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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts (1- 50)


Vol. 54, No. 1 (2005-01 - 2005-03)

1. A study of Variation Anomalies of Coronary Artery in Cadaveric Human Hearts

Bhimalli Shilpa, Hukkeri V.B, V.B. Potturi B.R.

Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka


Aim: Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in developing countries like India. The current study is aimed at understanding the normal patterns of coronary arteries with reference to its predominance, branching pattern, variations and anomalies.

Materials and Methods:

The study was carried out on 540 adult human cadaveric hearts of both sexes fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution. The pericardium was removed to expose the coronary arteries and their main branches at the sub epicardial level.


1 90% of the ostia of right coronary artery and 80% of the ostia of the left coronary were below the supra-valvar ridge;

2 No openings were found in non- coronary sinus.

3 Right coronary orifice in majority was at a higher level than the left coronary orifice in majority was at a higher level than the left for coronary orifice.

4 Left coronary artery showed bifurcation in 67.5%, trifurcation in 20%. Quadrifurcation in 5%, 2.5 %of the cases had no circumflex artery and 2.5% had two parallel anterior descending arteries.

5 Right coronary artery dominance was found in 65% of cases. 6 Left coronary artery dominance was found in 17.5% of cases. 7 10% cases had balanced distribution. 8 In 7% of cases posterior inter ventricular artery is a branch of circumflex artery.


The coronary artery and their main branches present a great quality of variation with regard to origin, course and branching pattern. This knowledge is important for interpretation of the coronary angiography and surgical myocardial revascularization.

2. Unilateral Variation in the Origin of Profunda Femoral Artery in a Male Cadaver

Dr. Bharat Trivedi, Prof of Anatomy

Smt. NHL Municipal Medical College, Ellisbridge, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Abstract: Arterial variations are essential in surgical practice. In routine cadaveric dissection of lower limb an old male cadaver revealed right femoral artery is continuation of external iliac artery at the mid inguinal point. Arteria profounda femoris is a large branch arising laterally from about 3 cms distal to inguinal ligament and left exernal iliac artery termination in to the femoral artery and arteria profunda femoris below the inguinal ligament and give branch a lateral circumflex artery about 4.5 CMS distal to inguinal ligament and medical circumflex artery about 3 cms distal to inguinal ligament.

During the routine dissection of lower limb (2003 to 2004) we came across a male body.

With two observations:

A unilateral variation of termination external iliac artery into FA and PFA opposite to inguinal ligament, PFA then descends lateral to femoral vessels in sub sartorial canal it disappeared posterior to femoral vessels then behind Adductor longus.

Important peculiarity from surgical point of view is related to the height to at which the vessel arises.

Main aim, which prompted this study of unusual variation of PFA is due to expanded scope in inventional radiology.

The knowledge of the site of origin PFA helps in avoiding iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistula or severe secondary hemorrhage, while performing femoral arterial puncture.

3. Variations in Renal and Testicular Veins - A Case Report

Sharmistha Biswas, J.C. Chattopadhyay, H. Panicker, J Anbalagan and SK Gosh.

Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Wardha, Maharashtra.

Abstract: This study reports an additional renal vein on the right side draining directly into IVC. This variation was observed during a routine dissection in a middle-aged male cadaver. On further dissection, it was seen that this additional vein received the right testicular vein, which otherwise drains directly into IVC. The renal veins on the right had a normal course, lying anterior to the renal artery and ureter. On the left side, two veins were coming out from the upper and lower borders of the hilum and they joined to form the main left renal vein, which passed in front of the aorta. The lower vein rather than the left main renal vein received the testicular vein of the left side.

These variation are of immense importance because its implications in various renal transplantations, renal surgeries, uroradiology and testicular/gonadal surgeries. Thus the knowledge of these variations could help the clinicians in its recognition and protection. Embryological basis of this variation is also discussed.

Key words: Additional renal vein, testicular vein

4. Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve and Accessory Head of Biceps Brachii: A case report

Arora L and Dhingra R

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi

Abstract: During dissection of a 55-year-old female cadaver, we observed that three nerve roots contributed to the formation of median nerve in ther right upper limb. Along with this variation, absence of Musculocustaneous nerve was noticed. The muscles of front of arm i.e. biceps Brachii, Brachialis and Coracobrachialis received their nerve supply from Median nerve. The lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was derived from Median nerve. Also an accessory head of Biceps brachii muscle was present in the right arm of the same cadaver. It is extremely important to be aware of these variations while planning surgery in the region of axilla or arm as these nerves are more liable to be injured during operations.

5. Variations of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves

Girish V Patil, Amarappa Naglekar, Ramaiah

Department of Anatomy, VIMS, Bellary

Abstract: The most frequent post thyriodectomy complication is recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage with subsequent vocal cord palsy. Present study was undertaken in the department of anatomy with the help of department of forensic medicine over a period of six months from January to June 2004 to determine the course, distribution and anatomical relationship of RLN with adjacent structures. A total of 150 RLN were studied in 75 cadavers, of which 46 (61.33%) RLN were posterior to inferior thyroid artery on Right side & 58 (77.33%) on the left side; 42 RLN (56%) bifurcated above the inferior thyroid artery on the right side while 39 RLN (52%) exhibited the same on the left side. This study reinforces the fact that proper anatomical knowledge is essential to avoid damage to RLN during thyroid surgeries.

6. Additional Head of Biceps Brachii with the Bilateral Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve

GC Poornima

Department of Anatomy, JSS Medical College, Mysore

Abstract: It is a well known fact that biceps brachii has two heads and supplied from branches of musculocutaneous nerve (MCN). During routine dissection, a case with the presence of 3rd head of biceps brachii, which took origin from anteromedial aspect of humerus, distal to the insertion of coracobrachialis & inserted to bicepital aponeurosis was observed. It was supplied by lateral branches of median nerve. Also bilateral absence of MCN in the same cadaver was seen. The median nerve with the normal formation and origin, fromn its lateral side innervates coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis bilaterally & on the left side to third head of biceps. The nerve was found to be not piercing coracobrachialis.

In this case the presence of third of biceps, absence of musculocutenous & muscles of the anterior compartment of arm being innervated by median nerve is of interest to anatomists, surgeons, orthopeadicians, (from developmental point of view) as it can be mistaken for tumours, nerve entrapment conditions & vessels thrombosis moreso third head supplied by the median nerve being a rare anomaly makes this case more important to medical fraternity of concern.

7. Psoas Minor Muscle: A case report

Dr. Jitendra P Patel, Dr BD Trivedi,MS (Anatomy)

Department of Anatomy, NHL Medical College, Ahmedabad

Abstract: During the course of routine dissection reflection of posterior abdominal viscera's revealed the bilateral existence of well formed psoas minor muscle originating from T12& LI side of vertebral body and from intervening fibrous arch, muscle get inserted to iliopubic eminence. Psoas minor is a long, slender, weak muscle that assists in flexing the trunk and spinal column. Psoas minor at its origin lying just in front of the psoas major muscle has small belly and long tendon like plantaris and palmaris longus muscle. It is getting its nerve supply from LI fibres, which are coming, through psoas major muscle. The presence of this muscle varies from person to person. It is present in about 60% of population.

8. Case of Feminine Distribution ofFat in a Male cadaver

Dr. Mini Kariappa

Department of Anatomy, Jubilee Mission Medical College, Thrissur.

Abstract: A male cadaver aged about fifty years (unidentified body received for dissection) was seen to have a feminine distribution of fat with gross obesity.

Aim of study:

To find out about the gross abnormalities found in this body and to find a plausible cause. Materials and methods:

The said cadaver and usual dissection room instruments.

On dissection a layer of fat was found all over the body including soles of feet. Muscles such as the rectus abdominis and lattssimus dorsi were replaced by fat. Mesentery and all abdominal organs were completely laden with fat. Pituitary gland was minute and tests were small and atrophied. All these and other features will be displayed during the conference.

9. Chaos Science & Weight Bearing Foci in the Biped.

C. Jairaj Kumar * & Arunachalam Kumar **

Medical student*, Prof & HOD, Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore.

Abstract: The human foot is admirably adapted to withstand the heavy demands that bipedalism imposes on it. This compact mass of bones, muscles, fascia and ligaments is superbly adapted to biped locomotion and stance. In this brief study we report out observations on the changes, if any, in weight bearing adaptations and modulations of feet caused uninterrupted and prolonged standing. We continuously monitored footprint pattern alterations and changes in an adult male volunteer. Our inferences show that, that the weight bearing surface of the foot, the sole, constantly varies its area of surface contact during extended weight bearing. Outlines of feet, recorded at minute intervals for 10 minutes show that the size, shape and contours of the footprints underwent continuous and measurable change. Plotting the positional shifts of twelve fixed loci 28 alignment to the reference line during the period of bipedal stands.

We discussed the implications of these observations in terms of applied biophysics and clinical implications. Our conclusions show that the constant shifting and altering in different points of weight transfers are best explained through application of the principles of chaos theory. The random and irregular variations show that the science of chaos plays a vital role in extended bipedal static stance maintenance postures by randomly and constantly redistributing the foci of weight transmission.

10. Right sided Sigmoid Colon - A case report

Pasricha Navbir, Jethani SL, Sohail, A.P, Rai Jyothi

Himilayan Instituted of Medical Sciences, Dehradun

Abstract: Defective fixation during embryological development is responsible for a variety of colonic malpoisitons. Although the Sigmoid colon is known to be afflicted with many diseases relating to its anatomical peculiarities, but the variations are less reported in relation to the Sigmoid Colon. During routine dissecting practice at Himalayan Institute of Medical Science, Jolly Grant, Dehradun, a rare anomaly was found in a male adult cadaver. The descending colon normally follows the lateral border of left kidney and descends in the angle between the psoas major and quadratus lumborum, occupying the left iliac fossa. In the present study only the lower part of descending colon was shifted to right side, which resulted in Sigmoid colon along with mesentery being shifted entirely to the right of the midline, and continuous with the rectum in the midline. The left iliac fossa was empty. Colon was normal at other positions. Familiarization with such an abnormality is an essential in the interpretations of barium enema examinations.

Details of the anomalies and its embryological correlation will be presented and disc cued.

11. Structural Radio Imaging Studies in Autism

Dr Mini Kariappa

Dept of Anatomy, Jubilee Mission Medical College, Thrissur

Abstract: Autism is a nuero developmental disorder, which is characterized by language delay, stereotyped behaviour and social defects. The disorders seem to be due to variations in the brain. Various regions have been inconclusively implicated.

Abnormalities in the brain have been found in about 8 percent of cases in similar studies conducted elsewhere in the world. Our study finds such abnormalities in twenty percent cases which is much more than expected. The different entities found will be discussed during the conference.

12. Human body - A network of networks

Dr, H.A Buch

Ahmedabad Dental College, Ranchodpura

Abstract: Human body is at the least a three dimensional dynamic network. Usual, anatomical descriptions tend to ignore the natural conditions probably for the sake of simplifying rather oversimplifying the subject. This reductionism creates its own complications in anatomy teaching and learning.

The plexiform nature of all vessels and nerves is of obvious, but only parts of them have been recognized and as such allotted special names, eg. Brachial plexus, cruciate and anastomosis. The human body network is classified and/ or ossified at places - no wonder, therefore - that bones, cartilages, joints, muscles and teeth are in continuity; and not just contiguity - with each other. If you add blood to this, the connectivity is complete.

The structural network may mean functional network through only potentially aptly demonstrated by myocardial ischemia and retina end artery. It appears to depend upon bandwidth. The network has its individual variations and it transgresses the midline of the body. The network concept has many and varied implications in normal and abnormal situations. It is the physical basis of misguided regeneration in Frey-syndrome as for example. It also explains automatic recovery from facial palsy, failure of local anesthesia and various pain relieving nuero surgical procedures, and even remote metastasis. The network showers benevolence to surgeons' deeds and misdeeds. The concept may extend to include nuero psyco endocrino, immunological interconnections.

13. Two Cases of Accessory Hepatic Ducts

*Dr. Rajasekhar Y Dunda Reddy, **. GM Mahesh

Department of Anatomy, KIMS, Hubli ** Dept of Anatomy, JJMMC, Davanagere (Karnataka)

Abstract: Human beings are singularly alike in their general anatomical constructions; yet when we come to investigate one particular region with more detail, it is surprising how frequently we meet with one sort or another.

The exact incidence of all types of anomalies of the biliary ductal system is unknown. Accessory hepatic ducts have been reported as occurring in 58% by Flint, Johnston and Ansen reports 31% and Micheals observed in 18 percent; and the present study the incidence is 5 %.

The data collected in the present study may help the postgraduate and surgeons.

We have studied 40 specimens of liver with extra hepatic biliary apparatus by detailed dissection method. We have observed in two specimens accessory hepatic ducts.

Serious injury to the ducts leading to bile leakage, peritonitis, shock etc, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is because of failure to recognize at operations unusual anatomic relationships are the persistent in adult life of vestigial ductal structures like accessory ducts.

The present paper is a humble attempt to create and reinforce awareness of such variations. Details of the same will be presented and discussed in the conference.

14. The Course, Relations &Branching Pattern of the Middle Meningeal Artery in Maharashtrian Skulls.

Dr. Yatiphatak

Lecturer in anatomy, NDMVP Samajs Medical College, Nasik.

Abstract: During the study of the branching pattern of the MMA we found that the course and relations of the artery did not always confirm to a uniform pattern and varied depending upon a number of factors. Hence a detailed study of the relation of MMA to the endocrinal surface of the bones of the cranial vault was undertaken to define various patterns of its course.

The endocrinal course and the branching pattern of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) were studied using 100 sides of dried skulls. Using Adachifs classification of branching types of the MMA, Type -1 was found to occur at highest frequency (42%) and type-2, type-3 was at almost equal frequency (30&28). (There is additional middle branch arising from the anterior ramus (type-1), additional middle branch arising from the posterior ramus (type-3). This Matches with Japanese skulls as far as Type one is concerned but unique as far as type two and three is concerned. Sex and side predominance was not taken into account during study. The average stem length was found 24 mm. In three instances where the stem was nearly 55 mm, it reached the upper part of the SQT & branched. In injuries of the MMA we must be aware of the variations of its branches as well as of its anastomoses. Ligature or clipping of the MMA for bleeding after injury will be totally or partially insufficient in many of these cases variations.

15. Anomalous branching pattern of arch of aorta - A case report

Gosavi Shilpa, Garud RS, Purnaik MG

Department of Anatomy, Bharati Vidyapeeth ,Deemed University Medical College, Pune

Abstract: Many variations in the great arteries arising from the arch of aorta are known. In the routine dissection of heart and great vessels of an adult male cadaver anomalous origin of right subclavian artery and left vertebral artery were found. The branching pattern of the arch of aorta from right to left showed right common carotid artery, left common carotid artery, left vertebral artery, left subclavian artery and the right subclavian artery. After arising from the posterior surface of the arch of aorta, right subclavian artery ran upward and backwards and then became retresophageal to continue further as right axillary artery.

Though the left vertebral artery was directly arising from arch, the right vertebral artery was seen as a branch of first part of the right subclavian artery. These arteries showed marked variations in their circumference. The variation was also seen in the vertebral level at which these arteries enter the foramen transversarium.

The simultaneous existence of these variations can be explained on the basis of development., knowledge of such variations is important for surgeons operating on great vessels or during neck dissection.

16. Bifurcation of Brachial Arteryat Higher Level and Crossing - A case report

Dr. Dahiphale, V.P. Dr. Diwan C.V.

SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai (MH)

Abstract: In routine dissection of the upper limb of right side of an adult male cadaver, the brachial artery was bifurcated at higher level i.e. at the level of insertion of corarcobrachialis into medial and lateral branches.

After a short course these branches cross each other i.e. lateral branch becomes medial and then continues asulnar artery. The medial branch become lateral and then continues as radial artery.

The radial artery enters into the foramen runs a normal course but without giving any branch in the arm as well as in the forearm.

Ulnar artery in the forearm gives branches, which supply the anterior as well as posterior compartments of the forearm because posterior interosseous artery was absent. Also ulnar artery gives branches, which are normally given by radial artery.

Bifurcation of brachial artery at higher level has been reported previously but crossing of the two terminal branches of brachial artery was never reported.

17. Anomalous Circle of Willis


Department of Anatomy, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala

Abstract: An interesting anomaly was seen in the posterior segment of the circle of willis of one of the brain specimens obtained from cadavers used for teaching purposes. The left posterior cerebral artery of the brain was seen arising from left internal carotid artery and is connected to the terminal part of basilar artery by a thread like thin channel. The dimensions, course, and area supplied by this abnormal posterior cerebral artery are not exactly similar to the normal one of the right side. This anomaly can be crucial in cases of occlusion of internal carotid artery.

18. An Unusual High BranchingPattern of the Brachial Artery - A case report

Dr. Sandhya Kurup, Mr Gracemon Kuriakose

Department of Anatomy, Amrita Institute of Medical; Sciences, Kochi, Kerala

Abstract: During routine dissection, an unusual high branching of brachial artery was observed in a male cadaver in the left upper limb.

The brachial artery began as the continuation of axillary artery at the distal border of Teres Major. It lay superficial to the flexors of the arm, crossed in front by the median nerve from lateral to medial. The profunda brachii branch arose from the posterior surface of the proximal part of brachial and divided into 2-3 muscular branches and an aberrant branch, which passed parallel along the brachial artery.

The brachial artery divided in the middle of the arm into an ulnar and radial artery. The ulnar artery passed superficially in the cubital fossa and forearm, till the flexor retinaculam. No branches arose from it.

The radial artery passed superficial to the tendon of biceps and lateral to the median nerve at the cubital fossa. It then divided at the neck of radius into a common interosseous and a trunk, which continued superficially in the forearm.

The aberrant branch from Profunda brachii divided into two branches and formed a loop around the radial artery at the neck of rdius. A few deep branches arose from it. The further course of the anomalous vessels is discussed with its embryological and clinical significance.

19. High Level Bifurcation ofCommon Carotid Artery With Cervical Carotid Siphon - A case report

K Aravindhan

Dept of Anatomy, PSG medical College, Peelamedu, Coimbatore (TN)

Abstract: The common carotid artery which is an indirect and direct branches of arch of aorta on the right and left side respectively. Normally, the common carotid bifurcates at the level of upper border of thyroid cartilage. However, variations in the branching level have been reported in the literature, including its absence and an anomalous branch. Even though, the anatomic anomalies of the supra-aortic trunks and their branches are comparatively frequent observations, they often remain asymptomatic throughout life but many complicate surgical interventions involving that anatomical region. The bifurcation above the level of tip of the greater horn of the hyoid bone was found in a male cadaver on both sides of the neck is reported here. Anatomical knowledge of origin, course branching pattern and level of bifurcation of common carotid artery will be useful to the surgeons to ligate the vessel during surgery in the face and to avoid unnecessary complications during carotid endarterectomy and in removal of tumors related to the artery in the neck.

20. High Branching Of BrachialArtery And Superficial Radial Artery - A case report

Mrs. Nagalaxmi

Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, JSS Medical College, Mysore.

Abstract The brachial artery, a continuation of axillary (at the lower border of Teres Major) artery ends by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries (at the level of the neck or radius). The radial artery extends from the medial side of the neck of the radius to the front of its styloid process, medial to the radial shaft proximally, anterior to it distally. In the routine dissection a variation in the branching pattern of brachial artery and course of radial artery was observed. A unilateral high branching of brachial artery was found in middle age male. The brachial artery was branching at the level of middle of the arm about 4cms below the distal border of teres major muscle into ulnar and radial braches. The course of ulnar artery was normal (as per classical explanation) but, the radial artery was superficial throughout its course from its origin lying deep to the skin, superficial fascia, between flexor carpi radialis and brachioradialis at the distal end, rest of the course of radial artery was normal. The high bifurcation of brachial artery and superficial radial artery is of interest to clinicians especially the avoidance of accidental intra arterial injection with reflectory vascular occlusion leading to necrosis.

21. Morphometric Study of Foetal Pancreas of Different Gestational Age Groups

Dr. B. Narasinga Rao, Dr. Sunitha, Dr. NB. Devi

Abstract: Fifty fetuses of gestational age group from 10 weeks to full term have been obtained from OBG department of King George Hospital and Victoria Hospital, Vishakapatnam. The fetuses have been preserved in 10% formalin immediately. These fetuses constituted the study material for the present paper. Quite a good number of authors studied human adult pancreas and compared it with the pancreas of other vertebrates. It is found that in north coastal Andhra Pradesh the morphometric study of fetuses of different age groups has not been undertaken; hence the present study.

In all age groups pancreas was extended from loop of duodenum towards the hilum of spleen with a slight upward extension.

The dorsal and ventricle buds could not been seen even at the tenth week of gestation.

The fusion of pancreatic buds and formation of head, body and tail has been completed before 10 th week. Detailed discussion will be presented before the conference.

22. Study of MusculoskeletalCongenital Anomalies in the Teaching Hospital of Nepalgung Medical College at Kolhapur

Dr. Arun Kumar. S. Bilodi.


Aim: To find out types and percentages of Musculo skeletal Anomalies among the patients attending the OPD or orthopedic department of Neapalgunj Medical College, Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur, Nepal.

Period of study: A Two year study from the fiscal 2058-59 to 2059-2060 (Vishnu Savansthar)

Place of Study Nepalgunj Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur, Nepal.

Results: This study revealed highest incidences of anomalies in the lower limbs (68.29%) while incidence in the upper limbs was 23.33%. Two cases of vertebral anomalies were also found. (2.43%). Some rare anomalies like agenesis of radius, was observed. Then they well correlated compared with workers and reported. Rest will be discussed in the conference.

23. Comparative Study of Cord Brain Weight Percentage in Human Adults and Fetuses

Dr. BN Rao, Dr. NB Devi, Dr. V Sunitha,

MIMS, Nellimarla. AP

Abstract: The spinal cords of adults and fetuses have been obtained and preserved in 10% formalin. So much so the brains were also removed from adult cadavers and fetuses.

The spinal cords and brains thus obtained are subjected to morphometric analysis, a comparative study of brain weight and spinal cord weight has been made, and the results are computed for further discussion at the conference.

24. Congenital talipes Equinovarus

Venkata Gurunath Sarma, B, Nanda Kishore
Bandlamudi, D. Sai Sucheethra, D Sree Lekha,
Dr. S. Swayam Jyothi

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

Abstract: In a full term normally delivered baby, there was meningocele at the lumbar region. The right leg showed Talipes Equinovarus. The baby lived for 5 days and died due to rupture of the meningocele and secondary infection.

Since the talipes was in association with the meningocele it would have been an associated anomaly or due to genetic abnormality or due to positional reasons.

The foot was inverted and laterally rotated. There were well defined creases on the medial side of the foot and the medial malleouls was buried deep inside. Lateral malleolus was prominent. There were scaly lesion on the skin, over the foot and leg on both sides.

During the prenatal period, conservative line of treatment with retention shoes can help. If it is not of use, surgery has to be undertaken.

25. Bladder Exstrophy Considered as Spectrum of Anatomic Variants during Embryogenesis.

Dr. Uma Puri*, Dr. Navin Vishwanth**

Consultant Prof, Dept of Anatomy*, Registrar, Dept of Pediatric Surgery**
TN Medical College and BYL Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumbai


Introduction: Bladder exstrophy includes pubic diastases and male/female epispadias, associated with imperforate anus and cloacal exstrophy. The variants represent different degrees of omphalocele. These are encountered above the level of exposed bladder. Defects in anterior abdominal wall, anterior wall of bladder and urethra and the pubic symphysis are produced by non-formation of anterior cloacal membrane at 3 to 4 weeks of intrauterine life. Non-migration of mesenchymal tissue in the lower abdominal wall and the position and timing of the rupture of the cloacal membrane would determine the variant of resulting epispadias exstrophy complex.

Aims and Objectives:

a) To study the mal development of lower anterior abdominal wall leading to exstrophy of urinary bladder which may be associated with other defects. b) To study, how the knowledge of Embryogenesis and Anatomy has helped the surgical treatment of exstrophy of urinary bladder.

Materials and Methods:

1. Study was conducted on 10 cases at TN Medical College and BYL Nair Charitable Hospital in collaboration with the pediatric surgery department. Correction by surgery was done in these cases of exstrophy of urinary bladder in stages. Staged surgery was done on infants of 6 months to 1 year of age.

1st stage - osteotomy with bladder closure

2nd stage - epispadias repaired at 2 to 3 years of age.

3rd stage - bladder neck reconstruction done at 4-5 years of age.


  1. 20% acceptable continence was achieved.
  2. In those with incontinence and vesicoureteral reflux, the resultant bladder capacity was reduced by 50% normal.
  3. The anatomical study has helped the pediatric surgeons to correct the defect and improve the prognosis.

26. Anomalies in Fetal Pancreas - A case study

Dr. V Sunitha, Dr. B. Narasinga Rao, Dr. NB Devi.

Abstract: Fifty fetuses of various age groups ranging from ten weeks to full term were collected from KGH and VGH for the present paper. The fetuses were preserved in 10% formalin.

Out of fifty fetuses, 2 fetuses showed anomalies.

Annular pancreas has been identified at the gestational age of 35 weeks. The total length of annular pancreas is 8 cms, the width of each segment is 1 cm. Total weight is 400 mg. The mobile tail has been identified in 2% of cases. This is a rare variety of tail, which is mobile and conforming to be the adult pattern in one fetus of 33 weeks gestation. These anomalies will be discussed at length during the seminar.

27. Cardiovascular Anomalies in Thoracopagus twin - A case report

Royana Singh and C Mohanty

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

Abstract: Human twins have always been of special interest to pediatricians and others concerned with the congenital malformations. Thoracopagus twins, the most common variety of conjoined twin (75%) have in 90% of cases common pericardial sac for both twins (Antonelli D et al. 1986), Noonan, 1978 states that the previous attitude of considering this problem as rare medical curiosity has changed to that of a challenging congenital anomaly to be assessed and treated if possible.,

Thoracopagus twin survival depends on the site of union of the twins and the resultant fusion of their vital organs. A case of thoraopagus male twins delivered by caesarean section on 37 weeks of gestation is presented here. The twin died after 24 hours of severe respiratory distress and acidosis. The twin was studied with a particular interest in the cardiovastucular system, as it is one of the vital organs, which influences the twin survival after successful separation. The twin shared a common pericardial sac and a single heart. The heart exhibited two artrial chambers, placed caudally possessing four auricular appendages. The fused ventricle was placed cranially and consisted of three chamber and two aortic outlets for the two twins respectively. These findings of the cardiovascular system arising out of the cardiac angle, has been reported earlier in another similar case (Singh G et al., 1976). However the mode of conjunction, as the degree of fusion laterally or in a facing position seems difficult to interpret.

28.Third Branchial Arch Fistula - A case study

Dr NM Suresh Asst Prof, Dr. Gurucharan Singh, Prof and HOD, DV, Venkateshu, Prof.

SDUMC, Kolar, Karnataka

Abstract: Congenital fistulas at the neck are branchial in origin and of the se second arch fistula is by for the most common, 3rd and 4th arch fistula being very rare. Here a case of fistula studied in a patient aged about 18 years, normal male in coordination with plastic surgery department.

The patient was having mucous discharge in the neck since birth. On examination revealed a 3 mm diameter opening seen 1 inch distal to the center of sterno-cleidomastoid muscle along the anterior border on the right side.

To confirm as branchial fistula, fistulo-gram was done, which revealed a communication with the oral cavity. Then surgery was undertaken and fistulous tract was exercised. The details will be discussed at the time of presentation.

29. Duodenal Artresia

Dr. V. Rajaram, MS., Dr. T Hariharan, MS

Institute of Anatomy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai

Abstract: A newborn infant who died immediately after birth was dissected out to find the cause of death.

On opening the abdomen. There was rent at the meso colon and stomach was found to be much dilated Duodenum was collapsed. Atretic band was seen at duodenum. Meconium oozed out on opening the stomach. The first part of the duodenum was dilated and found to be inside the rent.

First part end abruptly and there was no continuity with distal part except the band without lumen. The duodenal atresia was confirmed and presented for discussion.

30. Fraser Syndrome - A Case Report

Dr. Sharada B Menasinkai

Asst Prof. in Anatomy, JSS Medical College, Mysore

Abstract: Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral anophthalmia and bilateral rental agencies associated with skeletal malformations and genital abnormalities. In 1962, Franser described the first case presenting with these abnormalities.

A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalities and to detect the possible etiological factors and system wise distribution of congenital anomalies. Data for the study was collected from Cheluvamba Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Mysore.

During the study period of 5 months, the total number of births including abort uses (> 20 wks), stillbirths and live births were 3000. Among the 61 babies with congenital anomalies, one case resembled Fraser syndrome reported in literature.

31. Carbimazole induced thyroidhistopathy in albino rats during development

M. Tariq Zaidi, Aijaz A Khan, M Balai Hasan and Nafis A Faruqi

Department of Anatomy, JN Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh

Abstract: Although personal preferences may affect the choice of the anti thyroid drug, almost all of them are known to cross the placental barrier as well as secreted into the milk. Thus, they affect the thyroid status of the developing fetus and the new born. The present study was carried out on twelve pregnant albino rats; 6 control and 6 experimental. The experimental female rats received carbimazole in an oral dose of 5 mg/250g/d, from 10 th day of pregnancy to 21st day of lactation. At the end of experiment the pups were perfusion fixed with 10% formalin. The thyroid glands were dissected out and processed for paraffin sections and light microscopic observations. As compared to control, the thyroid gland of pups from experimental group revealed over all shrinkage through its general cytoarchitecture remained intact. Most of the follicles were very much reduced (<1/4th of control) with scanty homogenous colloidal material. The follicular cells were cuboidal compared to flattened/low cuboidal in control. The number of follicular cells/follicle was also reduced. None of the follicle revealed absorptive vesicle. It was concluded that carbimazole administered even in therapeutic dose during pregnancy and lactation resulted into altered thyroid macrostructure of newborn suggestive functional hypothyroidism.

32. A comparative quantitative study of retina of aves and mammals

Dr. B.N. Rao, Dr. V. Sunitha, Dr.N.B. Devi

MIMS, Nellimerala, AP

Abstract: A comparative and quantitative study of cells of retina of aves & mammals has been undertaken to find out the modifications in the retinae with regard to the habitat.Eye balls of owl, hawk, dog & sheep have been obtained & the usual prparatin & procedure for histological study of sections have been undertaken & the sections have been subjected to H&E & triple Mallory stain for differentiation of photo receptor cells.

The different relative percentages of visual receptors of owl, hawk, dog & sheep have been studied & will be presented in the conference.

33. Effect of peripheral nerve injury on spinal cord of rabbit

Farhan kirmani, Muzammil Ullah, Nafis A Faruqui, Aijaz. A. Khan

Department of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh

Abstract: Study was conducted with an aim to see the effect of peripheral nerve injury on ventral grey horn cells of spinal cord. Eight adult rabbits were used in this study. Under general anesthesia, the trunk of right radial nerve was cut in axilla in six rabbits and its deep branch was cut in two rabbits. Left side was used as control. After post lesional survival period of 8-28 days the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of chloroform an perfusion fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Cervical spinal cord segments (C5-c*) and thoracic spinal cord segment (T1) were processed for paraffin embedding. From all blocks 40-micron thick serial transverse sections were obtained and stained with thionin. The stained sections were studied microscopically to see the effect of peripheral nerve injury on ventral gray horn cells of spinal cord. Two types of cells were observed in the ventral grey horn on experimental (right) side, one type of cells show3ing typical chromatolysis (Nissl, 1892) and other type of cells showing cell body response without typical chromatolysis (Grafstein, 1975). The above two types of cells were found in all experiments of study irrespective of duration of post operative survival period (8-28days) of the animal.

34. Histochemical study of mucosubstances in normal human vermiform appendix

Dr. Mrs. Rohini R Karambelkar, Dr. B.N. Umarji, Dr. Mrs. M.A. Doshi, Dr. M P Ambali

Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad

Abstract: The gastro-intestinal tract is lined by epithelium secreting muco substance which perform a wide variety of functions like lubrication, protection against acids, etc,. In present day mucosubstances present in linining epithelium and crypts of human vermiform appendix are studied. Ten normal human appendices obtained during autopsies or surgical removal were collected and fixed in 10% formalin with 2% Ca acetate. 4-5 micron thin sections were cut after preparing paraffin blocks.

The sections were stained by using specific stains like Periodic acid Schiff, Alcian blue of different Ph and aldehyde fuschin signally and in combination. Confirmatory tests were also carried on. The normal human appendix shows presence of acidic muco substances mainly which are predominantly carboxylated or weakly acidic.

The carboxylated mucosubstances posses an antiviral and antibacterial property. Any change in its nature makes appendix vulnerable for infection. The results will be discussed at the time of presenting the paper.

35. Mammalian Coronary Arteries

- A Comparative HistologicalStudy

Huma Khan, Aijaz Ahmed Khan,Nafiz Ahmed Faruqi

Dept of Anatomy, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh.

Abstract: Coronary artery is considered to be medium size muscular artery. However, literature dealing with coronary arteries comparative histology remains scanty. In the present work a comparative histological study of the coronary arteries was carried out in mammals viz. buffalo, goat, rabbit and rat. Haematoxylin-eosin and Weigert and Van gieson stained 10 u, thick sections were observed under light microscope, three tunics ie tunica intima, media and adventitia of arterial wall were clearly discernible in all animals. Taking wall thickness in rat as unit, it was 1.5 in rabbit, 3 in goat and 10 in buffalo. Thus total arterial wall thickness was in proportion to the somatic size of the animal. In buffalo sub endothelial connective tissue was in the form of 4- 5 laminated structures while in goat it was just identifiable, in rabbit and rat remains inconspicuous. In buffalo internal elastic lamina was in the form of a thick amorphous band. It was just discernible in goat while in rabbit and rat appears as undulating or wavy structure. In buffalo tunica media consisted of 5-7 alternate lamina of circular and longitudinal fibers while in general media consisted of circularly arranged smooth muscles. Tunica adventitia consisting of loose connective tissue surrounded by subepicardial adipose tissue; however, in buffalo prominent trabeculae of adventitial origin penetrate deep into the muscular coat. It was concluded that coronary artery of buffalo shows closer similarity with human coronary artery, prominent and variably developed subepicardial connective tissue, prominent internal elastic lamina .Longitudinally running fascicles of smooth muscles in the outer part of tunica media.

36. Identification Of Islet Cells By Gomori's Modified Azocarmines Stain In Adult & Foetal Pancreas

Dr. V. Sunitha, Dr. B. Narasinga Rao, Dr. N.B. Devi

Abstract: Fifty fetuses of gestational age group from 10 weeks to full term have been obtained from OBG department of KGH and Victoria hospital, Vishakapatnam. These fetuses have been constituted the study material for the present paper.

Gomori's modified azocarmine also called Mallory's Heidenhain Gomori's modified stain is being designed to show the differences in alpha, beta & delta cells simultaneously in the Islets of Langerhans.

The tissue for this purpose has been preserved in Bouin's solution & subjected to azocarmine stain as per standardized techniques developed in the laboratory.

Alpha granules of both adult & fetal islets showed bright red.

Beta granules showed dingy orange brown.

Delta cells showed dark blue.

The results will be discussed in the conference.

37. Morphology And Distribution OfPeribiliary Glands

Madhur Gupta* & Upjeet Kaur**

*Department of Anatomy and Department of Experimental Medicine & Biotechnology *Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh

Abstract: The presence of peribiliary glands in relation to the bileducts has been well documented in humans. This study was undertaken to document the distribution of peribiliary glands and nerve elements. The longitudinally cut open bile duct, common hepatic duct and its first and second degree branches were examined under a dissection microscope. Paraffin blocks were prepared from bile ducts where pin point pits were identified and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Marsland, Glees and Erikson's silver stain were observed under the light microscope. Glandular structures were identified around the liver capsule, in the loose connective tissue and juxtaposed to the bile ducts. An intramural gland communicating with an extramural gland was also demonstrated. Silver stains revealed a rich component of nerve elements including neurons in the loose connective tissue. In the human liver intra hepatic peribiliary glands are distributed around the liver capsule and juxta biliary areas and in the intervening loose connective tissue which is rich in neural elements.

38. Staining Properties of Extract of Lawsonia Alba

Shirol Veereshkumar S.

Department of Anatomy, JN Medical College, Belgaum

Abstract: The plant "Lawsonia alba" belongs to family "Lythraceae" in the plant kingdom. It is best known for the coloring matter contained in the leaves. The coloring matter was extracted from dried leaves with the help of Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The stain solution was prepared from the extract and it was used to stain the paraffin sections of various organs. The staining properties and staining effect of the extract on the tissues and organs of various systems of the body were studied

The extract of leaves of Lawsonia alba acts as an acid stain. It stains the cytoplasm and intercellular substance with brownish yellow color. The coloring matter present in the leaves is "Lawsone" and the staining properties are attributed to it. It acts as a progressive stain. It was observed that longer the tissues were treated with the extract, deeper was the staining. Optimum staining effect was seen after treating the paraffin sections with the extract solutions for ten minutes. The staining procedure and the staining effect of Lawsone on different types of tissues and organs will be discussed.

39. Epidermal Estrogen ReceptorsIn Truncal Skin Of Patients With Alcoholic Liver Disease And Healthy Males

Shipra Paul *, Vishal Modgil*, Nirmal Kumar**, Ak Mandal***, Neelam Vasudeva *

Department of Anatomy*, Pathology***, Maulana Azad Medical
college & Department of Gastroenterology**,
GB Pant Hospital, New Delhi

Abstract: Chronic alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality. The scanty truncal hair distribution has been shown to be a risk factor for development of severe ALD. The purpose of the present study was to correlate the relationship of truncal hair distribution and estrogen receptor (ER) in the truncal skin of healthy malesand compares it with patients of ALD. The study group comprised of 40 subjects which were divided in to two groups (Gp I 1-20 patients of ALD and Gp II - 20 healthy volunteers). Each group was further divided into two subgroups of 10 subjects with scanty and 10 subjects with profuse truncal hair distribution. Punch biopsy of the skin was taken from the truncal region. Biopsy material was subjected to immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies to ER. The percentage positivity was calculated. There was significant increase in the number of ER positive cells in patients of ALD as compared to healthy volunteers with scanty truncal hair distribution. The study also showed that there was a difference in the number of percentage positivity of ER cells in scanty and profuse truncal hair distribution in patients of ALD. Our study indicates that patients of ALD have higher ER positivity compared to healthy males and there could be a systemic up regulation of ER in patients of ALD.

40. Development And MaturationOf Suprarenal Glands In Human Foetuses

Dr. Damayanti N, Dr. Tempy G. Dr. Y.I.Singh

Department of Anatomy, RIMS, Imphal.

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to study the development and histogenesis of the suprarenal gland in human fetuses.

One hundred suprarenal glands (both right and left) in different periods of gestation were used.

At 12 wks the shape of the right and left suprarenal glands are the same (both tongue shaped) and the size is same as that of the kidney. At 14, 16 and 18 weeks both are tetrahedron covering the anterior surface of the kidney up to the level of hilum, more on its media aspect. At 20 wks the left assume a crescentic shape and more definitely so at 26 wks. By about 28 wks the suprarenal to kidney size ratio is 1: 1.5 and at term the ratio is 1:3 and the gland is shifted a little above the level of the hilum. The left suprarenal gland is heavier than the right in all age groups. Suprarenal growth during development is gradually uniform throughout except slight increase in the rate of growth between 18-24 and 34 to 40 wks. The cyto architecture of the 12 wks suprarenal shows a superficial zone and a larger deeper zone. The cells in the superficial zone are small with deeply staining nucleus and scant peri nuclear cytoplasm. The inner zone is characterized by 2 to 3 rows of cells at right angles to the superficial zone radiating in columns towards medulla. The cells are bigger with more cytoplasm and lighter nucleus. From 28 wks the outer zone cells organize into arcuate shape, the future zona glomerulosa. The deeper cortical cells form the main bulk of the suprarenal in the late foetal period and are continuous on its inner side with medulla. At term the chromaffin cells are much more distinct, but the three district zones of the adult is not yet attained as the differentiation of zona reticularis is still incomplete.

41. Age Related Changes InArticular Cartilage of Knee Joint

Neeru Goyal & Madhur Gupta,

Department anatomy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research,Chandigarh

Abstract: Articular cartilage, hyaline in nature covers the articular surfaces in joints. It does not ossify and is moulded to the shape of underlying bone but its surface is devoid of perichondrium often extenuating and modifying the surface geometry. Femoral articular cartilage of knee joint was divided into two groups: Group A obtained from cadavers of 18-40 yrs of age and Group B above 40 yrs onwards. The cartilage was processed for paraffin sectioning. 10mm thick sections were stained with Haematoxyllin and eosin for routine examination, Trpp and Mackay for the of calcification and Glees and Marsland for the arrangement of fibers. Four zones described were observed in both age groups. In group A the cartilage had a smooth glistening surface and was uniformly cellular while in group B it appeared to be discontinuous and irregular and having islets in zone II and zone III which were not observed in group B compared to group A. Articular cartilage derives its nutrition by diffusion from synovial fluid and vessels in the periphery of synovial membrane. Contribution from these sources may change affected by variations in its GAG content resulting in changes in its histological structure.

42. Metopism An Incidental Finding(Or) Salient Indicator

Dr. TS. Guga Priya, Dr. N. Rajasekaran, MS., MCh., Dr. TR Kalavathy, MS (Director)

Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai

Abstract Backdrop:

Sutures of skull always fascinate and that in addition, a usually disappearing suture fascinates more when it persists. The metopic suture, which normally disappears by 3 yrs, is found to persistent in 0-7.4 % and that holds forensic importance to be differentiated from frontal fracture.


A study of persistent metopic suture in 150 skulls at Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai


Incidence of metopism and associated features were noted in the skulls and whether it is a coincidental finding (or) a silent indicator with significance is discussed.

43. Study of Palatine Foramen in Dry Human Skulls

P.R, Singh, MK Anand, CJ Raibagkar

Pramukh Swami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat.

Abstract: A study was carried out on 200 dry human skulls, which were collected from various medical colleges of Gujarat. With the help of scale and compass the location, shape, presence and absence of palatine foramina of skull was done bilaterally.

Greater palatine foramen situated medial to the 3rd maxillary molar teeth and lesser palatine foramen seen behind the greater palatine foramen allows the passage of vessels and nerve of their name.

Greater palatine foramen was present in all the skulls studied. The average size on right side was 3.94mm and 4.12mm on left side with the largest size being 5.75mm and smallest being 1.75mm. When compared bilaterally 30% of the skulls showed difference of more than 0.5mm.

Lesser palatine was found to be smaller than greater palatine foramen. It was absent bilaterally in 1% of the skulls studied with 4% of the skulls showing unilateral presence.

Average size of foramen was 1.25mm on right side and 1.32mm on left side, the largest and smallest being

3.0 and 0.25mm respectively. Also the lesser palatine foramen was multiple in 46% of the skulls studied with difference of more than 0.5mm bilaterally in 28% of skulls when compared.

The palatine foramen and change in their position has been used to study the palatal growth. Accessory lesser palatine foramen has been reported with high incidence with racial and sexual variation. Other details will be presented at the time of presentation.

44. Cleft Hand and Foot (Lobsterclaw deformity)

Azhar Siddiqui, MD, Laeeque, AG Shroff,

Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Aurangabad.

Abstract: Bilateral presence of cleft hand and foot is a very rare anomaly. It consists of an abnormal cleft between the 2nd and 4th metacarpal bones and soft tissues. The 3rd metacarpal and phalanges are almost always absent., usually the thumb and index finger, as well as the 4th & 5th fingers may be fused. The two parts of the hand are somewhat opposed to each other and act like lobster claw. Similar findings may be present in foot. This condition may be mostly associated with other anomalies of face, eyes, and skeletal defects.

We are presenting herewith a rare case of bilateral complete cleft foot and hand with syndactyly. The presence case is not associated with any other anomaly as described in various books and articles.

The etiology, family history, genetic causes, association with other anomalies, early diagnosis, treatment and comparisons will be discussed in the conference.

45. Relative Index of HumanLumbar Spine

Dr.RN Jadav

Department of Anatomy,
Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Jolly Grant, Dehradun.

Abstract: This paper is aimed to study the relative height index of human lumbar spine in males and females of different age groups and to correlate authors finding with the findings of other workers. The study was carried out by radiographs of lateral views of lumbar spines of males and females of different age groups ranging from 15 to 51+ years. Total 400 X-rays were taken in lateral recumbent position with knee joints at 45 degrees under the supervision of an experienced radiologist. Anterior heights and posterior heights of lumbar inter vertebral discs and lumbar vertebrae were measured by caliper as accurately as possible. From these measurements, the relative height index of lumbar spine is calculated.

Relative height index gives ratios of growth of lumbar inter vertebral discs and their corresponding vertebrae. According to present study, in all age groups and at all levels, the relative height index is near uniform in both males and females. Attempt is made to discuss our results with the help of charts.

46. Position And Direction Of Mental Foramen In Adult Mandibles

Dr.Mehra Bhoir, Dr.MV.Ambiye

Department of Anatomy, T.N. Medical College, Mumbai

Abstract: Knowledge of the commonest location of the mental foramen is very important to dentists in endodontic treatment, periodontal and pre prosthetic surgery and to administer mental block anesthesia. In all these procedures, the exact position of the mental foramen will prevent injury to the mental nerve.

Also, in an orthopentogram, sometimes the overlap of the mental foramen on the roots of the lower teeth may & affect the interpretation of the radiograph.


  1. To determine the commonest position of the mental foramen in adult mandibles
  2. To find the commonest direction of the position of the mental foramen.

Material Methods:

Position of the mental foramen in relation to the lower pre molar and molar teeth was noted by visual examination on 60 adult mandibles of both sexes, with out alveolar resorption and malposition of teeth, and was classified in 6 groups.

Direction of mental foramen was noted and classified in 4 groups.

Results and conclusions: Will be discussed during the presentation.

47. Morphometry Of DevelopingMaxillary Sinus In Human Fetuses

Dr. Farah Gaus, Dr.Nafis Ahmed Faruqi Dr. Syed Mobashir Yunus

Department of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College, AMU, Aligarh.

Abstract: Thirty-seven human fetuses of different age groups (16 - 34 weeks of intra uterine life) were divided into five groups of 8, 10, 10, 6 and 3 fetuses respectively. Maxillae were separated along with related bones by sagittal section through pterygopalatine fossa. Maxillary sinuses were dissected out from the nasal aspects and vertical diameters were measured with the help of Vernier Calipers. Fetuses of 17 - 25 weeks of age show maximum growth rate for three dimensions. Antero postreior diameter in smaller fetuses (<17 wks of intra uterine life) while vertical diameter in fetuses of 21 - 25 weeks of intra uterine life are relatively higher on the right side.

Maxillary sinuses are relatively larger in male fetuses. Antero posterior dimensions of the maxillary sinus show faster growth relative to head circumference while vertical and transverse diameters keep pace with the head circumference.

48. Morphometry Of Humerus - AnAnatomical Study On Indian Origin

Dr. Molly.M.Paul, Dr. Ajay Kumar

Christian Medical College, Ludhiana.

Abstract Aim of study:

1. To give the sufficient and relevant data on Indian origin. 2.To sex the bone.

Material and Methodology:

230 adult humerii of unknown sex from department of anatomy CMC&H Ludhinana.

Parameters: Weight, Total length, Epicondylar width and Vertical diameter of humeral head.


Electronic weight balance, Osteometric board and Vernier calipers.

Statistical analysis.

Results & Conclusions:

According to Krogman the degree of accuracy in sexing adult from long bones is 80%. The data is useful for surgeon who involved in limb reconstructive surgery. The result will be discussed in light of literature.

49. Styloid Process Length: ACase Report With Discussion

S.R.Nayak*, Narayana.K*, Waled.R**, Arunachalam Kumar*

*Center For Basic Sciences, Department of Anatomy, K.M.C, Mangalore.

** Associate professor, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

Abstract: Abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing inflammatory changes that include continuous chronic pain in the pharyngeal region, radiating otalgia, phantom foreign body sensation (globus hystericus ), pain in neck, throat or face and dysphagia. We here in report of a specimen that showed bilaterally long styloid process. Their lengths exceeded the normal by 150%. The variation in dimension of the process and their clinical implication are discussed.

50. Unusual Lengthy StyloidProcess

Taraka Vijaya Rama Raju, Nanda Kishore B, D Sreelekha, Dr. Swayam Jyothi

Katuri Medical College, Guntur

Abstract: Among 20 skulls and 10 temporal bones available in the department, we came across one temporal bone with a very long styloid process presenting a length of 47 mm.

The part with the sheath measured 6mm and the tympanohyal part 15mm including the sheathed part. The stylohyal part measured 16mm and the ossified part of stylohyoid ligament measured 16mm.

Such a long styloid process can lead to recurrent neck pain, and can be palpated through the tosillar fossa.

There was a case reported to the medical OP for recurrent mucosal inflammation of the buccal mucosa behind the last molar of the lower jaw, and was referred to the dental OP for sharp tooth. While palpating for the sharp tooth, incidentally, the sharp end of styloid process was felt, and was recognized and confirmed with an x-ray, as being the cause for mucosal infla

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