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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts (101 - 150)

Author(s): Members

Vol. 54, No. 1 (2005-01 - 2005-03)

101. Study Of 50 Human Tali For Calcaneal Articular Facets

Bilodi AK, Agarwal BK

Nepal Gung Medical College, Chisapani, Nepal.


The aim of the present study is to find out the incidence of types of calcaneal articular facets and their percentage in the given materials.

Methods and Materials:

Fifty unknown human tali from the department of anatomy, Nepal Gunj Medical College, Chisapani, Nepal, were examined for the presence of articular facets; their shapes and sizes were marked with pencil, numbered, and photographed.


Four types of articular facets were found in this study. Type-1 was found in 10%. Type - 2 was found in 14%, type-3 in 20%, type-4 in 56%. Later they were compared and correlated with others (Arora et al studies-1979)


The difference in different articular facets may be due to heredity, walking habits, locations uneven surface of the earth. Their incidences are different in populations and races. Hence it has been studied and discussed.

102. Relationship Between Anterior Fontanelle Size and Head Circumference in Human Fetuses

Nema Usman, Nafis Ahmed Faruqi, Aijaz A Khan, Farhan Kirmani

JNMC, AMU, Aligarh.

The present study was conducted to find out the relationship between anterior fontanelle size and head circumference of human fetuses. Previous studies on anterior fontanelle size, were on pre-term and term neonates. Moreover, the studies were on African and European races. There was lack of literature on fetuses and on Indian subjects.

In the present study, 40 foetuses of different gestational age (10-38 wks) were used. They were collected and put into jars having 10% of formalin. The fixative was additionally introduced, into abdominal, thoracic and cranial cavities for proper fixation. The gestational age was assessed by measuring foot length and using Streeters data. The fetuses were divided into five groups according to their gestational age. Group A (10-15 wks), group B (16-20 wks), group C (21-25 wks), group D (26-30wks) and group E (more than 30 wks). Anterior fontanelle size and head circumference of each foetus were measured and compared.

It was found that in group A and B (ie in fetuses of less than 21 wks)anterior fontanelle size and head circumference showed a growth with uniform pace. In group C (ie in fetuses of 21-25 wks), anterior fontanelle size grew relatively slower than the head circumference, in group D (ie fetuses of 26-30 wks), the two grew at equal rates, and in last group E (ie fetuses of more than 30 wks) anterior fontanelle size showed a faster increment in its growth than the head circumference.

103. An Unusual Case of Skeletal Dysplasia

Sushmitha R, Babu RS, Padmavathy C, Jyothi S

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

P. Kumari 39 year old female, came for an antenatal check up. Her first child is 16 years old and was a full term normal delivery.

On examination, the height of the uterus corresponds to 32 wks (more than the period of amenorrhoea). The patient being an elderly gravida, with a long period of secondary sterility, ultrasonography was done to know the gestational age and to rule out congenital anomalies.

Ultrasound report showed single live foetus with cephalic presentation. It showed multiple congenital anomalies hydrous fetalis and polyhydramnios.

Ultrasound image morphology was suggestive a case of "fetal skeletal dysplasia" with possibilities of "Osteogenesis imperfecta."

104. Observations of the Morphology of Mastoid Process

Hema. N, Sharieff JH & Saraswathi G

Government Medical College, Mysore

Mastoid process is a bony projection that develops in the second year of life and by fourth year, they are well formed although their greatest growth occurs at puberty. Its absence is conspicuous at birth thus making the facial nerve vulnerable for injuries in children. Although it is an accepted factor that mastoid process develops due to proliferation and extension of air cells into it, the role of traction being exerted on it for neck movements cannot be totally ignored.


To highlight the factors responsible for the development of mastoid process

Materials and Methods:

One hundred dry South Indian skulls were studied from Department of Anatomy. Mastoid processes were examined on both the sides for shape, size, structures and external volume. The degree of pneumatisation was measured and quantified radiologically using a millimeter square reticulae. The above data was compared with the quantified surface area of attachment of muscles on the outer surface of mastoid process.

Different types of mastoid process and different degree of pneumatisation were observed in the present study.

The details of the findings and inference drawn shall be discussed in detail.

105. A Study on Vertebral Fusion

Rajan. T, Santhiya S, Srinivasn KR,

Aaruppadiai Veedu Medical College, Pondicherry

The vertebral column is formed from the sclerotome of the somites. The cells of each sclerotomes are converted into loose mesenchyme laterally and to surround the neural tube. Extension of this mesenchyme laterally and ventrally forms the transverse process and rib. The mesenchymal cells become condensed to form the perichordal disc. Fusion of the adjacent less condensed part forms the body. The neural arch, transverse process and the costal elements are formed in the same way as the body. The notochord disappears except in the region of the inter vertebral disc and expands to form the nucleus pulposus.

Two or more vertebrae that are normally separate may be fused with each other. Such fusion occurs in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions.

Vertebrae were collected from the department of anatomy and also from the students of various batches.

In our study, we noticed fusion of vertebrae at cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral region. Hence, presented for discussion.

106. Supernumerary Ossicles

Sudharshan S and Satya Prasad V.

JSS Medical College, Mysore

Supernumerary ossicles are found as accessory bones in the skull. Their presence was initially considered to be due to cranial deformities but it has been said that the effect of genetic factors can not be excluded. There exists enough study and literature supporting the embryological and morphological significance but not enough studies have been done in different human population supporting the genetic drift.

This study was carried out to record the percentage of supernumerary ossicles in the skulls from Mysore. For this study, 80 skulls were collected. These skulls were observed and counted for the presence of the ossicles at four distinct locations ie, lambda, the asterion, the parietal notch and the occipito mastoid suture. Ossicles with demarcation from other bones by clear sutures were countered and tabulated. The percentage of occurrence of these bones were calculated for a total of 80 skulls.

Out of 80 skulls 45 presented with supernumerary ossicles. Of these 26.25% on left side and 27.5 % on the right side at asterion, 13.75% on left side and 15% on the right side at the parietal notch bone, 3.75% on left side and 2.50% on the right side at occpitomastoid bone and 20% at Lambda. These results indicate high percentage occurannce of supernumerary ossicles in the population of South India, more so in the Mysore region. The percentage was high at the asterion compared to other regions. This study followed by other studies should provide a database regarding the presence of supernumerary ossicles and might throw light on the genetic drift of the population.

107. Anomalies in Occipital Bone

Rao BN, Suneeta V & Devi NB

MIMS, Nellimarla, A.P

A study of occipital bone has been undertaken to find out various anomalies in the formation of occipital bone. Ronald A Bergmann reviewed the status of anomalies in occipital bones of Americans & Negroes in 2002. About 150 skulls have been studied. The following anomalies have been identified.

Shallow fossa anterior to pharyngeal
tubercle - 5 %
Pre condylar tubercle - 3.3 %
Assimilation of atlas - 7.5%
Torus occipitalis - 13.3 %
Sutural bones - 6.6
Transverse occipital suture - 3.3
Double hypoglossal canal - 20%
Accessory condylar canal - nil
Torcula Hirophilli -
Right dominant

108. The Foramen Spinosum: A Macroscopic And Micrometric Analysis

Kumud Dharwal

Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Amritsar

The foramen spinosum, situated at the hub of the infra temporal fossa is the hilus of the all important middle meningeal vessels, seeks an accurate knowledge of its morpho metric details including the shape, size, number, its relation to other foramina or presence of any anomalies, for the surgical exploring maneuvers required in this region. The study was conducted on 125 macerated skulls mostly from the North Indian belt to produce an Indian database to serve as a handy guideline to the surgeons. On an average the size of the foramen ovale in majority of cases; distance from the foramen ovale as 3.02mm; distance from the spine of sphenoid as 5.36mm and the inter foraminal distance as 54.51. Some of the glaring anomalies found were the absence (0.5%),the duplication (0.5%) and even a triplication (0.5%) of the foramen; an hour glass shape (1%); confluence with the adjoining foramina namely the foramen ovale (2%) and the canaliculus innominatus(6%). A bony bridging of the foramen spinosum was seen (4%) and such a rare and unique feature was not compared as no mention of it could be found in the available literature.

109. Circulus Arteriosus Cerebri: A Study of Variation in the Fetal and Adult Human Brain.

K Ashwin and Chitra Prakash Rao

Centre for Basic Sciences, KMC, Bejai, Mangalore.

The circle of Willis or circulus arteriosus cerebri or its branches are subject to many variations. The circle of Willis with a classical description is very rare. The constituent arteries forming the circle vary greatly in size in different individuals and on two sides in the same subject. Study by dissection or by angiographic studies by several workers has shown that deviations from the normal pattern occur in very high proportions of cases. There are differing views regarding the variations in the circle. Thus, this study was done to compare our findings with the others. In the present study, each artery taking part in the circle has been described in relation to the length, size and its origin separately and the findings have been compared.

110. Risk Factors and Their Role in Predisposition to Coronary Artery Disease - A Statistical Approach

KB Swamy, GV Siva Prasad & Dr.M. Ravinder

Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam

Now a days the most alarming and common cause of death is coronary artery disease in both males and females through not equally distributed in both the sexes.

Here an attempt is made in our present investigation to show a picture of the facts and figures, anatomical as well as statistical data about the "risk factors and their role in predisposition to coronary artery disease".

It is also our aim to support the concept that the incidence of coronary artery is much more frequent in left dominant coronaries than right dominant coronary circulations.

It will be explained in more detailed way in the oral presentation.

111. Anomalous Arterial Pattern in the Upper Limb - Case report

R. Biswal, C. Mohapatra, M.SAR, CL. Sarangi

SCB Medical College, Cuttack. Orissa

During routine dissection, we have frequently come across arterial anomalies of upper limb in the form of high origin of redial artery, the level of origin being different in different cases. In addition to this, we also found some abnormal communications between existing arteries and persistence of some embryonic arteries. The cause of these anomalies is the peculiar way of appearance of new arteries with regression of some principal arteries during the course of development of arterial system.

113. The Superior Mesenteric Artery, Variations in Branches

(Mrs) K. Vimala

Narayana Medical College, Nellore (AP)

The aim of the study is essential in operations like gastro jejunostomy, Ileo-colostomy, appendicectomy, carcinomas, post-operative adhesions and intussusceptions.

The material selected is 50 adult and 25 fetal specimens, colour photographs taken. The methodology is through dissection of specimens.

Results obtained shows variations in branches and distribution of superior mesenteric artery as follows:

In one adult specimen, an accessory middle colic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery distal to the origin of middle colic artery, divided into right and left branches supplying to right 2/3 of transverse colon.

In two adult specimens, right colic artery arising from Ileo-colic artery. In two adult specimens right hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery above the origin of inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery divides into two branches distributing to right lobe of liver and gall bladder.

Conclusions drawn are the right hepatic and cystic arteries arising from the superior mesenteric artery. So, "aberrant replacing right hepatic artery" present. Accessory middle colic artery present. Right colic artery arises as a common stem with middle colic artery and with ileo-colic artery.Right colic artery arises from ileo-colic artery.Right colic artery is absent.

114. Superficial Ulnar Artery - A Case Report

Iyer Praveen B.

Seth. G.S. Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai.

In humans the upper limb is modified for the primary function of prehension, hence its vascular supply is very vital. Ulnar artery is one of the major arteries whose branches supply the forearm and the hand. Hence, any variation in its origin, course and termination is significant. In the present paper an anomaly of superficial origin of the ulnar artery from the brachial artery is being reported. The brachial artery further divided into the radial and the common inter osseous arteries at the level of the neck of the radius. Further, the possible embryological basis and clinical implications of this anomaly are discussed.

Key words: superficial ulnar artery, radial artery, common interosseous artery.

116. Anatomy of Thoracodorsal Artery Supplying the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

Arora L, Dada R

AIIMS, New Delhi.

Based on the dissection of 20 fresh cadavers we have detailed vascular anatomy of the thoracodorsal artery. The thoracodorsal artery showed a constant bifurcation into horizontal branch and a lateral branch, located on the deep surface of the latissimus dorsi muscle 4 cm distal to the inferior scapular border and 2.5 cm medial to the lateral free margin of the muscle. The present anatomical landmarks are useful for the free transfer of a latissimus dorsi flap.

117. "Cosmetic" Artery Variation in Vascular Anatomy of Face

T.S. Guga Priya, N. Rajasekaran, TR Kalavathy

Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai.


From the Mythical era to Michael Jackson's modern era the quest for the perfect face is still going on. In any facial reconstruction or cosmetic corrective surgery, it becomes imperative to appreciate the anatomy of facial vasculature.


A study on variations in vascular anatomy of face.


Twenty-five formalin fixed human cadavers were studied during one course period.


Our of 50 sides of face studied, one side of face presented with transverse facial artery taking up the vascularisation of face with main facial artery ending as inferior labial branch. Clinical significance of this varied vascular anatomy is discussed.

118. Arterial Supply of Oesophagus in Still Born Full Term Fetuses

Swetha Madhuri Chikkala, Sridhari Ganti, BT Narayana Rao, S. Swayam Jothi,

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

The oesophagus derives its arterial supply from the near by arteries by means of slender branches. This had to be remembered while mobilizing oesophagus during operative procedures.

A detailed study was carried out in 55 still born fetuses. A careful dissection helped us to find the fine branches supplying the oesophagus.

Cervical part of the oesophagus was supplied in 51 fetuses (92.73%) by oesophageal branches of inferior thyroid artery arising usually from its terminal part in a few, from the commencement of ascending part. In others they were arising from thyrocervical trunk, (1 fetus), right cerebral (1 fetus), left vertebral (1 fetus) and right subclavian (6 fetuses) arteries.

Thoracic part of the oesophagus was supplied mainly by oesophageal branches of aorta, right posterior intercostal artery, left lower bronchial artery and right bronchial artery. In others, branches were arising from left upper bronchial artery, right subclavian artery and left vertebral artery.

Abdominal part is supplied by the left gastric artery in all the fetuses (100%) and the left phrenic artery also gave branches in 31 fetuses (56.36%).

119. An Anatomical Study of the Arterial Supply of Stomach in Adult Cadavers

Mahajan Anupama, Kaur Rupinderjit
Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences & Research,
Amritsar, Punjab

Knowledge of the arterial supply of the stomach is of importance to surgeons when operating on the stomach for malignancies, perforated ulcers and allied problems. The decision on to ligate a particular artery in order to prevent hemorrhage and other complications is crucial in an emergency or during elective surgery. A documentation of the arterial supply of the stomach can thus be of immense help to the surgeons.

A study of 25 human stomachs in preserved cadavers, matched for age and sex was undertaken. The diameter of various arteries was measured by using calipers. The normal pattern, variations and anastamoses were also tabulated.

The mean diameter, + or - SD of the left gastric artery, was 4.216+or- 0.337 mm, the right gastric artery 0.656+or-0.108 mm, the right gastroepiploic artery 3.076+or - 1.76 mm, the left gastroepiploic artery 3.23+or - 0.168 mm and the short gastric arteries 2.362+or- 0.334 mm. The anastamoses between various arteries were extensive and common. Normal pattern and variation of the arteries were extensive and common. Normal pattern and variation of the arteries were comparable with the series available in contemporary literature.

Since this most dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract was found to be highly vascular, ligation of any of the arteries could be undertaken without compromising the blood supply.

121. Aberrant Renal Artery and Additional Renal Vein

Arora L, Dada R

AIIMS, New Delhi

During routine dissection in an adult male cadaver, additional renal vein was found to drain from right kidney and additional renal artery was found to supply left kidney. Aberrant inferior artery emerged from aorta and entered the kidney at lower end of hilum. The persistence of aberrant artery could be explained due to persistence of extra mesonephric artery during development. Additional renal vein drained in a separate opening in the inferior vena cava. The possible developmental basis for the extra renal vein suggests the persistence of the embryonic pattern observed in 22 embryos.

123. Nature's Adventure - Human's Misadventure: A Study of Variation of Brachial Artery with It's Clinical Significance

T.S. Guga priya, N. Rajasekaran & T.R. Kalavathy

Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai


Variations of principal arteries of upper extremity have long received attention of anatomists. Detailed anatomic reviews of existing variation from as early as 1844 by Quain have been put forth adding to our descriptive knowledge of these arterial variations.

In the advanced interventional radiological procedures and keyhole surgeries, simple arterial variations can be disastrous if not aware of.


The study of variations of brachial artery with it's clinical significance.


Thirty formalin fixed routine cadaveric upper extremities were studied during one course period.


One of 30 upper extremities studied one presented with variation of branching pattern as follows:

High division of brachial artery with median nerve traversing in between with anastomotic channel in cubital fossa with absence of cubital vein formation.

The clinical relevance and significance of this variation is discussed.

124. A Study on the Blood Supply of Human Hearts

J. Vasudeva Reddy, RV Subhakar & R. Sekhar

SV Medical College, Tirupati. Andhra Pradesh.

Origin, course, branching pattern, myocardial bridges and arterial anastomosis of coronary arteries are studied in 80 human hearts of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. Gross dissection, postmortem coronary arteriogram and corrosion cast methods were used for this study.

Single coronary ostium is observed in the left coronary sinus and more than one coronary ostia are seen in the right coronary sinus. The coronary ostia were observed above the level of free margin of aortic cusps in majority of cases.

The myocardial bridges were observed in relation to left anterior descending branch of left coronary artery at a distance of 20 to 30 mms from its origin from the main trunk.

The diameter of main trunk of left coronary artery is more than the right coronary artery. In 76.6% of cases, the SA node is supplied by right coronary and in 23.3 by left coronary artery. The AV node is supplied by right coronary artery in 90% of cases and by left circumflex in 10% of cases.

It is observed that 86.25% of hearts the right predominance is seen and in 11.25% left predominance is noted. Majority of anastomoses were observed between left anterior and posterior descending arteries.

125. Incidence of Third Coronary Artery in A Series of 30 Dissected Hearts

Padmalatha K., BR Ramesh & Lavanya Badami,

Dr. BR Ambedkar Medical College, KG Halli, Bangalore

During routine teaching of undergraduates by dissection method, a third coronary artery was seen in a male cadaver aged about 50 yrs. On further dissection it was seen that 3rd coronary artery in this particular case had an independent ostium from the right coronary sinus. The percentage of incidence, distribution, and significance will be discussed during presentation.

126. Abnormal Branch of Testicular Artery - A case report

P. Vijaya Bhaskar, Vishu bhasin, Dr. Sushil Kumar

Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal.

We present a case report regarding abnormal course and branches of the right testicular artery. It is arising from abdominal aorta anteriorly and immediately it divides two branches, one branch going downwards behind the inferior vena cava as testicular artery and another branch passes behind the inferior vena cava and emerges in between inferior vena cava and right kidney. After crossing the anterior surface of right kidney, it bifurcates into ascending and descending branches. Former going to right suprarenal gland and later ending in posterior abdominal wall.

127. Multiple Hepatic Arteries - A report

T. Rajini, Roopa Kulkarni, GV Hebbel,

MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

Variations in the branches of hepatic artery are common. Its importance in biliary surgery is known since decades. During routine dissections multiple hepatic arteries were found in a body arising from the left gastric, common hepatic and superior mesenteric artery. The branching pattern of this variant hepatic artery and its clinical implication is discussed.

128. Variation in the Branching Pattern of Brachial Artery (A case report)

Shabana Borate, SD Gangane, PC, Champaneri, RD Shah,

Grant Medical College, Mumbai

A rare case of variation in the branching pattern of brachial artery was found in the left upper limb in a female cadaver, during routine dissection. However, on the right side, the brachial artery had a normal branching pattern. Details of variation will be discussed in the presentation.

130. Variations in Origin of Superior Thyroid Artery

Sanjeev I Kolangi, H.V. Rajasekhar

JJM Medical College, Davangere.

We have studied 30 external carotid arterial systems by dissection method for possible variations in superior thyroid artery origin. In 10 cases, the superior thyroid artery was found to arise from common carotid artery and in one case, there was thyro lingual trunk arising from external carotid artery. In only one case, the superior thyroid artery was arising from external carotid artery 7 mm above its origin. In remaining 18 cases, the superior thyroid artery arose from external carotid artery at its origin.

The superior thyroid artery arose bilaterally from common carotid in three cadavers, unilaterally from common carotid in three cadavers, unilaterally in three cadavers and in one cadaver, one side there was thyro lingual trunk and other side superior thyroid artery arose from common carotid artery.

These variations pose dangerous situations in various head and neck surgeries. Because of this great practical value, this paper presentation is done.

131. Origin of Vertebral Artery - Variations

Aditya Pradeep Reddy, D. Sree Lekha, B.T. Narayana Rao, S. Swayam Jothi,

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

The origin of vertebral artery was observed in 47 full terms still born fetuses and in 10 adult cadavers. In one of the fetuses and in one male adult cadaver, there were two vertebral arteries on the right side.

In two fetuses, left vertebral artery was arising from the arch of aorta.

In one fetus vertebral artery was arising from the left subclavian close to its origin from the arch of the aorta.

The variations of vertebral artery are of importance as it is one of the two important arteries supplying the brain.

132. Dissection of Membranous Septum of the Heart

KD. Khushale, ML Kothari & LA Mehta

Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai


Dissection of membranous septum of the heart.

Material and Methods:

Membranous septum of the heart was dissected in 40 adult cadavers and its position, shape and extent were noted.

Conclusion and result:

Membranous septum of the heart and its three dimensional view can be very helpful for both undergraduate as well as postgraduate students of anatomy and cardiology. It would also help cardio-thoracic surgeons for operation.

133. A Case Report of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

SK Deshpande, *, SP Jahangirdar**, PL Jahangirdar***, Kiran Padeyappanavar****

Al-Ameen Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka

During the routine course of undergraduate dissection, we found in one cadaver that, a defect in the fusion of muscles of diaphragm on right side and herniation of part of stomach (cardiac end) through the non-fusion part of muscle causing shifting of thoracic aorta (lower part ) to the right side.

Incidence, etiology and clinical manifestations of the same will be discussed during the presentation.

134. Anencephaly - A case Report

Pathan Farooq Khan, D. Sai Sucheethra, P. Satyavathi & S. Swayam Jothi

Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur

This anomaly occurs frequently (1/1500 births). This case was presented because delivery was conducted in our hospital and a history could be elicited.

The baby appeared well nourished weighing 3 kgs. survived for few hours and died. Since the anterior neuropore had not closed the cranial end showed the exposed neural element. Hair bearing area of scalp was present in a circumferential manner around the exposed neural part. The ears were \malformed. The eye lids were closed and bulging. All the other internal organs were normal. The neck region was not well formed. Looking into the case history, the father of the child 22 years old is plumber working on lead pipes. He has a lock of gray hair on his forehead. He is married to his sister's daughter, who is 16 years old. Four years after marriage she conceived and 1st child born (female) presented anencephaly. She never went to any check up to the hospital and had no H/O past illness.

In this particular case, the cause for Anencephaly could be due to 1) consanguineous marriage 2) Father of the child may be having a genetic disorder 3) Occupation of the father - plumber having lead contacts 4) Since the mother of the child never had any check up

Folic acid deficiency would have been there which was not supplemented.

135. Quadruplet Kidneys (A Rare Finding)

Vohra. P.A, Mahajan. AA, Joshi. DS

Govt Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad, MH

The fortuitous discovery of four kidneys in a middle-aged female (cadaver), prompted us to review the literature on this rare developmental anomaly. Congenial anomalies of various structures belonging to urinary system are not uncommon. But the anomaly to be multiple is quite uncommon. Here, we wish to present a discussion of embryological events of supernumerary kidneys.

While the students in the dissection hall of this college were carrying out the discussion hall of this college were carrying out the dissection, we encountered presence of more than two kidneys in a cadaver. Out of these four kidneys, two were present in lumbar region and two located in iliac fossa. All four kidneys had separate ureters. The two ureters on right side were found to be having common opening in bladder trigone. Similarly, ureters of the left side were found to be fused at trigone of bladder. Lumbar kidney was adherent to the surrounding iliacus muscle, but could be separated from it due to its separate fibrous capsule. A small ureteric stone was encountered in right iliac ureter at its lower end. No other associated genitourinary anomalies could be detected.

On cut section, right iliac kidney showed hemorrhagic changes in cortical tissue. On histopathological examination, the right iliac kidney showed changes suggestive of chronic pyelonephritis, where as the remaining three kidneys were normal. All the four kidneys found in this case were supposed to be functioning.

136. Persistent Thyroglossal Duct

- A case report

Padmasini Santhanam, Anu Sharma, Hitant Vohra, Anshu Soni

Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana

Thyroglossal duct usually disappears by the seventh week, except for its proximal opening, which persists as a small blind pit, the foramen caecum of the tongue. Although uncommon, the remnant of the thyroglossal duct may be present anywhere along the course of descent of thyroid gland, which may lead to complications in the form of cysts and sinuses and even a carcinoma. A rare case of persistent thyroglossal duct was seen during routine cadaver in the Department of Anatomy, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. Pyramidal lobe was also present. The embryological rationale behind this anomaly will be discussed.

137. A Rare Imperforate Anus

RK Das, M Patra, C Mohapatra & BL Parija

SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa

A rare type of imperforate anus in a child aged about two and half years was reported, usual type of such congenital anomaly is either complete imperforation or midline partial imperforation . In this case, the perforation was placed to the lateral aspect. Its embryological significance to be presented.

138. Situs Inversus withDextrocardia Associated with Ventricular Septal Defect

Pratima R. Kulkarni, Vaisali. V. Inamdar

Government Medical College, Nanded.

Situs inversus viscerum is a rare congenital anomaly in which there is general transposition of viscera due to reverse rotation including heart which rotates to right side called as dextrocardia. In situs inversus, viscera which are normally present on right side eg., liver, appendix, duodenum are situated on left while viscera normally present on left e.g. Spleen is situated on right side.

Incidence of congenital cardiac anomalies in dextrocardia with situs inversus is low as compared to congenital cardiac anomalies in isolated dextrocardia.

Case report

Mrs. Shantanbai, 30 years old woman residing at Malkautha, Nanded district, came with history of breathlessness, palpitations and chest discomfort. On general examination, her vital parameters were within normal limits. Cardiovascular system examination revealed apex beat in right 5th ICS in anterior axially line with systolic thrill in right 5th ICS in anterior axillary line with systolic thrill in right third and fourth intercostals spaces. Auscultation revealed loud SI and pansystolic murder having maximum intensity in right 3rd, 4th, and 5th ICS with radiation to left.


X-Ray chest PA view: Dextrocardia with cardiomegaly due to pericardial effusion.

ECG - Findings suggestive of Dextrocardia

USG Abdomen & Chest - Liver present in left hypochondrium with dilated IVC & Hepatic veins, spleen in right hypochondrium, and evidence of dextrocardia with pericardial effusion. 2 D Echo and colour doppler - Visceroatrial situs inversus, dextrocardia, inversely related & dilated great arteries with PH, Dilated RA & RV cavities, Large perimembranous VSD with inlet extension with reversal of shunt & left sided normal aortic arch.

139. Ichthyosis Congenita Gravis (Harlequin Fetus) - A case study

Muralidhara Menon

AIMS, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala

Disorders of cornification (ichthyoses) are a primary group of inherited conditions characterized clinically by pattern of scaling and histopathologically by hyperkeratosis. They are usually distinguishable on the basis of inheritance patterns, clinical features, associated defects, and histopathologic changes. This rare keratinizing disorder represents several genotypes. Markedly thickened ridged and cracked skin forms horny plates over the entire body, disfiguring the facial features and constricting the digitis. The other features are severe ectoprion and chemosis obscuring the orbits. The nose and ears are flattened, with everted and gaping lips. Nails and hair may be absent. Joint mobility is restricted with fixed neuralgic impairment. Later on the horny skin is replaced by large, thin scales with erythema.

The condition is autosomal recessive and is extremely rare (1:3,000,00). The morphologic abnormalities include hyper keratosis, accumulation of lipid droplets with in corneocytes and absence of normal lamellar granules. There is an altered catalytic subunit of 2A protene phosphorylase, which is encoded on chromosome 11. The basic defect is abnormalities of lamellar granules, which have an important role in desquamation. The findings wil be discussed in the light of relevant literature.

140. Autopsy of Acardiac Twin

Hema. N.& G. Saraswathi

Government Medical College, Mysore.

Congenital defects have induced curiosity in people. Babies surviving with defects were considered as monsters. Knowledge of embryology, teratology, clinical genetics, and diagnostic ultrasonography has made it easy to identify anomalies.

In this era of family planning, it is inevitable to prevent all avoidable deaths and crippling infants due to anomalies to successfully implement family planning program.

In this presentation a monozygotic, monochorionic diamniotic twin delivered in Cheluvamba hospital, Mysore was studied, out of which one of the twins was a normal live male baby and the second was a typical acardiac twin which will be discussed. Autopsy of the acardiac twin was done and many interesting features were revealed. Twin to twin transfusion syndrome with vascularity was very evident. There was total absence of upper limbs, thorax, head and neck.

The details will be discussed during presentation.

Knowledge of teratogens and prenatal diagnosis of anomalies is playing an important role in the present set up of life.

141. The Limb Malformations

K. Vimala

Narayana Medical College, Nellore, AP.

Abstract: The present study aimed at identifying bone and muscular abnormalities in short two segmented lower limb fetus.

The material is a full term male fetus and color photographs were taken. The methodology is dissection of right lower limb.

Results obtained are femur, femoral nerve, quadriceps, gluteus medius and minimus and hamstring muscles absent, femoral vessels continuing as short, slender branches.

Quadratus femoris fused with adductor magnus. Hamstrings replaced by soleus, gastrocnemius and plantaris forming tendoachilis attached to calcaneum.

A medial muscular mass present in place of adductors group inserted into upper part of tibia, simulating popliteus insertion.

Below pyriformis, sciatic nerve's position replaced by common poroneal component laterally, tibial component medially.

The lower end of tibia articulating laterally with a triangular nodule of bone, simulating the lower end of fibula. Inferior surface of lower end of tibia shows thin cartilaginous small sheets resembling menisci of knee and shows a synovial infrapetellar fold anteriorly and articulating with talus and directed laterally.

Superior surface of tibia articulating with incomplete hip bone and laterally receives gluteus maximus, gastrocnemius and soleus insertions.

Foot is adducted, plantar flexed and inverted. Acetabulum absent.

Conclusions drawn:

Femur absent due to genetic or teratogenic defect Muscles disrupted, may be due to absence of femur Shaft of fibula replaced by muscles.Twisted, laterally displaced tibia articulating with talus leads to - "Talipes Equinovarus".

142. Anencephalic Fetus - A case report

Devi Sankar K, Vimala K & Sharmila Bhanu P

Narayana Medical College, Nellore (AP)

The aim of the study is to find out congenital malformations and neural tube defects in a fetus. A 36-week male fetus collected, fixed in formalin and dissected. Colour photographs were taken.

Results obtained were superior aspect of the head covered with a thin membrane. Scalp, cranial vault meninges were absent. Rudimentary brain stem is present. Cerebrum and cerebellum absent. Anterior neuropore is not closed. So cephalic end of the neural tube fails to close.


- A neural tube defect



May be due to genetic or teratogenic or environmental cause.

144. A Case Report-Presence of Intussusception with Meckel's Diverticulum

Satyam Khare, Archana Sharma, Shilpi Jain & AK Asthana

SIMS, Meerut

During the routine cadaver dissection in the department of anatomy at Subharati Institute of Medical Sciences, Meerut, a Meckel's diverticulum was found, it was about 50 cms, proximal to the ileocaecal junction, the length of the diverticulum was about 7 cms.

After exploring, the abdomen there was presence of intussusception at two places. First was seen at about 30 cms, from Duodeno-jenunal junction and other one was 21 cm distal to the first one.

Since presence of two intussusceptions along with Meckel's diverticulum is a rare and interesting finding, hence this case was considered suitable for discussion.

146. Transparent Model To Teach Anatomy As T.l.Media- A Study

Venkateshu KV

Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, Karnataka.

Lecture is a most dominant teaching method. It can be made more effective by using T.L medias like models and simulators to attain the educational objectives.

Models are three-dimensional representation of reality and can be used to demonstrate structure as well as function. Models are used when an actual specimen or object is not available or demonstration or the real specimen is very small in size to study and present in the narrow space-difficulty for dissection.

Most of the time, we are using either clay model or plastic model for demonstration, which are non transparent. To give better performance than clay or plastic model we have prepared transparent models by using Acrylic sheets and used for demonstration . Feedback collected from the students at the end demonstration after using clay model and transparent model and analyzed. After analysis we found that the students were benefited better than the clay model.

How these transparent models are helpful for the students for better performance and in various ways of learning process will be discussed at the time of presentation.

147. Basis Of Curriculum Planning - An Overview

Sanikop MB

Sri Devraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, Karnataka

Teaching in the curriculum was mainly based on lecture classes (gross anatomy, embryology, histology & genetics), dissection, histology practical, osteology demonstration, surface marking, radiology (X-Rays, ultrasound, CT scans, MRI). Students learning were also encouraged by conducting seminars, CMEs, study of charts and models and assignments. The regular assessments of the students were conducted by weekly table-tests, monthly part completion tests and assessments.

The feedback was collected from MBBS students house surgeons.

The feedback analyzed has shown our teaching curriculum with the involvement of teachers in all above mentioned teaching items resulted into better performance.

148. Evaluation Of The Thoracic Anatomy Module, At Manipal

Nair N

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

First year medical students at the Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, learn the "Thorax Module" in Anatomy, after having completed a study of the upper and lower limbs.

An objective test (completion type - supply variety) was carried out at the end of their study of Human Thoracic Anatomy. This was aimed at receiving feedback from students regarding the effectiveness of the teaching learning program of the particular module.

The teaching, learning program in thoracic anatomy was delivered in the form of didactic lectures in Gross Anatomy, related special embryology and Histology, practical lab sessions included face to face discussions in the dissection and histology laboratories.

The entire batch of 250 first year medical students underwent formative assessment using a completion and supply type of questionnaire. All the students were tested together at the same time and under the same conditions. The test items were evaluated using the easiness and discrimination indices.

149. Teaching Of Anatomy - Modified Achieving Excellant Early Results

Paul MM

CMC, Ludhiana

Having reduced the time for the 1st Prof. MBBS course the pressure on the teachers and students are mounting very high. In the conduct of study of one region namely upper limb the following modifications were made for MBBS and BDS students.

  1. The classes were introduced in small groups, in the first hour of the timetable for that day, before the students were exposed to the topic in any didactic lecture form.
  2. The lecturer delivered the topic in the second hour of the timetable.
  3. This was followed by small group discussion and practical demonstration of the region.

All the study by the students is planned to be done with the teachers in the department itself and very little taken for homework. Self study was encouraged, motivated, applied significance added at each step.

Evaluations used were oral discussion, practical - spotting, surface markeing, practicals on gross and radiology , short theory questions in regular frequency with every topic covered,.

Additional syllabus covered simultaneously included genetics, embryology, and histology. But the final evaluation was only on upper limb.

The results were exciting in that a much larger percentage of students passed the evaluation of Upper Limb on their first attempt.

Teachers were receiving higher level of job satisfaction daily.

150. MRI III

Kulkarni MN

SDM CMS & H, Dharwad.

Anatomy hackers have analyzed the students for dermatoglyphics, yoga, hair pattern exam orientation and results etc. But they have been not analysed by the students.When a student enters into a professional course he/she had been already exposed to teachers (Male/female) over 12-13 years. This helps them to analyze the faculty. This observe, likes dislikes are revealsd . Such observations of students are analyzed. It is a dissection of teachers by students. The opinions given in the questionnaire form were collected, tabulated and analyzed. This is Magnifying Real Image of teacher - III.

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