadhya TK

Armed Forces Medical College, Pune

In this study, anatomical and radiographic position of mandibular formen, canal and mental foramen was determined in the cadaveric mandible of Indian ethnic origin. The knowledge of the precise position of these anatomical landmarks will aid the surgeon in carrying out surgical procedures like osteotomy, vertical sub sigmoid osteotomy, removal of impacted mandibular third molar, osteosynthesis procedure, genioplasty, dental implant, and surgical endodontic procedures on the mandible without causing vascular and neurological complications. There was no significant variation in the anatomical and radiographic position of above-mentioned landmarks. However, variation was observed in the position of mandibular foramen and mental foramen in comparison to the study carried out by authors on non Indian population.

161. Pedicle Size - Lumbar Spine

Aruna N*, Rajeshwari T**, Rajangam S*

*St John's Medical College, Bangalore, **Dean,
Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore.

The pedicle, a cylinder of cortical bone encasing a small amount of cancellous bone, is considered in normal spines to be the strongest part of the vertebra. Transpedicular fixation of the spine is a secure way of obtaining effective vertebral stabilization in the management of different spinal disorders. Racial morphometric differences in the pedicular size of the vertebrae must be taken into account when using international transpedicular screw systems. In the present study is reported the size of the pedicles of all 5 lumbar vertebrae at their narrowest point. 440 pedicles were measured in 44 dry adult lumbar vertebrae. The vertebral columns belonged to the population in and around Bangalore representing South India. The greatest and the smallest diameters of the pedicle at its most slender portion were measured using vernier calipers. The product of the two was calculated to get the pedicle index, which represented the size and strength of pedicle. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of the lumbar pedicles ranged from 7.40 to 17.52 mm (L1 to L5) and 14.82 to 12.33 mm (L1 to L5). It was found that the pedicle index increased from L1 to L5. Racial morphometric differences in the pedicular structure of the vertebrae must be taken into account when using international transpedicular screw use. Once pedicle's size is known, it would be possible to evaluate the diameters of the pedicular screws considered as safe.

162. The Soleal Line

Ranganath P, Manjunath KY, Balasubramanyam

St. John's Medical College, Bangalore

The soleal line is always variable and does not follow the textbook description. In the present study, 144 tibiae (69 left and 75 right) were studied for the variations in soleal line. Ridges were the commonest (20.1% of right, 28.5% of left side) followed by lines (18.75% on each side) and grooves (4.2% on right and 1.4% on left side). Total length of the line, its distance from the fibular facet, the height of the ridge, depth of the groove and its width were also measured.

163. Study of Anthropological Variations Among Tribals of HD Kote Taluk in Mysore.

*Pushpalatha, **Shamasundar NM, ***Nagalaxmi, *Geethanjali

JSS Medical College, Mysore.

In the present study, we have compared the Anthropometric measurements between two groups of tribal (Yeravas and Jenu kurubas) of HD Kote taluk. Same measurements were taken in JSS Medical College teaching as well as non-teaching staffs. Measurements were compared between tribals and urban population. Randomly selected 100 Yaravas, 100 jenukurubas and 100 urban population in the age group of 20-50 years have been included in the present study. For this study, we have used sliding caliper, spreading caliper, tape and anthropometer. We have taken height vertex, sitting height vertex, facial measurements, hand length & breadth, head length & breadth etc. With these measurements, we have calculated cephalic indcees, morphological facial index etc. We found that Yarava group were taller than jenukurbas and their facial height was smaller than jenukurbas.

164. Bilateral Asymmetry in the Sacrum

Matin Lucas A. Aruna N, Balasubramanyam V

St. John's Medical College, Bangalore

Directional bilateral asymmetries in human gross skeletal morphology are largely attributed to differential mechanical loading from handedness during endochondral bone growth. It is frequently used as an indicator of biomechanical stress on human skeleton. Many investigations have shown the right upper limb bones tend to be more robust are more robust than right. This asymmetry has been explained as the result of differential mechanical loadings largely due to handedness and activity pattern.

The sacrum is the keystone bone in certain dimensions than left upper limb bones. Conversely, left lower limb bones for transmission of weight and energy from upper to the lower body. The sample in the present study comprised 44 sacra (27 males and 17 females) from the collection of Department of Anatomy, St. John's Medical College, and Bangalore. Three measurements examined in this study were posterior ala breadth, lateral ala breadth and maximum auricular height. Asymmetry was calculated by subtracting the left side from the right, then dividing by the product of right side and 100 (left-right) (right side) x 100. A score of zero indicates perfect symmetry. A negative value indicates that the right side is larger and a positive value that the left side is larger. The higher value from zero in either direction includes greater asymmetry. In the present study all the 3 values were negative in 5 bones (4 male and one female) and all the 3 values were positive in 11 bones (5 male and 6 female) indicating that the right side was unequally larger in 5 bones but left side was unequally larger in 11 bones and hence involved in weight transmission respectively. In rest of the bones either one or two values were negative.

165. Variations of the Location of the Greater Palatine Foramina in Dry Human Skulls

Sujatha N, Manjunath KY, Balasubramanyam KY

St. John's Medical College, Bangalore

Seventy one dry adult human skulls of unknown sex were examined for the variations of the location of the greater palatine foramen.( of these 14 skulls were edentulous: 12 bilateral and 2 unilateral and 59 dentulous: of which 57 were bilateral and 2 unilateral). The location of greater palatine foramen (GPF) was noted with relation of mid sagittal suture (MSS), posterior palatal border (PPB) and maxillary molars by measuring the distances using a sliding caliper to the nearest millimeter.

Difference in the distance of the foramen from MSS and PPB in both the skull types was found to be statistically insignificant. Commonest location of the foramen was found to be opposite to 3rd molar tooth (86.20%), followed by the interval between 2nd and 3rd molar teeth (12.93%) and opposite to the 2nd molar tooth (only one case - 0.86%). Well-formed bony canals were found along the groove for the palatine nerves and vessels unilaterally on the right side in two skulls. These observations may be of help to the dental surgeon during the peripheral block of maxillary nerve for the extraction of the tooth.

166. Faceting of Occipital Condyles in South - Indian skulls

Swetha.B, Sharieff JH, Saraswathi G,

Government Medical College, Mysore

In the present study an attempt has been made to find out if there is side asymmetry in the articular surface area of occipital condyles and if so, are there any functional adaptations. The correlation is also worked out to see if there is any link between the traction factor of the muscles acting on the joint and in the formation of extra facets.

One hundred adult South Indian skulls were examined in the present study. The shape, size, the anterior-posterior diameter and transverse diameter, surface area of occipital condyles on both sides were estimated. Articular surface areas of the occipital condyles were measured using a millimeter square transparent reticule. Observations were made on the number, location and surface area of additional facets.

Which were situated posterior to the occipital condyle.

167. Study Of Septal Apertures In Human Humerii In Karnataka

*Kumar A. Bilodi S, **Sanikop MB

*Nepal Gung Medical College, Chisapani, Nepal, Sri Devraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, Karnataka.

The present study is to know the percentage of incidences of septal apertures, septal translucency and absence of both. The same ws correlate with the available literatures.

Unknown human nasal septic from the department of anatomy, Sri Devraj Urs Medical College, Tamaka, Kolar constituted the material for study. All the apertures were confirmed by passing s probe and observations were made on sides, sizes, and shapes of apertures. They were tested against light for the presence of translucency of membrane and their numbers, sides were also noted.


This study revealed higher incidences of septal apertures on right side (52%), septal translucency in 38.2%, and absence of both in 10.08%. They were also present more on the right side. This study has a profound anthropological along with morphological importance.

168. Anatomy of Tarsal Tunnel and its Applied Significance

Joshi SS, Joshi SD, Athavale SA and Jadav SD

Rural Medical College, PIMS, Loni

Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a well known clinical entity due to entrapment of tibial nerve branches deep to the flexor retinaculum. Nerve blocks and surgical procedures in the tarsal region also necessitate a proper understanding of the detailed anatomy of tarsal tunnel.

With this aim in mind we have dissected 68 feet (34 Rt. And 34 Lt.). Division of tibial nerves and posterior tibial artery in relation to medial malleolar - calcaneal axis were noted. In the present study tibial nerve is bifurcated proximal to the axis in 85.29% cases, where in 72.05% the bifurcation of posterior tibial artery was at the level of this axis. In 44% tibial nerve showed a distinct flattening before its bifurcation. In 36% feet posterior tibial artery was found to be tortuous. In the entire cases posterior tibial artery and its branches accompanied by venae comitantes formed a distinct superficial strata to the tibial nerve and proximal part of medial and lateral plantar nerves. Neuro vascular bundle occupied a separate compartment deep to flexor retinaculum. The detailed findings of the present study will be presented and discussed in light of available literature.

169. Proximal Origin of Common Interosseous Artery A Rare Finding

Mahajan AA, Laeeque M

Govt Medical College, Aurangabad

Anomalous arteries are of great interest to surgeons because they can be source of profuse bleeding if accidentally injured during operations.

During the dissection of one adult male cadaver in the department of anatomy at Government Medical College, Aurangabad a division of axillary artery was seen just proximal to the lower border of teres major. When the dissection was explored to the remaining forearm. It was observed that remaining all the branches of axillary artery and brachial artery were normal. Two terminal branches of axillary artery followed median nerve. One divided into radial & ulnar arteries (classical) and the other continued as common interosseous, which divided into anterior and posterior interosseous arteries,there was no common interosseous artery seen from ulnar artery.

Variations of terminal division of axillary artery into radial and ulnar arteries are known but common interosseious arising from axillary is a rare finding.

170. Anomalous Branching Pattern of Brachial Artery: A case report

Das S, Singh S, Paul S

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi.

During routine dissection of upper limb, we detected anomalous branching pattern of the brachial artery on the left side of a 52-year male cadaver. At the lower border of teres major, three branches were given: two of them traversed the radial groove (i.e. double profunda brachii artery) along with radial nerve. The third branch took part in the anastomosis around scapula posteriorly. At the middle of arm, the brachial artery divided into three branches. The most lateral of the three, was of thinner caliber and descended downwards on the lateral side of the arm and forearm, lying lateral to the tendon of flexor carpi radialis in the wrist (i.e. radial artery). The middle one was double the size of lateral in its caliber and continued on the medial side of forearm to the superficial aspect of flexor retinaculum (i.e. ulnar artery). The third branch pierced the medial intermuscular septum along with ulnar nerve (i.e. superior ulnar collateral artery). In the region of the elbow joint, there was a transverse communication between the radial and ulnar artery, which was crossed anteriorly by the tendon of biceps brachii. There was no posterior communication between the supra trochlear and the posterior descending branch of the profunda brachii artery. The crossing over by the tendon of biceps anterior to the communication may cause compression of the artery during movements of forearm. Knowledge of anterior anastomosis may be of great significance for orthopedic sugeons in planning and management of supra condylar fractures.

171. Study of Basilar Artery

Teresa Raini S, Jayasree N, Rajasree TK, Rao NR, Ravindranath G.

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal

Fifty brain specimens were studied and 40 specimens were observed directly in the mortuary after the postmortem examination and 10 brains were studied in the dissection hall after fixation in 10% formalin.

The formation, course and termination of the basilar artery were observed. Variations were observed in the formation with one vertebral artery dominating while the other vertebral artery is narrow.

172. Coeliac Trunk - Detail Study

Mariakala, Jayasree, Rajasree TK, Rao RN, Ravindranath G.

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal.

Developmentally celiac artery is the artery of foregut, its importance in surgery has prompted for detailed study of celiac artery in fetuses.

Fifty fetuses of different age groups were collected from Government and private Hospitals of Warangal. These fetuses were preserved in 10% formalin. The level of origin of coeliac trunk, from abdominal aorta, and its branching pattern were observed.

174. Variation in the Formation of Portal Vein - A case report

Raghunath G, Vijayalakshmi G & Antony J

Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute (DU), Porur, Chennai.

According to standard textbooks portal vein is formed by the union of superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein. During routine demonstration for 1 MBBS students, one cadaver presented this variation, where the superior mesenteric vein, splenic vein and inferior mesenteric vein joined to form the portal vein. The left gastric vein being one of the tributaries of the portal vein was also noticed.

175. Malformation of Renal and Testicular Veins - A case report

Verma R, Rana K

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

The present case report is regarding the incidental finding of the malformation of renal and testicular vessels along with the lobulation of both kidneys during routine dissection of the abdominal region.

On the right side, two renal veins were arising from the upper and lower ends of the hilum of the kidney, and subsequently draining separately into inferior vena cava. Also on the left side, both the veins were arising similarly as on the right side, but the lower veins was draining into inferior vena cava indirectly via upper renal vein.

There were two testicular veins on each side (medial and lateral) emerging from deep inguinal ring. The lateral testicular veins were draining into the upper renal vein and medial testicular veins were draining into the lower renal veins. But the renal artery was single on both the sides. This finding is of immense importance during surgical intervention in this region.

Both kidneys were also lobulated.

178. Variations Of Branches Of Subclavian Artery

Rao MRM, Suresh KV, Katikala LB, Antony J & S. Swayam Jothi Dorai Raj

Katuri medical College and Hospital, Guntur

Subclavian artery is one of the arteries showing variation in its origin or in connection with its branches. We observed 9 male cadavers and one female cadaver and the variations are summarized.In one male cadaver on the right side there were two vertebral arteries and they united before entering into the foramen transversarium. Inferior thyroid artery was arising separately in three bodies on the right side and in four bodies on the left side. Transverse cervical artery was arising separately one body on the right side. Transverse cervical artery is common with suprascapular artery in three cadavers on the right side and into cadavers on the left side.

On the left side in one cadaver transverse cervical artery was arising in common with inf.thyroid, suprascapular and internal mammary arteries.

In another body on the left side superficial cervical artery was arising in common with suprascapular and internal mammary arteries. Suprascapular artery was arising separately in one body on the right side. Thyro cervical trunk was absent in one cadaver.

Dorsal scapular artery was found in one cadaver on the right side and in two cadavers on left side.

The subclavian triangle is an important area for cervical sympathectomy and knowledge about all possible variations is important.

179. Radial Origin of Common Interosseous Artery - A case report

Mrudula, Sreelata, Bindu NH

Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad.

A routine cadaveric dissection presented a comparatively rare variation in origin of common interosseous artery. Variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery are quiet common such as high origin of radial and ulnar arteries and common origin of radial, common interosseous artery and ulnar arteries. In the present dissection a variation in branching pattern of these vessels is noted. Common interosseous artery is observed to arise from radial artery about 1.5cm from its commencement. Relations, clinical significance and importance of this variation is discussed.

180. Effects of Formalin, Tobacco, Xylometa-zoline and Azelastine on the Olfactory Bulb of Albino Rat

Khan MA, Khan AA, Faruqui NA

JNMC, AMU, Aligarh.

The inhaled chemical fumes, the indiscriminately used nasal drops and spray have indirect effect on the olfactory bulb. Five groups of albino rats were taken in which 1st group (control) was exposed to normal saline nasal drops, while other four groups were exposed to Formalin vapor, tobacco fumes, Xylometazoline nasal drops and Azelastine nasal spray respectively for the duration of 30 days. After the experiment (1 month), animals were sacrificed and the olfactory bulbs of all 5 groups were immersion fixed in 10% formal saline. Paraffin-wax embedding sections were stained with Haematoxylin and eosin (H/E) and were observed under light microscope. Formaline vapor exposed animals showed vacuolar degeneration, nuclear-crowaing and mild inflammatory exocytosis with eosinophils in their olfactory bulbs which showed homogenized nerves bundles with separation of edematous fascicles, lateralization of nuclei and mild to moderate inflammation and the Azelastine treated rats showed mild inflammatory exocytosis (mononuclear) with vascularisation and vacuolar degeneration of neural bundles in their olfactory bulb. It was concluded that olfactory bulb is surely affected by the chemicals and drugs given intra nasally and also there is differential responsiveness of olfactory bulb to various chemicals and drugs.

181. Cyclophosphamide Induced Agenesis of Cerebral Aqueduct in Mice

Prakash*, Singh G*, Singh SM** & Singh MP**

Institute of Medical Sciences* & School of Biotechnology**, Banaras Hindu University

Cyclophosphamide, the most widely used alkylating agent and a reference teratogen was administered to pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation in the dose of 20 mg per kg body weight. The fetuses when collected on day 19 at 8.00 AM by sacrificing mothers exhibited both internal and external hydrocephalus. Findings were ascribed to agenesis of the cerebral aqueduct and hypertrophy of the choroids plexus. The cerebral aqueduct showed non-development and non-canalization in the upper part (toward the III ventricle) and gradual appearance of lumen in the lower part towards IV ventricle. Its lumen showed gradual widening and rupture laterally due to CSF pressure from the IIIrd ventricle.

Serial histological sections from the lower part of the aqueduct with well developed lumen and ependyma, showed gradual sprouting of lateral extension from the aqueduct (lower part) resulting in a leak of CSF in the substance of the brain. The aqueduct having a blind end superiorly cannot accommodate CSF forced into it from below, thus causing lateral extension,. The lower most section showed communication from the lateral extension to the subarachnoid space by forcibly opening a channel within the brain substance resulting in external hydrocephalus. All the sections showed additional communication in sagittal plane between the lateral ventricle and the subrachnoid space causing external hydrocephalus.

Hydrocephalus was associated with hemorrhages in the ventricular cavities. Hemorrhage was also observed in the choroid plexus, which also showed hypertrophy. Dilatation of the ventricular cavities including 4th ventricular cavities is thought to be the result of hyper secretion of cerebrospinal fluid as a result of hypertrophy of choroid plexus.

An agenesis of the aqueduct was possibly due to failure of canalization because of the inhibitory effect of the CP on the cells undergoing mitosis and sub commissural organ. This organ is known to be responsible for exerting initial pressure directed towards the aqueduct that leads to its canalization or opening.

183. Morphometric analysis of Human Basal Ganglia

Rao BN, Sunitha V, Devi NB

MIMS, Nellimarla, AP

The sub cortical nuclei situated deep in the basal region of telencephalon are colloquially known as basal ganglia. Jenkin (1978) opined the term nuclei which are more appropriate than ganglia. Warwick & William (1973) gave a detailed description of caudate nucleus in human beings. Anatomical and topographic relationship of ganglia has been studied. The length of caudate nucleus - 4.8 cms.

Breadth at the widest part of heads - 1.1 cms

Breadth at the body - .8 cms

Breadth at the tail - .5 cms

Microscopic sections and study revealed medium sized Golgi - II, large pyramidal Golgi I and granular type of neurons with numerous delicate dendrites were identified. In the head and body, Golgi - II neurons were copious which in tail, scanty large pyramidal cells were identified.

Other details will be discussed at the conference.

184. Biochemical Study of the Effect of Inorganic Mercury Toxicosis on CNS and Other Body Organs in Fresh Water Fish H. fossilis.

Yagana Bano, Mehdi Hasan and Shamim J. Rizvi

Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre, JN Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. UP

Fishes form an important source of mercury in food chain. Mercury compounds are recognized as most hazardous environmental pollutant because of potential toxic effects on biological system and produce pathological changes in brain by binding with protein and other membranous structure (Chang and Hartmann, 1972). The readily discernible morphological abnormalities are the consequences of disturbances in cellular function. The present investigation was undertaken to elucidate inorganic mercury intoxication induced biochemical alterations in the level of nucleic acids, enzyme activities of R Nase, D Nase and protein concentration in brain liver and kidney of fish exposed to mercury.

For this study, two groups of adult fish were administered with inorganic mercury compound mercuric chloride (HgCl2) with a dose schedule 1 mg/litre for a period of 24 to 48 hours. The third group control did not receive any dose of mercury. Isolation of nucleic acids and estimation of DNA and RNA were done by the methods of Searchy and Maclnnis (197)), Burton (1956) and Dische (1955) respectively. For the determination of Rnase and D Nase activity methods of Sung (1968) and Ishihara et all (1967) were followed. Protein was estimated according to the method Lowry et al (1951).

Significant decrease was observed by mercury toxicosis in the level of DNA in brain and increased level in liver following 24 hours of mercury exposure, whereas, the DNA level of kidney exhibited, decrement in experimental group. The RNA concentration was found elevated in all body organs liver, brain, and kidney. 24 hours of mercury exposure caused increased activity of D Nase in brain and liver and reduced activity in kidney. Interestingly, R Nase activity in liver and brain was enhanced with increasing period of intoxication. However, kidney showed decreased activity of R Nase for the exposure of 48 hours. The total protein level was found significantly altered in fish following intoxication by mercury. Since these tissues are heterogeneous anatomically and functionally it may be concluded that different modes of action might be operating in different body organs.

185. Morphometric Analysis of Corpus Callosum: An Autopsy Study

Gupta T, Singh B, Kapoor K & Gupta M*.

Govt. Medical College, *PGIMER, Chandigarh

The anatomy of corpus callosum (CC) has received renewed interest due to increasing number of callostomies being performed for treatment of interventricular lesions. Various studies available in the literature regarding age and sex related changes in the CC have not been consistent. The present study was done to determine the CC measurements and various callosal indices in normal adult northwest Indian population and also to find out age and sex related differences, if any, among these measurements and indices.

Forty-four normal adult cadaver brains of 22 males and 22 females (age range 20-60 years) were studied. The sagittal section of the CC was performed in the formalin fixed brains and various distances and dimensions were measured and indices calculated.,

The mean length of CC was 69.7 mm in males and 65.6 mm in females. The mean maximum width of body of CC was found to be 8.9 mm in males while 8.6 mm in females. The mean maximum splenial width in males and females were 11.2 mm and 9.7 mm respectively.

All absolute CC measurements were found to be larger in males. However, the ratio of length of CC to length of brain was equal in both sexes. The splenial width/length of brain ratio was also found to be significantly larger in males.

The absolute length of CC was less after the age of 50 years in males. there was also age-related decrease in maximum width of anterior and posterior half of body of CC in males.

The mean distance between genu and fornix was 24.0 mm and 23.0 mm in males and females respectively while the shortest distance from the highest point of CC to the cortical surface was approximately 36.0 mm in both sexes. Both these distances have surgical relevance.

186. Estrogen-like Activity of Tamoxifen Overiectomized Rat Hippocampus.

K. Sharma and R D Mehra,

AIIMS, New Delhi.

Tamoxifen (TAM), a mixed estrogen agonist-antagonist used in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer is among the first generation of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). The exact nature of action of this SERM is not yet known in the CNS, and particularly in the hippocampal region. This area forms an important non-classical target for the action of estrogen. Therefore, we sought effects on the estrogen receptors (ER-alpha) and ER-Beta and on a transcription factor phosphorylated cyclic AMP Responsive Element Binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. The experiments were carried out on 30 adult (8-10 months) bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats, which were divided into six groups (Gr I-IV. Gr I and II (n=3 each)_ served OVX controls; Gr III and IV (n=6 each) received a subcutaneous injection of TAM (0.05mg/kg BW) for 30 days; Gr V and VI (n=6 each) received a subcutaneous inj. of Estradiol - 17beta (E2) (0.01mg/kg BW) for the same period. On the 31st day the animals of Gr I,III and V were perfused and fixed with 4% Para formaldehyde and 30 um thick cryostat sections were then cut. Sections at Bregma - 3.3 to - 4.8 were stained for the localization of ER-alpha,ER-Beta and p-CREB using specific mono and polyclonal antibodies with standard IHC protocol. The animals of GrII, IV, and VI were sacrificed with a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital and their hioppocampi were processed for establishing quantitative changes in the levels of above proteins using Western Blot technique. Ovariectomy resulted in upregulation of ER-alpha and ER-beta proteins, which was reversed following TAM as well as E2 administration. The increase in p-CREB following TAM and E2 treatment reflects that SERM and the hormone acts through second messenger signaling pathways in the hippocampus. This is further substantiated with our findings of cytoplasmic staining pattern of ERs in hippocampal neurons.

187. Imaging of Cerebellar Tonsillar Herniation - Correlations with Anatomy

Melani Rajendran S*, Joseph S**, Murali K**, Bhawana**

Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai

The normal position of the tonsils of cerebellum in relation to foramen magnum studied using imaging techniques in living as well as in cadavers. 25 adult human cerebellum from the cadavers were examined. 100 living subjects were studied for tonsillar mapping on MRI. Another 100 living foetal cerebellum were examined by ultrasound and the tonsilar positions were ascertained.

On MRI, about 70 patients had tonsils at or above the level of foramen magnum. In 20 patients, 2 mm herniation and in 10 patients, above 2 mm were found. Antenatal scan in all fetuses showed the position of the tonsils above the foramen magnum. Tonsilar herniation was found in 5 fetuses, which had associated malformations. The positon of tonsils in the cadaver, was about 2 mm above the foramen magnum.

The study revealed the normal postion of the tonsisl above the foramen magnum. Herniation more than 3 mm are most by associated with congenital anomalies.

188. Morphometric Study of Retina of Calotes Versicolur (Garden Lizard)

Rao BN, Devi NB & Sunitha,

MIMS Nellimarla

The acuity of vision of reptiles is higher next only to birds even though both belong to Sauropsida group among the vertebrae (Huxely). Definitely sauropsidian retina is peculiar in its morphology. An attempt has been made to study various layers of calotes versicolar to make a morphometric study of visual cells and other cellular components of different layers of retina and comparison has been made with that of birds. An interesting account on the differences in the morphometry of sauropsidian retina will be discussed.

189. Congenital Unilateral Lateral Rectus Paralysis - A case report

Basireddy A, Apu RN, Lekha DS, Priyadarshini I & Jothi SS,

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

Congenital unilateral lateral rectus paralysis was observed in the left eye of an adult male. Since the squint that was present on the left eye was very minimal, the parents had neglected consulting the ophthalmologist.

During adolescence, the body became conscious of the defect and started having headache. He was investigated and referred by a neurologist to an ophthalmic surgeon, for under action of LR in abduction and adduction.

He underwent an operation for the correction of paralysis and there was improvement.

The operation done was "Transposition of SR and IR To LR insertions superiorly and inferiorly with equal distance from Limbus."

This condition occurs in Duane's retraction syndrome - a common type of strabismus and occurs as an isolatedsporadic entity. It mostly occurs in the left eye and in females and in this case it was in a male. No other associated anomaly was seen, except for the headache due to strain.

190. Fused Cords in the Human Brachial Plexus

Nair N, George B,

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

Dissection of the right upper limb of an adult, female human cadaver revealed the following unusual anomalies. The three cords of the brachial plexus could not be visualized as they were fused together to form a single, large common cord. Thereafter they were found to give rise to the axillary and radial nerves posteriorly and the median and ulnar nerves anteriorly. The musculocutaneous nerve was found to be absent. Its motor and sensory distribution was taken over by the median nerve, which has been reported earlier (Narga Nair, P. Mohan, Shakuntala R. Pai 2001). The axillary artery was found to lie on the medial aspect of the single fused cord of the brachial plexus. The left upper limb did not reveal any of the above-mentioned anomalies. Singer E (1933) has cited two similar reports in the literature, which he describes as occurring due to abnormal development of the axillary artery.Hasan & Narayan (1964) have reported a similar case there being no other reports of this rather unusual anomaly.

192. The Study of Correlation between Morphological Parameters of Fetal Thymuses with Increase in Gestational Age and Crown - Rump Length

Sawant SP,

Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Mumbai

Material and Methods:

100 fetuses were obtained from the department of Obstetrics and gynecology after MTP, thymuses were dissected and studied for various morphological parameters.It was observed that morphological parameters of fetal thymus is directly proportional to increase in gestational age and crown rump length.

193. Embryogenesis of Exostrophy of Bladder - A Theory Based upon Position of External Urethral Sphincter

AroleV, Datar G, Kothari VM

Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune

Embryological and histological study of exstrophy of bladder was undertaken to understand the etiology of this congenital malformation to help its surgical repair. The purpose of this paper is to review different theories of exstrophy, locate the displaced urethral sphincter and confirm it histologically.

For histological study biopsies were taken from three exostrophy patients from different sites eg, paraexostrophy skin, levator ani muscle, external urethral sphincter. 14 foetuses were taken from different age groups ranging from 5 wks to 38 wks to study the corresponding developing tissues. Paraffin blocks were prepared. Sections of 6 mm thickness were stained with Haemotoxylin-eosin and quadruple stains.

Regarding embryogenesis of exostrophy of bladder, it could be said that previous theories put forth were inadequate and that there must be abnormal posterior caudal rotation of the urinary bladder with cephalad fixation of cloacal membrane and lateral rotation of pubic bones. The external urethral sphincter was displaced caudally which could be confirmed histologically.

194. Abnormal Foetus with Neural Tube Defects

D. Sree Lekha, D. Sai Sucheethra, Sree V, Rao BTN & Dorai Raj SSJ

Katuri Medical College, Guntur

In a private nursing home at Hosur an antenatal case with previous history of anencephalus baby and history of consanguineous marriage was reported. When she conceived for the second time and came for a check up on ultraspmpgrphic examination an abnormal foetus was detected medical termination of pregnancy was suggested and done. The following anomalies were noticed in the foetus of 3 to 4 months old with a CH length of 13.5 cms & CR length of 7 cms. There was partial anencephaly confined mostly to the posterior half of head. The neural tube was exposed at the thoracic level. There was a cord like connection between the contents of neural elements of anencephaly and exposed neural tube. It had segmental appearances resembling somites (vertebrae). The right upper limb got entangled by the somite band and was folded back. The left upper limb was normal.

The eyelids of the foetus were closed. Nails could be made out in the digits. The external genitalia was that of a male. There was exomphalos or there would have been some delay in the physiological hernia getting reduced. On the right upper limb at the shoulder region, many nodules were seen.

Somite like band and the nodules have been processed to know their microscopic appearance. Other viscera in the thorax and abdomen were normal.

196. Vertical Vaginal and Uterine Septum - A case report of primary infertility

Elezy MA*, Paily VP

Govt. Medical College, Thrissur. Kerala* Jubilee Mission Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala.

A 24-year old female patient reported with primary infertility after 1 ½ years of married life. Per vaginal examination showed a vertical septum in the vagina. Uterus and cervix were normal externally, but the septum was extending from cervix to fundus dividng the cavity into two.

A Hystero laparoscopy examination showed that the Uterus was bulky with broad fundus and unusual vasculature. Both vaginal and uterine septae were observed and ressected using monopolar current. The patient reported with pregnancy three months after surgery which is continuing.

Various types of uterine duplication and vaginal anomalies result from arrests of development of uterovaginal primordium during the eight week of development. This may cause infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, which may be corrected effectively by surgery.

197. Syndactyly

Jayagandhi.S, Sandhya S, Kottiswari P, Srinivasan KR,

Aarupadai Veedu Medical College, Pondicherry

Abnormal fusion is usually restricted to fingers and toes (syndactyly). Normally the mesenchyme between the respective digits in the hand and foot plates breakdown. Not infrequently, this fails to occur and the result is fusion of one or more fingers and toes. In some cases actual fusion of the bones also can occur.

198. "Undivided Cloaca"- Case report

Inamdar VV, Kulkarni PR

Government Medical College, Nanded

A case of undivided cloaca, in 1 ½ years old girl was brought for symptoms of anorectal fistula. She had undergone sigmoid colostomy on day 2 of her birth. She was showing signs of protein - energy malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. Local examinations showed absence of anal orifice, but single opening was present in region of vestibule. No other congenital anomaly was detected.

X-Ray abdomen with contrast. Showed a short common channel above the puborectal sling. Surgical correction is done by post sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty by dissecting common cloacal opening.

199. Single Umbilical Artery with Congenital Abnormalities

Rao NR, Jayasree N, Rajasree TK & Ravindranath

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal.

A random collection of one hundred placentas with umbilical cords from different hospitals were studied in detail.

In one specimen with still born foetus, congenital anomalies were observed on dissection along with one umbilical artery of foetus.

Literature also showed certain congenital abnormalities associated with blood vessels present in umbilical cord. An attempt is made to make a similar observation in local population, observing 100 specimens.

200. Gastroschisis - A Case Report

Borate S, Gangane SD

Grant Medical College, Mumbai

A still born baby was reported with herniation of abdominal contents through the defect in anterior abdominal wall.

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