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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts (51 - 100)

Author(s): Members

Vol. 54, No. 1 (2005-01 - 2005-03)

52. Analgesic Effect of Loperamideon Intrathecal Injection in Rat

SB Ray, D. Varma & S Wadhwa,

Department of Anatomy AIIMS, Delhi

Abstract Introduction:

Pain is described as a necessary evil. Morphine and related alkaloids are still the most effective analgesics in the physician's armory for treating pain. However, many physicians hesitate to use morphine or other opioid drugs because of side effects of tolerance and dependence. As a result, use of morphine in India for relieving pain is among the lowest in the world. (113 th of 131 countries). In contrast to morphine, loperamide is an opioid drug with little abuse liability. It is being used in humans as an anti motility agent for non-infective diarrheas and earlier study has noted analgesic effects after intrathecal administration of loperamide in mice. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare the loperamide to that of morphine on intrathecal administration in rat.

Materials and Methods:

Male Wistar Rats (N=21) were divided into three groups: Group I (N=9) received 25 micro grams of loperamide, Group II (N=8) received 5 micro grams of morphine and group III (N=5) received normal saline. That drugs were injected in the spinal theca between L5 and L6 vertebrae using sterile tuberculin syringe. The analgesic response was measured by tail flick apparatus.


Morphine produced an analgesic response which lasted for just over four H. However, the analgesic response of loperamide was significantly higher than morphine (between 2 to 10 H) and persisted for a much longer time (more than 10 H). However, three of the rats of group I displayed temporary motor impairment of the hind limbs.


Loperamide produced a robust analgesic response as compared to morphine. The effect may have been due to closure of calcium channels in addition to activation of

(m) opioid receptors in the dorsal horn of spinal cord.The motor disability may have been an extension of blockade of calcium channels in the anterior horn cells. Further studies are continuing to determine the optimum dose of loperamide.

53. Preferential Central Neurotoxicitiesof some Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

- An Experimental Study.

Dr. Nafis Ahmad Faruqi

Dept of Anatomy, JN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh.

Abstract: Streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamycin and neomycin are commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotics. Experimental rats (6 for each drug) received afore mentioned antibiotics in a dosage of 30 mg, 400 mg, 35 mg and 100 mg per kg body weight, respectively for 21 days. Biochemical analysis was made in different parts of central nervous system i.e., spinal cord, cerebellum, pons, inferior colliculus medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex. Preferential affinity by said antibiotics was noticed. Streptomycin had affinity for medial geniculate body, spinal cord and cerebellum. Kanamycin preferred inferior colliculus and auditory cortex. Gentamycin and neomycin produced maximal toxicity at cerebral cortical level. Although it was difficult to find out the exact mechanism of these preferential effects but heterogenecity of the brain and drug affinity for enzymes seemed to be the most likely cause.

54. CNS Malformation in MiceFollowing Cyclophosphamide Exposure During Intrauterine Life and its Immunological Correlation.

Prakash,*, SM Singh **, Gajendra Singh*, MP Singh **, S Kumar *

Dept of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, School of
Benaras Hindu university, Varanasi.

Abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CP), the most widely used alkylating agent, was administered to pregnant mice on day 10 of gestation in dose of 10 or 20 mg per kg body weight. The fetuses when collected on day 19 at 8 AM by sacrificing mothers exhibited a large spectrum of central nervous system malformations. Main gross defects were reduction in weight and brain, distortion of shape of the brain, hemorrhages on brain surface and inside ventricular cavities and hydro cephalus. Important histological findings include hemorrhages in the ventricular cavities and choroids plexus, non-canalization or incomplete canalization of cerebral aqueduct, internal hemorrhages in various other parts of brain eg. cerebrum and cerebellum, thinning of cerebral cortex with gross decline in neuron population suggesting retarded cytodifferentiation in all layers. There was an apparent decrease of cellularity particularly in the external granular, pyramidal and internal granular layers as compared to the controls.

55. Morphometric analysis ofhypoglossal nucleus in rat

L Arora, J Khanna and R Prakash

UCMS and GTB Hospital, Delhi

Abstract: The hypoglossal nucleus plays a fundamental role in controlling the movement of the tongue. For decades rat hypoglossal nucleus has served as a mammalian prototype. Otoneurons, which supply functionally, related muscle groups tend to form aggregates or pools in defined areas of hypoglossal nucleus. These motor neurons have been recently studied using HRP and retrograde fluorescent techniques, which demonstrate the pooling of neurons within the nucleus. Despite these studies, relatively little work has been done on neuronal size, number and density of different neurons in different pools. The present work is an attempt to analyze the morphometry of hypoglossal nucleus.

56. Vagal Schannoma - A case Report

Patil Kalpana V*, Deshmukh SD**

Government Medical College, Aurangabad *Lecturer in Anatomy. ** Associate Professor in ENT.

Abstract: Tumors of the nerves are not common tumors in the next as compared to other tumors in the neck. Vagal tumors (Schannomas) are not commonly seen tumors like tumors of the salivary glands and other vagal tumors in the neck grow slowly and usually present as swelling in lateral part of neck and later on they also produce swelling on lat.wall of orophrnyx by pushing the palatine tonsil medially. Here we are reporting a case of vagal schnnoma presented to us with complaints of slow growing mass on lat.side of neck from last 1& half year and since last six months she developed dysphagia and change in voice. We had examined this 65-year-old female by doing all necessary investigations including CT scan of neck which made us to suspect this mass to be vagal tumor. We had removed this tumor completely by taking lat. oblique incision and the mass was extending from C1 level to hyoid bone. Histopathology showed the mass to be vagal schannoma. This case is presented because of uncommon occurrence of vagal schannomas.

57. Diastematomyelia - A Rare Form of Spinal Dysraphism

SS Roychowdhury, PK. Verma, AS Nikam & ST. Ambedkar

MIMER's Medical College, Telegaon (D) Pune

Abstract: Diastematomyelia can be defined as a complete or incomplete sagittal division of the spinal cord by an osseous or fibro cartilaginous septum. It is part of the spinal dysraphism complex that is characterized by a congenitally longitudinal split of the spinal cord and or the filum terminale. Aim of the present study was to confirm the diagnosis of Diastematomyelia in an aborted 27 weeks old foetus by dissection. On ultrasonography, a pre-natal diagnosis was made following presence of a suspicious echogenic area in the lower lumbar region. Bilateral clubfoot was also an associated anomaly. Following a medical termination of pregnancy, the foetus was examined, X-rayed, scanned (CAT scan) and relevant dissection was then carried out in the department of anatomy, to confirm the diagnosis and extent of anomaly, and the findings were noted. A bony septum extended dorso-vertebral defects and bilateral clubfoot, were also present. The findings are reported and discussed here.

Key words: Diastematomyelia, longitudinal split, spinal cord, foetus, ultra sound, pre-natal diagnosis, bony septum, clubfoot.

58. Effect of Electrical Foot ShockStress During Embryonic Period on the Development of Neurons of Substantia Nigra - in Albino Mice

B. Prakash Babu, Muddanna S Rao & Ramachandra Bhat K

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

Brain is highly dynamic organ and plastic structure. It can be affected by toxins, stress and malnutrition. Aim of the present experiment was to see the effect of the electrical foot shock stress during embryonic period on the development of the neurons of the substantia nigra in albino mice observed in postnatal period,. In the present experiment adult pregnant albino mice were given foot shock (80-90 volts, 50 Hz for 2-3 seconds at 5 min intervals) for 3 hrs/day in a foot shock apparatus either from the day of the conception or the 16th day of conception till delivery. Pups born to stressed mother were allowed to grow with the mother until postnatal day 21 (P21). At postnatal day 22(P22) these pups were sacrificed. Pups born to unstressed pregnant adult mice of same age (control) were also sacrificed. Substaintia nigra was dissected out and processed for Golgi staining.

59. The Role of Skeletal Muscle in the Evolution and Development of the Neural Tube

K. Vijay Kumar

Guntur Medical College, Guntur, AP

There were many theories and arguments regarding the ancestors of vertebrates and the factors which lead to the evolution of the tubular nervous system. However, many were unsatisfactory. Therefore, I would like to propose a hypothesis.

There are three stages in the evolution of the nervous system. The most primitive one is the network type, where there is neither polarization nor centralization of neurons. The second stage is characterized by the evolution of the ganglionic nervous system. The skeletal muscle brought with it the tubular nervous system, the higher part of which is the brain. The embryology of the neural tube also supports this assumption. Chorda mesoderm induces the neural tube. The notochord, neural tube and the paraxial mesoderm together form an apparatus. This apparatus, which gives rise to the embryo, takes precedence over the viscera in the vertebrates.

60. Close Association betweenLateral Root of Median Nerve and Musculocutaneous Nerve

Sushmita Ravela, Susmitha D, D Sree Lekha, S. Swayam Jothi,

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

The observation made during routine dissection of nine male cadavers and one female cadaver showed the following anomaly of the lateral root of median nerve and musculo cutaneous nerve.

In one cadaver on the right side, lateral cord of brachial plexus joined with medial root of median nerve to from the medial nerve. The branch to coracobrachialis was given at the middle of the arm along with the branch to biceps. At the lower 1/3 of the arm, the musculocutaneous nerve was given off, which supplied brachialis and continued as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.

In another cadaver on the right side, lateral cord of brachial plexus joined the medial root of median nerve and formed a common trunk. Branch to coracobrachialis was absent. At the junction of upper and middle 1/3 of the arm the musculocutaneous nerve was given and it gave rise to lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm at its origin and then supplied biceps and brachialis.

On the left side, like the right side, the common trunk was formed and from it, a branch supplied coracobrachialis. At the lower limit of 1/3 of arm, the musculocutaneous nerve was given off and was seen to supply biceps and brachialis and continued as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.

61. Abnormal Branching Pattern of Nerve to Mylohyoid

Md. Khaza Ahmed Khan, D. Sree Lekha, D. Sai Sucheethra, Jacintha Antony, S. Swayam Jyothi,

Katuri Medical College & hospital, Guntur

During routine dissection of sub mandibular region in nine male cadavers and one female cadaver, we came across the following anomaly on the right side of one male cadaver aged above 45 years.

In the sub mandibular region, the nerve to mylohyoid gave 4 to 5 branches to the submandibular salivary gland and then proceeded to supply mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastric. The course on the left side was normal. On further exploration we found a twig of communication between lingual nerve and nerve to mylohyoid close to the last molar of the mandible on the right side.

But in this cadaver in addition to this connection, that the nerve to mylohyoid was giving many branches to the submandibular salivary gland.

63. Appendices Epiploicae inAppendix

D. Sai Sucheethra, D. Sree Lekha, Vathsala & S. Swayam Jothi Dorai Raj.

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

During routine dissection of abdomen in nine male cadavers and in one female cadaver got from Hyderabad, for the first time we observed the presence of appendices epiloicae in eight male cadavers.

Of the ten cadavers appendix was situated in the retrocaecal position in three, subcaecal position in two and in pelvic position in five.

Three taeniae coli on the ascending colon and caecum converge on the base of the appendix merging into its longitudinal muscle. The anterior caecal taenia is said to be usually distinct and traceable to the appendix affording a guide to it. In our observation, we feel that the appendices epiploicae related to it probably had continued on the appendix.

64. Anterior Mediastinal Mass-Dermoid Cyst: A case study

Deshmukh AG., Morab MV, Jadhav S, Mhaisekar

Govt. Medical College, Nanded.

10-15% of anterior mediastinal masses are Germ cell tumours out of which 70% are teratomas. A rare case of anterior mediastinal mass as dermoid cyst was found in Govt. Medical College & Hospital, Nanded.

70-year-old female patients came with complaints of progressive breathlessness, cough with expectoration since 2 months, and left side chest pain since one month.

Patient was a known case of COPD since 10 years. All hematological investigations were within normal limit. Chest X-ray showed large anterior mediastinal mass circumscribed of size 9x11 cm. appear cystic with calcified wall.

CT thorax showed non-enhancing rounded, well-defined hypodense mass not separated from pericardium.

On FNAC wet smear was prepared which showed putty material-squamous epithelial cells and mucus cells which was suggestive of Dermoid Cyst.

65. Incidence of Extra Papillary Muscles in The Left Ventricle of Human Heart

Grace Mon Kuriakose and K Gopinathan,

Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi.

In the heart of one of the cadavers used for teaching medical students, the left ventricle showed three extra papillary muscles in addition to the usual anterior and posterior ones.

All these three accessory papillary muscles arise from the diaphragmatic wall of the left ventricle. Two of them are of moderate size and lie to the left lateral side of the posterior large papillary muscle; arranged one behind the other. The anterior one gives chordae tendinae only to the anterior leaflet of mitral valve while the posterior one gives Chordae tendinae to both the cusps. The third accessory papillary muscle lies hidden behind the usual posterior papillary muscle, sending its chordae tendinae to the posterior cusp only. This is an interesting variation not observed or reported before.

66. Absent Median Lobe of the Thyroid Gland

Sushil Kumar, R Bhatnagar

Armed Forces Medical College, Pune

Thyroid gland is the first endocrine gland to start developing in the embryo. The gland is well known for its developmental anomalies ranging from common and frequently seen to rare ones.

An uncommon and clinically important developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland showing absent median lobe (isthmus) resulting in two separate lateral lobes, resembling two hockey sticks, is reported and discussed.

67. Accidental Falls in the Elderly - I

Tadikonda Prathima, Dr. BT Narayana Rao, Dr. V. Subba Raju,

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur, SRM Medical College, Kattangulathur, Chennai.


To discuss and analyze accidental falls in the elderly people.

Materials and Methods:

As trials are usually fatal, only inanimate objects are used as study materials; including corpo-graphic imitations.


It is concluded that accidental falls are governed by intrinsic and extrinsic factors (environment, etc).

68. Accidental Falls in the Elderly - II

Tadikonda Prathima, Dr. BT Narayana Rao, Dr. V. Subba Raju,

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur, SRM Medical College, Kattangulathur, Chennai


To suggest various ways of prevention of falls in the elderly people; as prevention is better than cure.

Prevention of falls:

Various ergonomic solutions are suggested to help elderly to perform their ADL (activities of daily living) safety and independently.

69. The Dilatations of Foetal Oesophagus

Venkata Sai Babu Bendapudi, Chaitanya Deepak, Yadlapalli, Dr. BT Narayana Rao & Dr. S. Swayam Jothi

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

Oesophagus is a region with number of congenital anomalies. Hence, a detailed study was carried out in 55 full terms still born fetuses.

The dilatations of the oesophagus were classified according to their shape.

In the cervical region in 54 fetuses the dilatation was diffuse (98%) and in one it was fusiform extending from 4th cervical to 2nd thoracic vertebrae (2%).

In the thoracic region, the diffuse dilatation was found in 18 fetuses (32.73%), fusiform in 27 (49.09%) and flask shaped in 9 (16.36%). In 1 (2%) there were 2 fusiform dilatations. In the thoracic region, the dilatation extended between 2nd to 9th vertebral bodies. In the fetus showing double dilatation one was extending 1st to 3rd thoracic vertebra and the other from 4th to 8 th thoracic vertebra measuring 7 mm and 1.1 cm respectively, producing impressions on the right lung.

70. Curvatures of Oesophagus

Lakshmi Kiranmayee Kurada, Dr. BT Narayana Rao & Dr. S. Swayam Jothi

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

The curvatures of the oesophagus were studied in 55 full term stillborn fetuses.

There were two types of curvatures - antero-posterior and side to side.

There was a single antero-posterior curvature with its concavity forwards in conformity with the vertebral column. The antero-posterior curvature was exaggerated in 4 specimens (7.25%).

The fetal oesophagus was having two curvatures to the left side of the midline, one in the cervical region and another in the lower third of the thoracic part.

The first curvature of the oesophagus was from the midline portion at its commencement to the left at the level of the thoracic inlet and was very slight in 30.91% of fetuses. In the others, the curvature varied from C3 to T2, to C6 to T3.

The second curvature was present in the lower part of the oesophagus in the thoracic region. In 16.36% the curvature was extending between T5 to T8 in 14.5% from 7th to 9th thoracic vertebra and in 12.72% from 6th to 9th thoracic vertebra. The curvature was not prominent in 9.09%. In few percentages, the level of curvature showed variations from T3 to T8 to T11.

71. Association p53 Expression with Clinico Pathological Parameters in Pre Malignant and Malignant Oral Lesions

Minnie Pillay, Vasudevan DM, Chitra Prakash Rao, Vidya M.

Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin

Mutation at the p53 tumor suppressor gene has been found to be the single most frequent genetic alteration observed in human cancers.

The present study used an immunohistochemical technique to investigate p53 protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant oral lesion. The immuno staining results were further correlated with clinicopathological parameters of the tumours, and with overall patient survival to investigate a possible influence of p53 on the progression and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas in a section of south Indian population. The results of the study are discussed in detail in this paper.

73. Evaluation of Normal AdrenalGlands by Spiral CT Scan

Dr. Fazal Ur Rehman, Dr. Faisal Haque**, Dr. S. Taqeer Fazal***, Dr. S. Zafar Abbas*** & Dr. Iqbal Naseem***

JN Medical College, AMU. Aligarh

CT body scans of 100 random patients without evidence of adrenal disease were reviewed to determine the location, size and shape of both normal adrenal glands. Both glands were clearly delineated in 94% of the patients evaluated. The length, width and thickness of adrenal glands as measured on computed temography were similar to comparable measurements from surgical and autopsy studies. The observations and result will be discussed at the time of presentation.

74. Variations in Cord Column Ratio Percentage in Fetuses of Different Gestations

Dr. NB Devi, Dr. BN Rao, Dr. V Sunitha

MIMS, Nellimarla

Fetuses of 10 weeks gestation to full term are collected and spinal cords were removed after laminectomy. They are fixed in 10 percent formalin and the cord column ratio percentage was obtained in 50 fetuses. The results are compared with that of earlier authors and the data will be placed before the conference for discussion.

75. The Site of Umbilical CordInsertion on the Placenta in Hypertensive Mother

Dr. Dahiphale VP, Dr. Ambekar S.A, Dr. Diwan CV

SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai, MH

The study of site of insertion of umbilical cord of the placenta in pregnancy - induced hypertension was conducted in SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai. The placentae were obtained from the department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study was carried out on 210 cases including normal and hypertensive. The hypertensive cases were classified into mild, moderate and severe. The insertion percentage was calculated with the help of d/r x 100 (d stands for the minimum distance between the site of insertion of umbilical cord and margin of placenta and ‘r' stands for radius of the surface area of the placenta). The site of insertion was labeled central, medial, lateral and marginal depending upon the insertion percentage. The association between the insertion percentage in placentae of different category were calculated in normal, mild, moderate and severe hypertensive mothers.

76. Study of Foeto-Placental Ratioin Normal and Low Birth Weight Cases

Dr. Kshirshagar S.V., Dr. Ambedkar SA, Dr. Diwan CV

SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai, MH

The present study was carried out to study the foeto-placental ratio in this region. And to study the placental weight in the cases of low birth weight and to find out the foeto-placental ratio in the low birth weight cases.

Total 210 foetal and placental weights were obtained over period of 6 months from the department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed separately for the normal and low birth weight cases.

It was observed that in the case of low birth weight, the placental weight was significantly low.

77. Exomphalos - A Case Report

Thammana Sridevi, D. Sree Lekha, Matha Priya Darshini, Dr. DC Madhusudhana Rao &, Dr.S. Swayam Jyothi Dorai Raj

Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur


This case was reported as the boy survived and came to the hospital at the age of eleven and was operated.

Material and method:

Sukumar 11 year old boy reported to the surgical OP with a tomato size swelling in the midline in the epigastric region. As the swelling gradually increased in size and the boy was brought to the hospital. On eliciting the history the mother told that the boy was delivered out with the umbilical cord and that the doctor told her that it would be a life threatening problem if the umbilical cord is cut.

An omphalocele is a herniation of abdominal contents through the umbilical ring. The omphalocele is covered by a sac composed of an outer layer of amnion and an inner layer of peritoneum.

Operative findings:

The presenting case is an epigastric omphalocele caused by partial failure of cephalic fold formation. The swelling had the surrounding skin overlapping it with a covering of amnion, which was epithelialised, and a peritoneal covering. Part of the liver formed the content. Contents were reduced and the defect was repaired.

The mortality rate for infants with omphalocele ranges from 30% to 60%. In this case, the boy has survived and hence this case is presented.

78. Turner 's Syndrome and Pregnancy

Dr. N. Lavanya*, Dr. Vijaya sarathi**, Dr. B. Susheelamma***, Dr. A Jyothi****

Bhaskar Medical College, Hyderabad.*, Prof. and HOD, Anatomy, BMC, Hyderabad.**
Gandhi Medical College, Secunderabad.***, Institute of Genetics, Hyderabad.

Turner's syndrome consists of total or partial loss of one X chromosome from the normal pair of sex chromosomes in a female with 46, XX.

The karyotypic anomalies are classified into seven groups: 1) classic, 45XO karyotype (52.1%); 2) mosaic 45,XO/46,XX (10.9%): 3) mosaic 45,XO/47,XXX and other "super-female" cell lines (4.6%); 4) isochromosomes I(Xq) and I(Xp) (16.1%); 5) ring chromosomes r(X) (4.4%); 6) other structural aberrations of the X chromosome (7.7%); and finally 7) mosaic 45, XO/46, XY patients (4%).

Prenatal diagnosis and of the new born will definitely help.

Can we bring back the valuable fertility of PREGNANCY of the turner who sometimes presents for the first time only with Primary Amenorrhoea? The answer is YES!!

Various case studies of successful pregnancies in Turner's have proved it!!

79. First Arch Syndrome: Malformations of External and Middle Ear

Mahdi Hassan*, PK Sharma*, Z. Alvi, Navneet Kaur*, and SP Agarwal**,

King George's Medical University, Lucknow

The "first arch syndrome" is recognized as a group of autosomal dominant inherited congenital defects. The complete, fully developed syndrome includes the following features: 1) antimongoloid slant of the palpebral fissure; 2) coloboma of lower lid and absent eyelashes in its medial one third; 3) hypoplasia of the zygomatic bone and mandible 4) Malformations of external and middle ear 5) macrostomia, high arched palate and crowing of dentition with malocclusion. A survey of publications shows that it has been variously described in parts as Teacher-Collins or Franceshetti-Klein syndrome or mandibulofacial dysostosis.

80. Malrotation of Gut and Hind Gut Volvulus

Challa Mohan Ravi Kiran.,D. Sai Sucheethra, D. Sree
Lekha, Dr. Jacintha Antony &
Dr. S. Swayam Jothi Dorai Raj

Katuri Medical College, Guntur

During routine dissection in a male cadaver aged around 45-50 years, we came across the following picture while doing the dissection of abdomen.

On opening the abdomen only omentum was seen. After clearing it lower abdomen was free and a loop of descending colon becoming continuous with the sigmoid colon on the right side was seen. Small intestine and transverse colon were pushed under the diaphragm and there was eventration of the diaphragm on both sides. The dome of the diaphragm was at the level 3rd intercostal space.

The loop of descending colon was plastered to the posterior abdominal wall and was very much thickened. Caecum was in the sub hepatic position and a long appendix was hanging from it.

On opening the thorax, the lungs were broad and short to occupy the available space in the thorax. Heart was normal.

81. Chromosomal Aberrations andits Association with Reproductive Failure

Rima Dada, Kumar R, Jena M, Kiran Kucheria.

AIIMS, New Delhi.

Chromosomal abnormalities and aneuploidies are found to be associated with and have a higher prevalence in infertile males than in the general population. The aberrations not only result in partial or complete spermatogenic arrest but many also result in implantation failure and consequently failure of Invitro fertilization (IVF). Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) had revolutionized the management of infertility and allows infertile couple to procreate.

Cytogenetic and molecular analysis was done in 165 infertile males and 14 couples going in for IVF. 25 well spread G banded metaphase were karyotyped using image analyzer (cytovision, Applied Imaging). In mosaic cases, 50 metaphases were analyzed. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 46 infertile males. we found sixteen cases with Klinefelter Syndrome (KFS), 20 cases were KF mosaic and 6 were mosaic variants, three cases with 46, XY 1qh+ and one case with 46,XY16h+. In one of the fourteen infertile couples opting for assisted reproduction cytogenetic analysis in the female partner revealed 46,XXq-chromosomal complement.

82. Goldenhar's syndrome

Raghu Chakravarthy Vanama, T. Vijaya Ramaraju Gadiraju,Nanda Kishore Bandamudi, Dr. Lakshmi Prasanna & Dr. S. Swayam Jothi

Lankapalli Ramkumar, a three-year old male child was brought to the hospital due to absence of testis in the scrotum.

Past history : No history of illness.
Family History: No history of consanguinous marriage

On Examination: 1) Facial asymmetry was observed 2) Left ear presented 2-3 lobed periauricular tags 3) Left testis was in normal position 4) Right testis was absent in scrotum.

Ultrasonogram showed:

Right kidney was in the rectovesicle pouch region, with gross hydronephrosis.

Left kidney was in its normal position with mild hydronephrosis.

With high resolution ultrasonography, presence of right testis in the inguinal canal was detected.

Orchidopexy was done. The salient features are:

Right side pelvic kidney with hydronephrosis

Left side mild - hydronephrotic kidney

Left ear lobed - periaurical tags.

Facial asymmetry - with slight hemifacial micro-gnathia.

With the above findings the condition fits into Goldenhar's syndrome. It occurs in 1/5600 births.

Asymmetry is present 65% of the cases.

83. In-Vitro Fertilization: Its Principles, Practice and the Role of Embryologist

Major MS Ahuja


Assisted reproductive techniques include IVF, ICSI and GIFT, of which IVF is the one most commonly practiced. These techniques have become a boon to the childless couple and allow the clinician to manage successfully 70-80 percent of cases of infertility. IVF involves application of basic sciences including developmental anatomy, which has been further amplified and refined by technological advancements. The infertility clinics and IVF centers in the West and those coming up in our country require specialized workers. These include the clinician, the andrologist and the embryologist.

84. Amorphous Acardiac Parabiotic Twin - A Report

Girish V Patil, M S Sathyanarayan, J. Shankar, Ramaiah

Dept of OBG, VIMS, Bellary.

A fleshy formless mass covered with skin weighting approximately 650g, presumed to be the second twin delivered by a pregnant woman at term after the delivery of a healthy female baby weighting 2.8 kg was subjected to infantogram, CT Scan and autopsy. The mass showed a tuft of hair at one end, a cloacal pit at the opposite end, an umbilical cord attached to the middle of the mass and rudimentary limb buds. Radiological examination revealed a well-developed vertebral column with ribs and rudimentary pelvic bones and skull bones. In addition to skull bones, autopsy revealed the absence of recognizable organs, a cavity filled with straw colured fluid, umbilical cord with a single artery and vein, thereby indicating twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP). Based on these findings, we conclude that the mass is an Amorphous A cardiac Para biotic Twin.

The incidence of amorphous acaridae parabiotic Twin is extremely rare and is associated with monochorionic twin births.

85. Cephalo- Thoracopagus

Chandrahasa Annem, Dr. Raghavendra Rao, Dr. Govind Raju

PES Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Kuppam (Chittoor Dist., AP)

Bharati, a 25-year-old pregnant female with six months of amenorrhea was brought to the hospital with complaints of abdominal pain and per-vaginal discharge.

On examination, it was found out that she was in labor with a footling presentation of the baby, but no fetal heart sounds could be heard. One hour later, she gave birth to a stillborn male conjoined twins of cephalo-thoracopagus type with slight fusion of the anterior abdominal wall as well.

Examination of the twins revealed: The two faces were fused prominently on the posterior aspect, but only one set of eyes, a nose, mouth and a jaw could be made out. Two sets of ears - one set anteriorly and one posteriorly. In addition, near the posterior set of ears there was an opening, which could possibly be the mouth of the second baby. Thorax was fused along the anterior aspect. And two sets each of the upper and lower limbs were present. The other striking features were that the umbilicus was wide-open raising doubts of the possibilities of herniation.

86. Differential Cellular Pattern Of Estrgen Alpha And Beta Sub Types In Rat Brain

K Sharma, S. Kataria, U Vij#, C Nyaksas* and Raj D Mehra,

AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi
Movement Science Research Laboratory, Semmelweis University,
Budapest, Hungary*

Role of estrogen in brain has been a hot topic of research during last decade or so particularly in areas other than the reproductive areas. Estrogen is considered to influence its target organs by interactions with specific receptors (ERs). While some investigators have reported the localization (lezt) of ER in the nuclei of the target cells, some others and that of our studies on hippocampus have demonstrated cytoplasmic lezt as well. Thus it was thought pertinent to map the rat brain for the lezt, of ER-alpha, and ER-beta subtypes and to comment on their distribution pattern with particular emphasis on intracellular lezt pattern. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on adult (8-10 months, n=6) female rat brain using mouse monoclonal ER-alpha and rabbit polyclonal ER-beta antibodies with PAP and fluorescent immunohistochemical techniques. We report here results pertaining to lezt. in hypothalamus, parietal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Their distinct patterns of perikaryal staining were observe, in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex both ER-alpha as well as ER-beta immunoreactives were localized solely to the perikaryal nuclei (nuclear staining).

87. Effect of Sodium Arsenite onPurkinje Cells of Rat Cerebellum - A Histomorphometric Study

Dhar.P, Mohari N.and Mehra Raj D.

AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, Delhi

The developing nervous system, during rapid brain growth (RBG) period, is reported to be highly vulnerable to a number of environmental insults. In rats, the early postnatal period (postnatal days 4 to 11) coincides with rapid brain growth period in humans (third trimester of pregnancy and early infancy). The present work was undertaken to study the effects of early postnatal exposure to sodium arsenite, one of the fast emerging environmental contaminants on the developing rat cerebellum. Sodium arsenite in doses of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight was administered to wistar rat pups (group II, III and IV) by intraperitoneal route on postnatal days (PND) 4 to 11. Group I, receiving equal amount of distilled water served as the control. On PND 12, the animals were anaesthetized and perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The brains were dissected out. The cerebellum was separated, post fixed and processed for paraffin embedding. 7um thick sections, stained with cresyl violet (CV) were observed for morphological feature of Purkinje and their morphometric features were determined with image analysis system (image Proplus software version 4.5) attached to Nikon Microphot microscope.

88. Development of Spinal Neuronin Anencephaly and Meningomyelocele

Th. Naranbabu Singh, Prof. L Chandramani Singh

RIMS, Imphal, Manipur

Spinal neuron in anencephaly and meningomyelocele was studied to find out the influence of cerebral cortex in the development of spinal neuron. Paraffin sections from the different parts of spinal cord were prepared and sections were stained with H&E and Thiosin (thionin counterstained with eosin). Examination of the sections found that the number of spinal neurons was less in anencephaly and meningomyelocele in comparison to the number of spinal neurons from the normal fetuses. The study revealed that the cerebral cortex might have a role in the development of spinal nerve.

90. Qualitative and QuantitativeObservations of the Carotid Sinus in Ovariectomised Rats

Vishali.N, Kamakshi.K

Department of anatomy. Dr. ALM PGIBMS, University of Madras, Taramani Campus,Chennai.

The estrogens secreted from the ovary have numerous beneficial effects in female. In the post menopausal women the absence of circulating estrogens creates numerous problems. One of the most important after effect is rise in blood pressure. In the study, female Wistar aibino rats weighing 175+or- 20 gms were taken. Bilateral ovariectomy was done on the animals through a dorsal incision.

The carotid sinuses were taken from animals and processed for histology by paraffin method.

Histomorphometrical analysis was also done on the stained tissue sections. The results will be discussed

91. Organophosphorus Compounds Poisoning - A Histological And Histomorphometrical Study

Anita.V and Kamakshi.K

Dr. ALM PGIBMS, University of Madras, Taramani Campus,Chennai.

Organophosphorus compounds (OPS) form a class of chemicals which are widely used as pesticides and insecticides. These compounds are easy sources of poisoning in suicidal and homicidal cases. In the present study, qualitative and quantitative analysis was done on the liver of an OPC poisoned case. Liver tissue from normal and OPC case were taken from post mortem cases and were processed by the paraffin method

The OPC liver showed marked fatty change and chronic inflammatory change as evidenced by perivascular lymphocytic cuffing. There was also marked sinusoidal dilatation and lymphocytic infiltration between hepatocytes. The histomorphometrical analysis for hepatocyte size and diameter of blood vessels and sinusoids also show marked variation from the normal pattern

93. Testis and Duct System in Bonnet Monkey and Albino Rat

*Prithviraj, E. Suresh S and Prakash S.

Dr. ALM Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai.

Aim of the work was to compare testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens from prenatal, post natal and adult bonnet monkey and albino rat - qualitatively and quantitatively. Both in adult monkey and rat the scrotal skins were non-pigmented, scanty hairs and slightly corrugated. Both animals had non-pendulous scrotal sac, but with high degree of mobility of testicles in side the sac. Testes epididymis and ductus deferens were excised after transcardial perfusion. Morphological studies were carried out and tissues were processed for paraffin technique. Quantitative analysis was done using standard stereological principles. Following parameters such as tubular diameter, volume density, numerical density, epithelial heights, etc. were measured. Microscopic examinations of the stained slides from monkey and rat, revealed a normal testicular pattern, with seminiferous tubules packed together showing complete spermatogenesis both in monkey and rat were similar; however there is wide degree of variation seen in middle piece and tail. In epididymis, ducts were lined by tall columnar epithelium with stereocilia.

94. Anatomy Museum - Revisited

Dr. SS.Roychowdhury

Department of Anatomy, MIMER's Medical College, Talegaon (D), Pune

Anatomy is a continuum of knowledge. To facilitate learning, this marvel of architectural, aesthetic and functional design, the human body, has been fragmented into its regions, systems, units or problems. But the student of Anatomy, faced with a mind boggling array of facts, often fails to acquire an integrated understanding of the structure, function, dysfunction and the means to prevent and treat this, as he navigates through his voyage of discovery. The museum in anatomy can provide a vital and visual link towards integrated and self-directed learning, if designed comprehensively. Hence with a view to make our anatomy museums more effective tools for integrating various aspects of Anatomy viz., gross, microscopic, developmental, radiographic, surface, cross sectional, clinical, comparative etc, an attempt was made to redesign the museum in anatomy.

95. Acceptability of Embalming Fluid by Students - An Ongoing Prospective Study

Dr. Daksha Dixit, Dr. Mrs PD Athavia, Dr AP.


Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medial college, Sion, Mumbai

Vapours of embalming fluid in the dissection room are a perennial cause of irritation to the mucous membranes of the pharynx, upper respiratory tract and eyes. An attempt is being made to objectively assess the discomfort level produced by formalin and the discomfort produced by the standardized embalming fluid used at the department of anatomy, Lokamanya Tilak Municipal Medical College.

A list of twenty common symptoms was made and circulated among all students attending dissection and students were asked to grade the severity of each symptom experienced on a scale of 1 to 4. Individual scores i.e. relating to each symptom were statistically compared, as also the summed scores which reflect the general acceptability of the embalming fluid.

Key words: Embalming fluid, formalin, students, symptoms

97. A Study of Effect of Vasectomy on the Structure of Testis

Yusuf Saleem Khan K, Ramappa BM, Ramesh CM, Shakuntala R Pai

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal and JJM Medical College, Davangere (Karnataka)

India has crossed 100 crores mark in population and is about to double within a very few decades. In these conditions some of the very effective contraception in males like vasectomy is failing to have its impact on the masses due to contrasting ideas regarding its after effect on the fertility (in case of reversal of vasectomy) and on health. Even the renowned research workers in this field have totally contrasting ideas on the changes on the structure of testis after vasectomy.

98. Duplication Of The Optic Canals In Human Skulls - A Study

Shailaja C Math K Sandhya, GB Rairam

M.R. Medical College, Gulberga

Bilateral duplication of optic canal is considered to be a rare anomaly. Literature is available and cases are reported showing bilateral and unilateral duplication of the optic canal in dry human skulls. In the present study a case of duplicate optic canals is found out of 100 macerated adult skulls. Bony septa separated the main canal from the duplicate canal. The larger canal usually carries the optic nerve with the meninges and the smaller one transmits the ophthalmic artery.

This study has been made and reported as a rare anomaly.

99. Role Of Proprioception In MotorControl And Functional Joint Stability: A Review

Lt Col Ghatak S,

Armed Forces Medical College, Pune

Proprioception is conveyed to all levels of the central nervous system. It serves fundamental roles for optimal motor control and sensorimotor control over the dynamic restraints and motor control. Although controversy remains over the precise contributions of specific mechanoreceptors, proprioception as a whole is an essential component to controlling activation of the dynamic restraints and motor control. Enhanced muscle stiffness, of which muscle spindles are a crucial element, is argued to be an important characteristic for dynamic joint stability. Articular mechano-receptors are attributed instrumental influence over gamma motor neuron activation, and therefore, serve to indirectly influence muscle stiffness. In addition articular mechanoreceptors appear to influence higher motor center control over the dynamic restraints. Further research conducted in these areas will continue to assist in providing a scientific basis to the selection and development of clinical procedures. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the role of proprioception in motor control and in activation of dynamic restraints for functional joint stability.

100. Anatomical Aspects of the Proximal Femur of South Coastal Population of Andhra Pradesh

Susan PJ, Vimala K, Aruna Dehury

Narayana Medical College, Nellore.

This study had purpose of enlarging the data on South Coastal Population of Andhra Pradesh, providing anatomical fundamentals that allow a better comprehension of clinical and pathological states involving the hip joint. Eighty six human femers and twenty five plane X Rays of Pelvis were used, obtained from the department of Radiology, Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. All the bones had adult characteristics, but no sex or age identification.

Morphometric measures of collo-diaphyseal angle, head-transverse diameter, neck-transverse diameter, neck-vertical diameter. For this purpose, sliding caliper, monometer and measuring tape were used.

The data obtained were statistically analyzed. The comparative analysis of the right and left sides of adult femur demonstrated significantly smaller on the right side than on the left side. The further details of the results will be discussed during the presentation.

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