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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

ABSTRACTS OF THE PAPERS PRESENTED IN THE FORTY EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE ANATOMICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA, 2000,HELD AT DEHRADUN

Author(s): Editors

Vol. 50, No. 1 (2001-01 - 2001-06)

1. STRATIFICATION OF EPENDYMA OF THE CENTRAL CANAL IN RATS IN RESPONSE TO INJURY

Noorulla, M.

M.I.M.S, Bellur

The ependymal lining of the central canal in response to injury was investigated in young rats. A unilateral incision on the dorso-lateral aspect of spinal cord (thoraco-lumbar) was made, without injuring the ependyma, after laminectomy. The sham operated controlled and lesioned spinal cords at different periods; from day 1 to day 21 (post-operative) were processed for light microscopy. It was observed that the lumen of the central canal of the lesioned spinal cords was collapsed, irregular and lined by stratified layer (3 to 4 layers) of ependyma. The ependymal cells in the lesioned spinal cords proliferate in response to injury. The ependyma lining the central canal of rat retains regenerative capacity a phylogenetic feature of lower forms which can be evoked by a local injury.

2. MORPHOLOGICAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPING HUMAN COCHLEAR NUCLEUS

Mishra, S. Wadhwa, S. Roy, T.S.
AIIMS, New Delhi

The present study was undertaken to observe the morphological and functional maturation of the human cochlear nucleus at different stages of gestation. Aborted foetuses were collected; immersed and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and the brain was removed and preserved in the same fixative for 1-2 weeks. To study the morphological maturation of the cochlear nucleus by light microscopy, the pontomedullary part of the brainstem was processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet. The cochlear nuclei had three components, the anteroventral, posteroventral and dorsal, clearly identified by the 16th week. Total neuronal count and cell density of the ventral cochlear nucleus was calculated by the dissector method. Total volume of the ventral cochlear nucleus, diameter and area of the nuclei of individual neurones were measured with the help of an image analyser (Leica quantimet). A steady increase in the volume of the nucleus, the size and total number of neurons was observed with increasing ages, while the neuronal density decreased at the 26th week of gestation. In order to detect the functional maturation of the cochlear nucleus the presence of parvalbumin and calcium binding neuronal marker and the appearance of synaptophysin an indicator for synaptogenesis was observed by immunocytochemistry at different gestational ages. Earliest presence of parvalbumin immunostain was detected at 16 weeks of gestation and a distinct adult pattern was seen at 37 weeks of gestation. Similarly synaptophysin immunostain in the cochlear nuclei was clearly seen at 20 weeks of gestation and adult pattern of synaptophysin immunolabelling was observed at 37th week of gestation. This study shows that the morphological maturation is complete by the 24th week, while though the functional maturation starts by 20th week it is complete by 37th week of gestation.

3. SENSORY ENRICHMENT DURING PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT : MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN THE CHICK AUDITORY SYSTEM

Wadhwa S., Alladi P., Panicker H.
AIIMS, New Delhi

In recent years it has become increasingly evident that correlated spontaneous waves of neural activity and sensory input are essential for an instructive/ permissive role for brain wiring. Would then varying the amount and pattern of neural activity during the prenatal period produce any changes ? The present study has examined the brainstem auditory nuclei, nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris as well as higher auditory association area (MNH) in the chick brain at postnatal day I following species specific and music sound stimuli given during the critical priod of prenatal development. A significant increase was found on volume of both auditory nuclei attributable to increase in length of nucleus, number and size of neurons, number of glia as well as neuropil. The MNH region showed increase in neuronal nuclear diameter and area. Hence, both brainstem and higher auditory regions showed positive influence of patterned activity which may lead to improved behavioural consequences.

4. CALCIUM BINDING PROTEINS IN THE MEDIOROSTRAL NEOSTRIATAL HYPERSTRIATUM VENTRALE (MNH) OFCHICK FOREBRAIN FOLLOWING PRENATAL AUDITORY OVERSTIMULATION

Panicker H.

AIIMS, New Delhi

Parvalbumin and calbindin are calcium binding proteinswhich act as intracellular buffers which enable neurons to displayhigh electical activity without calcium overload. The influx Ca++ions is essential for long term potentiation, a phenomenon importantfor learning and memory. In the present study the changes in theproportion of these proteins were evaluated byimmunohistochemical techniques in the higher auditory associationarea MNH in the chick forebrain following auditory stimulation withspecies specific and music sonds. The study showed a significantincrease in the parvalbumin and calbindin immunopositive cells inauditory stimulated group as compared to control. The speciesspecific groups showed greater increase in immunostained cells ascompared to the music stimulated group compared to control whichcan be attributed to increased protein synthesis. The increase in thenumber and size of neurons containing calcium-binding proteinsmay provide a morphological basis for enhancement of auditorylearning.

5. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON DENDRITES OF HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS

Mitra N.K. Mukherjee A.

MGM Medical College, Navi Mumbai

Many clinical and experimental studies have establishedimpairment of short term memory as a salient characteristic featureof cognitive dysfunction in chronic alcoholics. Hippocampus hasbeen reported to be involved with formation and retention of recentmemory. Our previous study has established reduction in meandensity of normal looking neurons per square mm of section in CA1, CA-2 & CA-3 areas of stratum pyramidalis of Hippocampus(P<0.001) in albino mice fed with 10% ethanol ad libitum for 4months. With a view to correlate these changes in dendriticarborization of Hippocampal neurons, adult albino mice (n = 10)were fed with 10% ethanol ad libitum for 4 months. Control groupwas fed with water in place of ethanol. Brains were fixed for Golgistaining and Golgi stained CA-1 Hippocampal neurons were tracedusing camera Lucida Dendritic area and branching were found to bereduced in ethanol fed mice compared to the control group. Stratumoriens thickness was also found to be reduced in ethanol fed group.

6. EFFECTS OF ROGER AND BAYGON ON HIPPOCAMPAL SUBREGIONS IN RAT : A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

Hemamalini,* Benson M.K.,** Malini,*** Rao M.S.* and Padma** GMR

*Deptt. of Anatomy,

**Deptt. of Pharmacology, K.M.C., Manipal

Roger [Dimethoate] and Baygon [Propoxure] are two commonly used pesticides in agricultural and household pest control. Though there are few studies on these pesticides, their neurotoxic effect especially at morphological level is not investigated. Aim of the present study was to investigate neuro morphological effect of these pesticides on the different subregions of hippocampus. 60 days old rats were divided into 3 groups [1] control - remained undisturbed in the home cage [n=8] [2] Baygon [n=8]. These rats received Baygon orally 550mg/kg/day [from Anu products, Haryana] for 30 days. Roger was dissolved in distilled water. After 30 days of treatment all the rats were sacrificed and their brains were dissected and processed for paraffin sectioning. 5 micron thin sections of hippocampus were taken and stained with cresyl violet and observed under light microscope. But Baygon and Roger affected the CA-1 (cornu ammonis region-1) and CA4 subregions of the hippocampus but not CA2 and CA3. In CA1 and CA4 regions the pesticide treated hippcampus neurons were shrunken, darkly stained and chromatolysed. Their number also decreased. These morphological features suggest neurotoxic affect of the pesticides. This may result in learning and memory disturbances.

7. OCIMUM SANCTUM PREVENTS INDUCED DAMAGE TO THE HIPPOCAMPAL CA-3 NEURONS IN THE RATS

Rodrigues. V., Rao M.S., Satish N., Rao G.M.

Deptt. of Pharmacology I.C.H.S., K.M.C., Manipal

It has been reported that stress can cause decrease in dendritic branching point of hippocampal neurons and neurons of other parts of brain. Study conducted by us indicates that leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (OSE), a known antistressor can prevent stress induced deficiency of hippocampal CA-3 pyramidal neurons in the rats. In the current study adult rats were divided into four groups. (i) Normal Control (NC) - remain undisturbed in the homecage, (ii) Saline Control (SC) - stressed for three weeks by electric foot shock (3h/day), shock at intervals of 5min and during the period of stress the rats received saline (2ml/Kg/D) (iii) 2ml ocimum sanctum treated group (2-OSE)-stressed for three weeks as in SC and during the period of stress the rats received crude leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum plant (2ml/kg/day). (iv) 4ml Ocimum sanctum treated group (4 - OSE) stressed for three weeks as in SC and during the period of stress the rats received crude leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum plant (4ml/kg/day). The rats were then sacrificed and processed for dendritic analysis of hippocampal CA3 neurons. The results showed that the basal dendrites of hippocampal CA-3 neurons of SC group had a decreased number of dendritic branching points as compared to NC group. However, no significant decrease in the branching points of basal dendrites was observed in the case of Ocimum treated groups of rats. In the case of apical dendrites, similar trend of results were found. These results indicate that Ocimum sanctum leaf extract prevents the stress induced dendritic deficiency in the hippocampal neurons.

8. PRENATAL HALOPERIDOL EXPOSURE : GROWTH STUNTING, NEURONAL ALTERATIONS AND BEHAV-IORAL DYSFUNCTIONS OF RATS

Singh, K.P., Shah, G.L., Singh, M.

I.M.S., B.H.U., Varanasi

Haloperidol (HAL), a neuroleptic drug which binds to and block dopamine receptor subtypes DA2, induced significant stunting of fetal body and brain weight of the offsprings of Charles-Foster rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally from gestation day 12-20. Histological examination of HAL treated stunted fetal brain showed no substantial alteration of cortical thickness but exhibited significant deficit in cortical plate and pyramidal cell population. There was a significant reduction in striatum size and large ganglionic cell density in brains of HAL treated fetuses. Prenatally HAL treated rat offsprings showed significantly increased anxiogenic behaviour (anxiety pattern) on open field exploratory behaviour, elevated plus maze behaviour and elevated zero-maze behaviour tests at 8 weeks of age. These behavioral alterations were critically compared with vehicle treated rat offsprings of the same age group. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to haloperidol during critical period of brain development not only induces foetal neuroteratology but also leaves a lasting imprint on young adult rat offsprings resulting into abnormal anxiety state through dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanism.

9. IMMOBILIZATION INDUCED LIGHT MICROSCOPIC CHANGES IN THE CEREBELLER CORTEX OF MALE ALBINO RATS

Rani, A., Singh, D.R., Srivastava A.K., Sahai A.

K.G.M.C Lucknow

Immobilization compounded of fear, isometric muscular contractions and muscle cramps due to specific positioning of albino rats for a period of 48 hours, has been reported to cause structural as well as biochemical changes in the cerebellum (Singh, 1987). Although diffential stainability of Purkinje neurons of cerebellar cortex, in its different parts is reported, immobilization induced structural changes are not documented. The present investigation utilized adult male albino rats for the study of light microscopic alterations in the cerebeller Purkinje neurons from central lobule and ala, both belonging to paleocerebellum, entertaining the peripheral informations of muscular contraction. Cerebella of stressed as well as those of non-stressed rats were processed for Luxol fast blue and neutral red dye staining. Observations revealed the differential stainability, in both groups in the form of dark and light type of Purkinje neurons. An attempt was made to quantify these two types of cells in the folia of vermis and hemisphere respectively. Ratio of the dark to total Purkinje neurons was calculated at the apices and the margins of the folia. Ratio at the apices and the margin of the central lobule was increased from

0.032 (0.032 to 0.519 (0.032) (p value 0.02) and 0.023 (0.020 to 0.0242) (0.103 (p value 0.04). respectively. Similarly a significant increase as noted in the ala, where the ratio was increased from
0.095 (0.030 to 0.693 (0.187 (p value 0.006) at apices and from

0.044 (0.187 to 0.400 (0.133 (p value 0.013) at the margins of the folia.

10. EFFECT OF COPPER CHLORIDE TOXICITY ON COR-PUS STRIATUM OF RAT BRAIN - A HISTOLOGICAL STUDY

Zaidi, M.T., Faruqi, N.A., Abidi S.H.M.

J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh

Copper is an essential trace element due to its functions as a coenzyme , its accumulation is harmful. The present study was carried out to determine the effects of copper chloride on corpus striatum in albino rats. Twelve adult albino rats of either sex were divided into control and experimental groups each. The experimental group received copper chloride 100 mg/kg of body weight orally daily for one month. The corpus striatum was fixed in 10% formaline and processed for paraffin embedding. The 10 (thick sections were stained with Haematoxylene and Eosin, thionin and Kluver Barrera. The tissue examined under light microscope, showed degenerative changes in the form of cavity formation, clumping of degenerated cells and loosening of nerve fibres with the appearance of concentric spaces around the nerve fibre bundles. Components of corpus striatum showed differential effects of copper toxicity, which may be due to their variable vascularity and cellularity.

11. PESTICIDE INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY ON MOTOR CORTEX AND DENTATE GYRUS : A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY IN RATS

Muddanna S.R., Benson M.K., Malini, Padma

GMR Dept of Pharmacology, KMC, Manipal & SMIMS,
Sikkim

In our day to day life we use a number of insecticides to

control insects and pests. Aim of the present experiment was to study the effect of Baygon (propoxure) and the Rogar (Dimethoate) on motor cortex and dentate gyrus. The rats of 30, 60, and 90 days were divided into 3 groups : (i) control (n = 8) - remained in cage undisturbed, (ii) Rogar (n = 8) - received rogar (aqueous solution) orally, 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days, (iii) Baygon (n=8) - received baygon (Emulsion in gum acacia) orally, 550 mg/kg/day for 30 days. After treatment rats in all the groups were sacrificed. Brain was dissected and processed for cresyl violete staining. Motor cortical neurons in both pesticide treated rats showed neurodegenerative changes, such as deep staining, chromatolysis, small nucleus and shrinkage of cells. The number of neurons were also decreased. Dentate gyrus also showed similar neurodegenerative changes. Structural changes were observed in all the age groups studied. These observations suggest pesticide induced neurodegeneration which may be morphological basis for functional deficits.

12. EXPRESSION OF TYPE I ADENYL CYCLASE IN INTRIN-SIC PATHWAYS OF THE HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION OF THE MACAQUE (MACACA NEMESTRINA)

4Pananghat A.K., 3Lauren P.B., 2Daniel R.S., 1Douglas M.B.

1. R.P.C., University of Washington

2. Deptt. of Psychiatric and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington

3. Deptt. of Pharmacology, University of Washington

4. PSGIMS, Coimbatore

The mossy fibre pathway of the hippocampal formation and type I Adenyl cyclase (ACI) have been implicated in long term potentiation and memory function. The present work is an attempt in testing a hypothesis that ACI is located in the mossy fibre pathway and other components of the hippocampal formation in macaques. Immunohistochemical labelling was used on serial sections of the macaque temporal lobe. The different regions of the hippocampus exhibited varying intensity of labelling. Immunohistochemical evidence for ACI expression was observed in mossy fibre pathway and terminal fields of pyramidal cells of the entorhinal hippocampal circuit. Our findings in the present study support the concept that ACI plays a role in the mossy fibre contribution to long term potentiation and suggest that other components of the entorhinal hippocampal circuit may also play a similar role.

13. BRAIN OF ETHANOL ADDICTED ALBINO RATS–A MI-CROSCOPIC STUDY OF CEREBRAL CORTEX

Jayasree, N., Devi, S., Druva, I. Suseelamma, D., Begum Y.

Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam; Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad

Albino rats weighing from 120 to 150 gms are grouped as experimental (20) and control (8) in the ratio of 1 male to 3 females. Experimental animals are fed with illicit alcohol containing 15% ethanol for 9 months. Both control and experimental animals are sacrificed after perfusion with 10% formalin. Brains are dissected, sectioned and cerebrum is studied after H & E staining. A trial is made to understand the inactive behaviour after prolonged consumption of ethanol.

14. BRAIN OF ETHANOL ADDICTED ALBINO RATS- A MI-CROSCOPIC STUDY OF CEREBELLAR CORTEX

Jayasree, N., Rao, N., Suseelamma, D., Begum Y.

Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam; Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad.

Twenty rats (15 female and 5 male) were chosen for the experiment They were fed regularly for 9 months with illicit alcohol available in Andhra Pradesh as Gudumba containing 15% ethanol. Animals were dissected after prefusion. Brain was carefully removed and cerebellum it was studied. Microscopically an attempt is made to explain and co-relate with the animals’ behaviour.

15. BRAIN OF ETHANOL ADDICTED ALBINO RATS GROSS STUDY

Jayasree, N. ,Satyavati, Sushahelamma, D., Begum, Y.

Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam

Osmania Medical College Hyderabad

Illicit Alcohol containing 15% ethanol was fed to 15 female and 5 male rats for a period of 9 months. 2 male and 6 female albino rats fed with plain water were taken as control animals. All the animals both experimental & control were perfused with 10% formalin solution and brain was carefully dissected. A detailed gross study of the brain is made to explain certain behaviour changes.

16. FATE OF CEREBELLUM AFTER MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY OCCLUSION (A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN HUMAN & BONNET MONKEY)

Balaji T.K., Lakshmanan M.S.

Raja Muthiah Medical College, Chidambaram.

When we experimentally occluded middle cerebral artery in bonnet monkeys the effects were classical such as spastic hemiplegia on opposite limbs and weakness of muscle movements in lower part of face. Apart from that the degeneration of pontine nuclei was also detected, which led to our strong suspicion that it might have also led to secondary degeneration in cerebellum. Since no gross signs of cerebeller lesions are exhibited cerebellum is ignored in clinical examination of upper motor neuron lesions. But the functions of cerebellum are yet to be explored and it is believed cerebellum acts as a co-ordinating and reinforcing organ which plays an important part in graduating and harmonising muscular contractions both in voluntary movements and maintainence of posture. We went through the statistics of medical records to interpret our results whether cerebellum is completely resistant in upper motor neuron lesions or the effect in negligible clinically.

17. STUDY OF LATERAL FUNCTIONAL DOMINANCE AMONG TEENAGERS IN BELGAUM CITY OF NORTH KARNATAKA

Eligar R.C., Potturi B.R.

J.N. Medical College, Belgaum

Origin of laterality in functions like handedness is a controversial subject. Both genetic basis (Friere-Maia et. al, - 1958) and acquired nature of such characters were suggested. Cultural influences also affect handedness (Barry et al - 1957). No major study was done in North Karnataka regarding these characters. A study of lateral functional dominance was carried out to assess, in 200 normal student of both sexes within the age group of 13 to 15 years. Tests for assessment to handedness, footedness and use of facial musculature in different expressions were conducted. Higher right dominance was seen in both sexes regarding most features. Tests for certain functions of facial musculature, exhibited exclusive right dominance, in males, Prevalence of left handedness and footedness were higher in females. Left handed individuals were more frequently ambi-lateral in their facial exercises (77.77%) than the right handed ones (47.64%) Prevalence of left footedness was less, in correlation to left handedness in both sexes.

18. ACCESSORY CERVICAL SYMPATHETIC GANGLION

Srivastava S.K., Bansal M.

Pt. B.D. Sharma P.G.I.M.S., Rohtak.

Most of the text books of Anatomy and Neuroanatomy describe the presence of three ganglia on the cervical part of sympathetic trunk, named as Superior, Middle and Inferior cervical ganglion. Inferior cervical ganglion usually fuses with the first thoracic ganglion and forms cervicothoracic or stellate ganglion, Some additional ganglia on the cervical sympathetic trunk have been reported in the literature, such as vertebral ganglion, intermediate ganglion and fourth cervical ganglion. The present study was conducted on 14 cadavers (28 cervical parts of the sympathetic trunks) to find out the incidence, frequency and position of an accessory cervical ganglion observed in one case, on left side, during routine dissection in Anatomy department of this institution. In all of the 28 dissections used for the present study, the inferior cervical ganglion was fused with first thoracic ganglion forming the cervicothoracic or stellate ganglion. The positions of the superior, middle and cervicothoracic ganglia were corresponding to positions described in the text books. In one cervical sympathetic trunk, on left side, one accessory cervical ganglion was found to be present between superior and middle cervical ganglia. It was situated in front of the transverse process of C5 vertebra and cephalic to vertebral artery. This accessory ganglion does not correspond with the position of vertebral ganglion, intermediate ganglion or fourth cervical ganglion reported in the literature and hence it has been named as an Accessory Cervical Ganglion.

19. SPINAL MOTOR NEURONS FOLLOWING ARSENIC IN-GESTION IN ADULT WISTAR RATS–A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY

Jaitly M., Dhar P., Mehra R.D.

AIIMS, New Delhi.

Neuropathy resulting from arsenic toxicity is well known. Various studies on animal models have provided some valuable information regarding the electrophysiological and biochemical aspects of arsenic neuropathy. The morphological correlates of such neuropathy are still not clearly known. In the presnet work. adult wistar rats were used as an animal model to study the spinal motor neurons following arsenic ingestion. Sodium arsenite (1.0,

1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight) was administered to experimental groups by oral route over a period of 12 weeks. The normal controls received an equal volume of distilled water. At the end of the specified time period, the animals were weighed and then perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Spinal cords were removed and weighed. Cervical and lumbar regions of the cords were processed for wax embedding and 0.10mm thick sections were cut and stained with cresyl violet (CV) and Luxol fast blue (LFB) for light microscopic observations. The morphological and quantitative features (neuronal number and diameter) of motor neurons were observed with the help of camera lucida and recorded. These morphological observations did not reveal a significant variation amongst control and experimental groups.

20. LOCALIZATION OF NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS WITHIN THE TRIGEMINAL GANGLION OF THE ALBINO RAT

Bharihoke, V., Gupta M.*

UCMS, Delhi*PGIMER, Chandigarh

The neurons within the trigeminal ganglion have been described as Large A and Small B type neurons. Different workers have also described intermediate varieties. There is no clear-cut method to attribute different functions to each category of neurons. Many workers have attributed a nociceptive function to the B type cells. In an effort to resolve this problem this study was carried out on areas which seem to have a predominance of pain fibres. Adult albino rats were divided into three groups. Based on our previous studies that the innervation of the cornea, orbital periosteum and tooth pulp are supplied by the ipsilateral ganglion, fluorescent dye Fast Blue was applied to the above structures on one side and the other side was taken as control. The dye was seen localized in the cytoplasm of neurons within the ganglion at specific sites and in different type of neurons in each group. The neurons giving rise to the nerve fibres within the cornea were round and medium-sized and for the tooth pulp were large and round while those for the orbital periosteum were fusiform.

21. JUGULAR FORAMEN-SIZE & BRIDGING

Singh B.

G.M.C., Chandigarh.Jugular foramen is a large and irregular opening present in

the posterior cranial fossa. The jugular foramen is subdivided into anterior, middle and posterior parts. These three compartments can be much more demarcated and separated if there is either partial or complete bony bridging of jugular foramen. The bridging is formed by the bony spicules by the contact of intra-jugular process of temporal bone with the bony processes of occipital bone. This variation along with the size of the jugular foramen was studied in 65 skulls in 130 foramina of unidentified sex. Out of 130 jugular foramina studied 30 foramina exhibited partial bony bridging and 08 were divided into three compartments by complete bony bridging. These were also observed for symmetry and the maximum width. On the basis of maximum width these foramina were classified as small (less than 05 mm), medium (05-10 mm) and large (over 10 mm). In more than 68% skulls jugular foramina of right side were larger as compared to left side. Detailed observations will be discussed.

22. MULTIPLE MENTAL FORAMINA

Kulkarni, M.N., Badagandi., R.R., Kadam. J.Y.

K.I.M.S., Hubli

While teaching osteology at B.D. Jatti Homeopathy Medical College, Dharwada of Karnataka State I noticed a mandible with multiple mental foramina, as unusual feature. Vast amount of literature was scanned and nothing was found. The opinions of dental and orthopedic faculty were taken. The specimen will be presented.

23. ANATOMY OF THE PITUITARY FOSSA

Singh, B.

GMC, Chandigarh.

The pituitary fossa is lodging the pituitary gland which is involved in many pathological tumors and diseases. Cavernous venous sinus, sphenoidal air sinus, internal carotid artery and circle of Willis are also releated to this region and pathological condition in these areas can lead to fatal outcome. This area is exposed in many neuro-surgical procedures and that is why the anatomical details of this region are important. We studied the anatomical details of this region in 63 skulls. The anterior and posterior clinoid process were present in all the fossae but the middle clinoid process, the carotid sulcus, the lingular process and the petrosal process exhibited wide variations. In few cases a canal between the arterior clinoid processes and the middle clinoid process was observed as well as partial and complete bony bridging also observed in between anterior and the posterior clinoid processes. In 16 cases pituitary fossa also displayed foramina. The detailed observations will be discussed.

24. SOME OBSERVATIONS OF METOPIC SUTURE IN HU-MAN CRANIA (DRAVIDIAN SKULLS) A PERSISTENT ANATOMY

*Bilodi, A.K.S., Mysorekar, V.R., Sanikop, M.B., Prakash, J.

*Nepalgunj Medical College, Nepal.

Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar.

In the present study 342 adult human skulls of unknown sex from the bone sets of the students of first year of Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar and also from the collection of skulls in the Department of Anatomy of the same college were studied. Of them persistent metopic sutures were found in nine skulls. Each metopic suture was studied in detail. The findings which differ in some respects from those of earlier workers will be presented.

25. THE NASAL SEPTUM - AN OSTEOMETRICAL STUDY

Anuradha. L, Prabhu, L.V., Kumar A.

K.M.C. Mangalore

The chondro- osseous midline partition of the nasal cavity finds scant reference in the annals of medical literature. The shape dimensions and other morphological variations in the formation of the nasal septum, has long remained latent. In the brief paper we

present data on the bony component of the nasal septum. The contribution ratios of the individual septal elements, vis-a vis the total surface area of the osteological segment is collected and discussed. The osteometrical values of each of the bones contributing to the septal complex show a wide range of variations, in the series of head and neck dissections carried out by us in male cadavers. The high vascularity of the nasal septum, and its propensity for infection or epistaxis, coupled with the fact that the nasal cavity is a respiratory mucosal lines exposed inlet to the respiratory tract, make studies of the kind of significance to basic and applied medical sciences. The role or import of the variations in size and dimensions of the osseous septal anatomy, play in surgical procedures for realignment of deviations yet unexplored. Our observations show individualism in metrical values, rather than averages calculated from series, appear to be a characteristic norm. The bony elements forming the nasal septum may be another yet perfunctionarily studied in the ENT specialties.

26. ASSESSMENT OF SYMPHYSIS MORPHOLOGY AS A PREDICTOR OF THE DIRECTION OF MANDIBULAR GROWTH.

Chhabra, S. Makeshwari, S.

Department of Dentistry, Pt, B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak.

Examination of morphologic features of symphysis morphology can be used as a predictor of the directions of mandibular growth and to assess growth changes on symphysis. From the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 115 adults (58 women & 57 men). The direction of mandibular growth was evaluated with seven cephalometric measurements that included Y-axis, SN to mandibular plane, palatal plane to mandibular plane, gonial angle, sum of saddle, articalare and gonial angles, percentage lower facial height and the posterior/anterior face height. The mandibular symphyseal dimensions studied were height/depth, ratio and angle. Symphyseal morphology was found to be associated with as the direction of mandibular growth specially in male subjects with symphysis ratio having the strongest relationship. The mandible with the anterior growth direction was associated with large height, small depth, large ratio and small angle of symphysis. Conversely, a posterior growth direction was associated with a large height, small depth, large ratio and small angle of symphysis.

27. CONDYLAR CANALS OF SKULL

Singh, Brinjendra; Singh, Balbir

GMC, Chandigarh

The anterior condylar canal or the hypoglossal canal is present transmitting hypoglossal nerve, meningeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery and an emissary vein occasionally. Sometimes a posterior condylar canal affects the bottom of the condylar fossa and in this case transmits an emissary vein which connects the sigmoid venous sinus with suboccipital venous plexus and may transmit meningeal branch of the occipital artery. A study was carried out in 63 skulls and in the 126 condylar regions for the presence, absence, double and any other variations like bridging of the anterior condylar canals, the posterior condylar canal & posterior condylar fossa. Out of 126 anterior condylar canals, 21 exhibited variations i.e. 10 cases were of double anterior condylar canals and in 11 cases the anterior condylar canal was divided into two parts by a bony spicule. Posterior condylar canal was present in 71 cases and only in 01 case the posterior condylar canal was double. The detailed observations will be discussed.

28. STUDY OF MIDDLE CRANIAL FORAMINA

Singh, Brinjendra & Singh, Balbir

GMC, Chandigarh.

Middle cranial fossa exhibits numerous named and unnamed foramina i.e foramen rotundum, ovale, spinosum, canaliculus innominatus and emissary sphenoidal foramen. Foramen rotundum is a round canal and transmits the maxillary nerves. Foreman ovale is an oval opening posterolateral to foramen rotundum and transmits the mandibular nerve, accessory meningeal artery, lesser petrosal nerve and an emissary vein. Foramen spinosum is posterolateral to oval foramen and is separated by a bony bar and transmits the middle meningeal artery and nervous spinosum. Canaliculus innominatus is occasionally present between the foramen ovale and foramen spinosum. When present canaliculus innominatus transmits the lesser petrosal nerve which in this case does not pass through foramen ovale. Emissary sphenoidal foramen is present medial to the foramen ovale and transmits emissary vein which connects the cavernous venous sinus to the pterygoid venous plexus. A detaled study of 63 skulls on 126 right & left middle cranial forral was conducted to observe the frequency, positions, variations and any other specific features present in these foramina. Canaliculus innominatus was present in 12. and emissary sphenoidal foramen was present in 49 middle cranial fossae. Foramen spinosum exhibited few interesting findings that in I case it was absent and in 4 cases it was divided by a bony spicule and in 2 cases was double. Detailed observations will be discussed.

29. VARIATIONS IN THE DISTANCE OF THE APEX OF THE SACRAL HIATUS FROM THE LEVEL OF THE SACRAL CORNUA IN CHILDREN.

Digar, A. Bhattacharyya P*, Gangopadhyay, AN.**

*Department of Anaesthesiology**Department of Paediatric Surgery, I.M.S., B.H.U.,Varanasi.

We studied 163 children in the Paediatric Surgery OPD and the Pre Anaesthesia Clinic who were presenting for various surgical procedures in the S.S. Hospital, B.H.U. The mean distance between the hiatal apex and intercornual level was 1.03 cm. The longest distance was 2.3 cm while the shortest was 0.4 cm. Of the 30 children who had the distance > 1.5 cm, 18 had some form of congenital anomaly. In our study, we observed that children who had a greater distance between the hiatal apex and the level of the sacral cornu appeared to have a greater than normal chances of having an associated congenital anomaly.

30. CRUCIATE LIGAMENTS ARE ARTICULAR CARTILAGES

Natarajan, M., Mehta, L.A., Kothari, M.L

Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital, Parel,

Mumbai.

The term ligament as widely used in gross anatomy has been pleading for a clear definition in terms of structure as well as function. When one reviews ligaments from scalp to sole, one is amazed at the intellectual looseness and laziness with which the term ligament is employed. On proving that bones are nowhere attached, we discovered that the cruciates of the knee joint exhibit no allegiance to the femoral and tibial condyles. In fact they present the naked eye appearance to being one with the femoral and tibial articular cartilages. Histochemical studies in fetal knee clearly illustrate this point. Although the knee joint has been maligned as asymmetrical and complex, due attention to the role played by the cruciates does credit to Nature’ genius. Gross dissection and imaging techniques are enough to drive home the point that the cruciates form an articular cup for the femoral condylar cartilage.

31. LIGAMENTUM CAPITIS FEMORIS TRIANGULARIS

Gundecha, A. Dixit, D.P., Natarajan. M.

Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital, Parel,

Mumbai

The so-called round ligament of the head of the femur presents a number of paradoxes vis— vis its designation. It’s hardly a ligament, as much acetabular as capital, as much pelvic as femoral, rounded and therefore teres at the fovea and expanding wherefrom to grow triangular like a fan to be end in a broad flat band in the acetabular notch. Its “attachment” into the pit on the femoral head raises questions about both attachment and ligament. An unhurried look at the lie and shape of the ligament suggests that

spread between acetabular roof and femoral top the ligament bears weight and because of the foregoing there is reason to believe that this ligament mediates normal and abnormal abductor mechanism at the hip joint.

32. STADIPOSE TISSUE AS PERIARTICULAR HYDRAULIC MECHANISM

Elangbam, J., Mehta, L.A., Kothari, M.L.

Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital, Parel,

Mumbai.

By stadipose tissue we mean non-metabolic structural adipose tissue disturbed widely over articular areas of the body. It is significant that all stadipose bodies are the first to be well defined by the 8th to 10th week of I.U.L. The orbital pad of the fat (orbella) is a perfect acetabulum for the ball of the eye. It also cushions the eyeball against the powerful posterior tug of the recti. The palmella (palmar fat) and the plantella (plantar fat) by their inflatory nature give the small bones of the foot and the hand a free play while growing. More importantly they are the articular surfaces whereby the human body meets an object or the ground. As the fatella, popularly called the infrapatellar pad of fat, is the sole of the knee as also as the soul of the knee for it articulates with the femoral condyle.

33. TORUS MANDIBULARIS

Singh, B., Singh, R., Garg,* I., Garg, N.**

Govt. Medical College,*Dental Surgeon,**Dental & Orthopaedic Surgeons, Prabhat Dental & TraumaCentre, Meerut.

The human skeleton sometimes shows many peculiarities like exostoses & minor elevations related to different type of etiologies & factors. Torus mandibularis in one type of peculiarity of skeleton system which is seen in the mandible. It is not a pathological or tumour formation but a rare anatomical peculiarity. It is an exostoses, which appears on the lingual surface of the body of the madible. The etiology of torus mandibularis is still not settled. This exostoses is neither embarrassing nor dysfunctional. We studied clinical cases (600), their radiographs and their detailed examination was conducted along with follow-up. Simultaneously a detailed study of mandibles (120) was carried out about the frequency of the torus mandibularis & its position/situation on the lingual aspect. The torus mandibularis was found in 13 cases and in 3 mandibles. The most common position of torus mandibularis was superior to mylohyoid line and anterior to lingula of the mandible.

34. LOCALISED OSSIFICATION OF INTERSPINOUS AND SUPRA SPINOUS LIGAMENTS OF ADULT 5TH LUMBAR VERTEBRA-A CASE REPORT.

Saritha, S., Sundar, N.M.S., Bajpe, R., Poornima, G.C., *Rupakumar, Vani, A**.

J.S.S. Medical College, Mysore *Department Orthopaedics, J.S.S. Hospital, Mysore **Osmonia Medical College, Hyderabad

For the upright posture of the human being the vertebral column plays an important role in stability and weight transmission. At the same time the vertebral column is the site for many orthopedic disorders, pathological or developmental. This may lead to instability, low back pain, kyphosis, scoliosis and ankylosis, spon dylitis etc. During routine osteology classes, processed bones from the Department of Anatomy, J.S.S Medical College, Mysore were given to the students. One of the student found that 5th Lumbar vertebra with unusual general features. The authors realized that it was ossification of the interspinous & supraspinous ligaments of 5th lumbar vertabra, a feature of ankylosis spondylitis. Ankylosis spondylitis is a chronic disease characterized by progressive inflammatory stiffening of the joints due to ossification of ligaments of the vertebrae. Ankylosis spondylitis has a predilection for mainly the axial skeleton. Ossificationn of interspinous & supra spinous ligaments is possible due to proliferation of fibroblasts or chondrocyte cells in the region in response to external stimulus. The present study is to highlight the students with its clinical application and possible role in pathogenesis of low back ache in ankylosis

35. EXOSTOSIS OF THE RIGHT SCAPULA-A CASE REPORT

Saritha, S., Sundar, N.H.S., Bajpe, R.I., Poornima, G.C., *Rupa Kumar; Vani, A.**

J.S.S.
Medical College, Mysore & *Dept. of Orthopaedics,
J.S.S.
Hospital Mysore,**Osmonia Medical College, Hyderabad.

Gross Anatomy is taught by dissecting cadavers, in dissected specimens and in osteology classes. During the routine osteology studies in J.S.S Medical College, Mysore, the authors found an unusal right scapula, showing bony projection from the vertebral border extending towards costal surface and also having abnormal length in the bone. The present study highlights the site of specific variation of the scapula. Detailed morphological structure with radiological findings was studied in collaboration with orthopedic surgeon and was concluded as exostosis (or osteochondroma) of scapula. Exostosis is due to disturbances of endochondral ossification which may be hereditary transmission or failure of remodelling of bone. It is common near the growing ends of long bones like lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia, lower end of the radius but rarely seen in the scapula, llium & ribs. Hence the author was interested and conducted a detailed study, a fact to be kept in view by orthopedic surgeons while performing surgery and to generate awareness among students about abnormal bones and their clinical significance.

36. RARE AND ADDITIONAL FEATURE NOTICED IN THE HYOID BONE

Begum, Y. Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad.

During the study of my dissertations; about a total of 100 hyoid bone of adult male and female of 15-75 years ago group were procured from cadavers brought for post mortem at Osmania General Hospital mortuary. In about 2%, an additional feature i.e presence of tubercle of about 5 mm in the medial and anterior surfaces (which faces anterosuperiorly) of the body of the hyoid bone was noticed. The above mentioned tubercle which is not traceable in literature may possibly be seen in a particular race or group of people indicating racial or regional significance. Hence the author wants to continue the study on this & explore the possibilities of its presence and the statistical significance.

37. POSITION OF MANDIBULAR FORAMEN IN THE LIVING– AN EASY GUIDE

Samathy G. & Chandrasekaran G. Meenakshi

Ammal Dental College, Chennai

Inferior alveolar nerve is anaesthetized routinely in dental practice for which position of mandibular foramen has to be ascertained. Even through several routes are existing to administer anaesthesia a very precise and an easy mode to approach the nerve in living seems to be difficult for dentist. Aim of this study is to provide a rationale which will enable the dentist to approach the mandibular foramen in a precise manner. 50 mandibles available in this departments were used for this study where four planes were chosen to derive at a ration. The planes are :-1. Vertical length of condylar tubercle up to the angle of mandible. 2. Width of the ramus at the level of mandibular foramen (anteriorly the plane is measured form medial margin of retromolar triangle and posteriorly up to the end of the ramus in the same plane). 3. Width of the ramus from retromolar triangle to mandibular foramen. The above derived ration may be used in future by Dental Surgeons to locate the mandibular foramen with available measurement in the living from condylar tubercle to angle of mandible.

38. CORRELATION OF OSTEOLOGY AND RADIOLOGY

Suri R.K. & Kapur V.

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

Traditionaly osteology and radiology demonstrations are conducted separately. However, in clinical practice, bones are visualized only in skiagrams. Thus identification of bony landmarks and osteological features in skiagram is daily application of knowledge of osteology. Keeping this in view, the present exercise planned concurrent demonstration of bones and their relevant skiagrams. An attempt was made to correlate bony landmarks with their radiological appearance. In addition, the surface projections of important structures on the skiagram were marked. The feedback fro the students suggests that this exercise generates interest among students to learn osteology and its correlation with Radiological Anatomy.

39. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFEERENT ZONES OF GROWTH PLATE OF THE DISTAL END OF RADIUS

Abhaya A., Khatri K., Pradhan S. and Prakash R.

U.C.M.S., Delhi

Growth plate is important for the longitudinal growth and the sequence of cellular events result in proliferation of chondrocytes, hypertrophy and maturation of cells. There is a paucity of literature analyzing the quantitative differences between various zones of this highly specialized and organized region. The present study was undertaken to observe the histomorphometric differences in various zones of the growth plate at the distal end of radius in 20 days old albino rat. The growth plate was differentiated into resting, proliferative, hypertrophic zone-1 and hypertrophic zone-II depending upon varied cell morphology. Histomorphometric parameters were recorded in both central and lateral regions of growth plate. The width of the growth plate decreases gradually from epiphyseal to diaphyseal side. The height was more in the lateral as compared to central region. The individual zonal thickness in the lateral region showed a marked increase in proliferative and hypertrophic zone-I while it was less in hypertrophic zone-II as compared to the central region. The cell population of individual zones was also more in the lateral than the central region.

40. POSITIONAL VARIATIONS AND APPLIED ASPECT OF SECONDARY MAXILLARY OSTIA

Kumar H., Choudhry R., Kakar S.

L.H.M.C., New Delhi

Thirty half-heads from fifteen adult Indian cadavers were dissected to study the incidence, location and side of secondary maxillary ostia (SMO). SMO were present in 9(30%) half-heads being located in the anterior nasal fontanelle (ANF) in 6(66.7%), in the posterior nasal fontanelle (PNF) in 2 (22.2%) and at the hiatus semilunaris (HS) in 1 (11.1%). It was twice as frequently present on the right side as compared to the left. Five (55.6%) sides had single whereas 4(44.4%) had twin SMO. Two twin SMO were seen in the ANF and one each in PNF and HS. Seven of these were found unilaterally and except 2 were bilaterally present. All were present in the male cadavers except for a single SMO in the female half-head. The radiologists and endoscopic rhinologists must have detailed knowledge of inconsistent location of these apertures and intricate topography of the middle meatus in any interventional endonasal endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery.

41. THE THIRD MOLAR EMERGENCE AGE IN PUNJABI POPULATION

Chhabra U. & Singh Z.

G.G.S. Medical College Faridkot

This cross sectional study has been undertaken to estimate the eruption of the third molar teeth in the Punjabi population. The present report is based on the data on 390 males and 430 females of yearly age groups (decimal age groups) ranging in age from 16 to 26 years. Each individual was assigned decimal age on the day of examination and put in the specific age group. At least 50 subjects are to be examined in each yearly interval age group separately for males and females. The subjects for the study are drawn from the various educational institutions in and around Faridkot city and belonging to middle class families. The eruption of the third molar teeth in the oral cavity was noted. If any part of the tooth had pierced through the gum, it was treated as erupted. In general, the eruption of the third molar teeth is earlier in the males than in the females. There seems to be an earlier eruption of the mandibular third molars in the earlier years of the eruption phase but soon the maxillary third molars show better eruption frequencies both in the males and females. Also the right sided third molars erupt a little earlier than the left sided third molars in both the jaws and in both the sexes. The data, on completion of the study, will be subjected to the probit analysis to find out the median ages of eruption along with the other related parameters.

42. EPIPHYSEO-DIAPHYSEAL FUSION TIME AT THE LOWER END OF TIBIA AND FIBULA IN PUNJABI MALES

Singh Z,

G.G.S. Medical College, Faridkot

The time of appearance of an epiphyseal centre and its fusion with the diaphysis is of great medico-legel importance and provides reliable evidence for determination of age of an individual, The fusion times are known to exhibit not only racial but also regional variations. Jat-Sikhs from a large, prominent and distinct endogamous group of Punjab population. The epiphyseodiaphyseal fusion at the lower ends to tibia and fibula has been radiologically investigated in 450 apparently healthy looking Jat-Sikh boys, attending schools and colleges of Faridkot region, between the age of 11.500 years to 20.499 years (Decimal age). All the boys between age of 11.500 years to 12.499 years were put in the age group of 12 years old and so on the yearly interval age groups were formed up to 20 years old. The ages of the boys were ascertained from the school/college records and were also verified by personal questioning. In each age group of yearly interval, 50 boys were examined. Radiographs of the left ankle region in the antero-posterior position were taken. The easily followed criteria of ‘Non-fusion’, ‘Partial-fusion’ and ‘Fusion’ were followed to study the radiographs for state of fusion. The median ages for fusion were found through probit analysis. The median age for the epiphyseodiaphyseal fusion at the lower ends of tibia and fibula were found to be 17.16 years and 16.84 years respectively. All cases in the age group of 12 years old, shows non-fusion. No cases of non-fusion are seen in the age group of 18 years, 19 years and 20 years old boys. The age group of 20 years old, show fusion in all the cases. The earliest fusion at the lower ends of tibia and fibula is seen in a case of 14.745 years age. In the 17 years old age group, 94% of the cases show partial-fusion (48%) or complete fusion (46%) at the lower ends of tibia and fibula.

43. PATTERN OF TALAR FACETS OF CALCANEI FROM TAMILNADU

Madhavi, C., Antonisamy, B.

Dept. of Biostatistics, C.M.C., Vallore.

This study was undertaken to record the prevalent pattern of talar facets of calcanei from Tamil Nadu and to see whether there is any association between the side and the pattern. 500 adult calcanei (Right side 255 and Left side 245) of unknown sex were examined and classified. Type II pattern (fusion of anterior and medial facets) and Type III (absence of anterior facet) pattern were observed in 21% and 7.6% calcanei respectively. There was no calcaneum with all three talar facets fused (Type IV). Type I was the prevalent pattern (71%). X2 test did not reveal any association between the pattern and the side of the bone. The patterns were similar on both sides.

44. VARIATIONS IN THE ROOF OF CAROTID CANAL

Sharma, P.K., Chhabra, V.

K.G.M.C., Lucknow.

The carotid canal is present in the petrous part of the temporal bone. It begins as a large and circular foramen on the inferior surface of the petrous part of temporal bone (inferior opening of the carotid canal) and runs forwards and medially to open on the posterior wall of the foramen lacerum. Hollinshead (1982) has reported no variants of the floor of the carotid canal. Sharma et al. (1993) has reported absence of the floor of the carotid canal in one case out of 325 skulls studied. Present study deals with study of the roof of the carotid canal. Absence of the medial part of the carotid canal roof has been noted in three skulls out of 285 studied, available in the department of Anatomy, K.G.M.C.,

45. THE ORIENTATION OF THE ARTICULAR FACETS OF THE ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINTS AT THE CERVICAL AND UPPER THORACIC REGIONS

Pal , G.P.

Modern Dental College & Research Centre, Indore.

Knowledge of the orientation of facet joints in the cervical and upper thoracic regions is important for understanding the biomechanical properties and clinical conditions relevant to the neck. The study was undertaken on dry mecerated bones from 30 adult male human vertebral columns. The orientation of the superior articular facets in relation to their inclination with the sagittal and transeverse planes was examined between C3 and T3 vertebrae in each column. The linear dimensions of the superior articular facets and the width/height ratio was also calculated. The results show that all vertebrae at C3 level and 73% at C4 level displayed posteromedially facing superior articular facets. Similarly at T1 level (C7/T1 joint) and below, all columns showed posterolaterally facing superior articular facets. The level of change in orientiation, from posteromedial to posterolateral facing superior facets, was not constant and occurred anywhere between C4 (C3/C4 joint) and T1 (C7/T1 joint) The change in orientation followed 2 different patterns, i.e. sudden or gradual. The C6 vertebra (C5/C6 joint) was the most frequent site to show the transition.

46. BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE STERNUM

Gupta, M., Sodhi, L., Sahni, D.

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh.

A dissection study was carried out on 30 specimens of the anterior thoracic wall where CAB was injected in the internal thoracic artery (ITA) to establish the blood supply of the sternum. The following three arteries have potential to establish collateral flow to the sternum. (1) A branch (sternointercostal) arises by a common trunk (1mm-10mm in length), then it divide in a Y or T fashion to supply both the sternum and adjoining thoracic wall. (2) A perforating branch arises from the ITA and perforates anteriorly and sometimes before doing so it also gives a branch to the anterior/ posterior surface of the sternum. (3) In some specimens a continuation of the posterior intercostal artery reaches the sternum without anastomosing to the ITA. Our findings supply to the sternum through anastomoses of its brances with other arteries. We observed wide variations in specimens. The sternal wound complications after ITA bypass grafting could be because of damage to the blood supply of the sternum leading to sternal ischaemia. To avoid damage to these collateral vessels in mobilization of the ITA, branches of the ITA should be divided as close as possible to its trunk.

47. SEXING THE NORTHWEST INDIAN ADULT CLAVICLES OF PATIALA ZONE

Kaur, K.,* Sidhu, S.S., Kaushal, S., Kaur. B.

*Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. Govt Medical College Patiala.

Sex differences were determined in 200 paired adult clavicles (100 male and 100 female) of Patiala zone by taking their length, weight, mid-clavicular circumference, medial angle, lateral angle, index of curvature (in degree). The data was subjected to a statistical analysis. On the basis of length alone sex could be determined 18% right male, 20% left male, 9% right female & 7% left female clavicles. By taking weight into consideration sex could be determined in 65% right male, 58% left male, 26% right & 30% left female clavicles. By taking mid-clavicular circumference of the bones sex could be estimated only in 10% right male, 4% left male, 11% right female, 6% left female clavicles. By multivariate analysis on basis of length, weight & mid-clavicular circumference 86.14% male & 96% female clavicles could be sexed correctly. The mean medial angle of male was 153.50 degree on the right side & 152.57 degree on left, while in females it was 153.31 degree on both sides. The mean lateral angle of male was 153.50 degree on right side and 152.71 degree on left side, while in females it was 153.31 degree on both sides. The mean index of curvature was 239.73 degree on the right side, 239.83 degree on the left side in male, while in female it was 292.88 degree on the right & 297.23 degree on left side. The side difference between the mean index of curvature was statistically significant in both sexes. As the index of curvature was greater on left side than on the right side, so the right clavicles are more curved than the left clavicles in both sexes.

48. PHYLOGENETICALLY AND ONTOGENETICALLY THE ATLANTO-AXIAL JOINT IS ATLANTO-ATLANTAL JOINT

1Hasan, M., 2Siddiqui, M.S., 3Agarwal, G.N., Singh, D.

1Era Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow

2K.G.M.C., Lucknow.

3Deptt. of Radiology, KGMC, Lucknow

It is generally accepted that the dens within the atlas ring is not morphologically a centrum of the atlas, but a projection arising from it (Stevens et al. 1994). In mammals, including man, according to Stevens et al. (1994), the rotation accurs actually within C-1, between its hypocentrum, being the anterior arch of atlas and the centrum fusing with the axis. In the third or fourth year, the odontoid process and the body of axis are completely ossified according the vestigeal intervertebral disc separating these two segments (Wollins,1963). Our observations are based on 350 atlas and 350 axis vertebrae of either sex prepared by maceration. Clearly distinct disc separating the atlas and axis bodies was detected in 10 cases, while Roentgenograms invariably revealed a disc. Also, the cross-section on the axis vertebra exhibited altered trabecular pattern demarcating the disc. We have consistently observed that the juction lies below the plane of the superior articular processes of axis vertebra. Thus, all the components of the so-called atlantoaxial joint are derived from the atlas vertebra and this joint should be termed atlanto-atlantal joint on the basis of the aforementioned evidences.

49. ACCESSORY FORAMINA IN THE MANDIBLE

*Venkayramiah.C., Kayalvizhi. I., Chandrasekaran. G.

M.A. Dental College, Chennai*V.M. Medical College, Karaikal

Inferior alveolar nerve when anaesthetized for dental purpose, does not provide a complete anaesthesia of the areas innervated. This could be due to the various accessory foramina present in the mandible which provides for the nerves such as the deep temporal nerve, lingual nerve, buccal nerve, mylohyoid nerve and transverse cutaneous nerve. For the above reason, 75 mandibles were observed for the various accessory foramina. The accessory foramina noted for this study are 1. Foramen present posterior to the third molar tooth. 2. Foramen in the anterior part of mylohyoid line. 3. Genial foramen present superior to genial tubercle. 4. Foramen below and between the two incisor teeth and 5. Foramen at the attachment of the anterior digastric muscle.

The accessory foramina were observed on both the sides where statistical analysis were derived. The study will throw light for the dental surgeons to be aware that there is additional nerve supply to the mandibular teeth with the major nerve supply of inferior alveolar nerve

50. METERICAL AND NONMETERICAL STUDY OF HUMAN CRANIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO ORBITS : A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Agarwal, A, Khare, O.N., Powar B.P., *Agarwal, A.K., *Singh P.J., Singh, R.

R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain*S.N. Medical College, Agra

Meterical and nonmeterical parameters of skull with special reference to orbit have been measured in 216 human skulls of residents of Gangetic plains. Procedures mentioned by Hatai (1908) ; Whitnall (1932) and Hootan (1956) have been adopted. As per Cranial index (62.3-78.9 with a mean of 74.6), 171 skulls (79.2%) have been found to be dolicocranic, 45 (20.8%) mesocranic and no brachycranic. Meteric parameters of the study are maximum cranial length (166-194 mm with a mean of 188.8mm); maximum cranial width (121-137 with a mean of 135.5mm); maximum facial width (bizygomatic width) (109-132 mm with a mean of 125.8 mm), total facial height (104-118 mm with a mean of 108.8 mm), interorbital width (16-27 mm with a mean of 24.63 mm); right orbital height (30-38 mm with a mean of 33.3 mm); left orbital height (28-38 mm with a mean of 34.3 mm) right orbital width (25-42 mm with a mean of 40mm) ; left orbital width (23-40 mm with a mean of 39 mm). In nonmeteric parameters observations of supraorbital margin shows presence of supraorbital notch in 58.3% suppraorbital foramen in 45.8% and supraorbital canal in 29.1% Infraorbital margin shows infraorbital foramen 79.17%, infraorbital canal in 16.6%. Infraorbital margin has also shown accessory infraorbital foraman in 8.1%, out of which single foramen have been found in 40-41% cases at greater wing of sphenoid on both orbits while double foraman have been found in 63.6% in left orbit, 59.5% in right orbit, on frontal bone and greater wing of sphenoid.

51. POSITION OF THE MENTAL FORAMEN IN NORTH IN-DIAN POPULATION

Singh, Brinjendra & Singh Balbir

Govt. Medical College, Chandigarh.

The position of the mental foramen of the madible is variable according to age, sex and race. Generally the foramen is supposed to be present under the premolar teeth i.e Ist and 2nd premolar. In the literature it is mentioned that the position of the mental foramen has been different in various populations. A detailed study of 120 mandibles comprising of 44 females and 76 males was carried out about the number and position of the mental foramen in relation of teeth of the lower jaw. In our study we observed that the most common position of mental foramen in females, males and in total was below the 2nd premolar tooth (52%). The next common position was between Ist and 2nd premolar teeth in females. In the males the next common position was between Ist and 2nd premolar as well as between 2nd premolar and Ist molar. There was a difference in the position of mental foramen in the right and left half also. In 13 cases more than one mental foramen was also observed. In few case the mental foramen was present below the space between canine and Ist premolar, and also below the 2nd premolar and Ist molar. Interestingly in none of the cases the mental foramen was present below the canine or molars. The detailed observations and conclusion will be discussed.

52. ANTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR ARTERY REPLACING LEFT CORONARY ARTERY WITH ABSENCE OF ARTE-RIAL ANASTOMOSES IN HUMAN HEART

Kumar, K.

Institute of Medical Sciences, B.H.U. Varanasi

During dissection only in one out of 288 human hearts it was found that arterial anastomoses was absent between interventricular & marginal artries because neither the anterior and posterior interventricular arteries reached the apical notch nor the right and left marginal arteries reached the apex of heart. Right coronary artery commenced from anterior aortic sinus and running between right atrium and right ventricle in the coronary sulcus crosses inferior border of heart to reach the diaphragmatic surface where it travelled the entire length of coronary sulcus on back of heart but it did not cross the left border of heart. Left coronary artery was replaced by anterior interventricular artery, which commenced from left posterior aortic sinus, and while travelling into proximal part of anterior interventricular sulcus it gave rise to left circumflex artery which neither travelled into coronary sulcus nor anastomosed with ri

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