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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Zinc Iodide Osmium Positive Cells And Dendritic Cells In Stratified Squamous Epithelium of lip, Tongue, And Oesophagus Of BonnetMonkey (Macaca Radiata)

Author(s): Indrasingh, I., Abraham, S. and Vettivel, S.K.

Vol. 50, No. 1 (2001-01 - 2001-06)

Department of Anatomy, Christian Medical College, Vellore. India

For Reprints, request the first author.

Abstract

Dendritic cells have been demonstrated in human and animal epithelium and subepithelial tissue. The present study hasused Bonnet monkey for the first time and revealed zinc iodide osmium positive cells and dendritic cells in the stratified squamousepithelium in lip, tongue, and oesophagus.

Key words : Bonnet monkey, dendritic cell, stratified squamous epithelium, zinc iodide osmium

Introduction:

Dendritic cells are a distinct and stable subpopulation of cells that appear to be homogenous by cytological features, expression of Ia antigens, and ability to associate with responding T cells. They are bone marrow derived, thymus independent cells (Steinman and Nusenzweig, 1980).

Dendritic cells have been extensively found using zinc-iodide-osmium (ZIO) in lymphoid organs (Niebauer, Krawezyk, Kidd and Wilgram, 1969; Rodriguez and Caorsi, 1978; Crocker and Hopkins, 1984, Chandi, Indrasingh and Sridharan 1988; Chandi, Indrasingh and Chandi, 1989; Degdeviren, Alp and Ors, 1994) and nonlympoid organs such as the epidermis, heart, liver, lung, small intestine, and decidua (Breathnach and Goodwin, 1965; Hart and Fabre, 1981; Sertle, Takemura, Tschachler, Ferrans, Kaliner and Shevach, 1986; Prickett, Mckenzie and Hart, 1988; Steinman, 1991; Pavli, Maxwell, van de Pol and Doe, 1996; Abraham, Indrasingh, Vettivel, and Chandi, 1996; Abraham, Indrainsingh, Vettivel and Chandi, 2000). Dendritic cells have been identified in the stratified squamous epithelium of mouth epidermis (Riley, 1967; Zelickson and Mottax, 1968; Mishima and Miller-Millinska, 1961; Lenz, Heine, Schuler and Romani, 1993), tonsil (Corcker and Hopkins; Chandi et al, 1988, 1989), vagina (Miller, McChensney and Moore, 1992; Hu, Pope, Brown O'Doherty and Miller, 1998) and rat (Muller, 1996).

The present study was to reveal the presence of dendritic cells in the stratified squamous epithelium of lip, tongue, and oesophagus in Bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) and to describe their location and gross morphology. This animal species has not been so far used for the demonstration of dendritic cell.

Materials and Methods:

Samples of lip, tongue, and oesophagus were collected from Bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

The tissue pieces were immersed in a solution of veronol buffered zinc iodide osmium tetroxide at pH 7.4 (Figueroa and Caorsi, 1980) for 48 hours at 4°C in the dark, washed in distilled water, dehydrated in graded ethanol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax, without counter staining (Chandi et al, 1988; Abraham et al. 1996). Serial sections of seven-micron thickness were cut and the sections were transferred to glass slides, deparaffinised, mounted in DPX, and viewed under light microscope. Cellular reactivity to ZIO is attributed to certain reducing substances such as catecholamines and ascorbic acid (Stockinger and Graf, 1965) and to lipid moieties unmasked from lipoprotein (Niebauer et al,. 1969).

Results:

  1. lip. ZIO positive cells were located in midepithelium. The cells were polygonal and did not show dendritic processes. These were probably nondendritic accessory antigen presenting cells (Fig. 1).
  2. Tongue. ZIO positive dendritic cells were present in the epithelium of the dorsal surface. The cells were basal and suprabasal and were located in layers at different levels of the epithelium. The processes numbered from one to five. Dendritic cells were not found within the cornified layer of the epithelium (Fig. 2).
  3. Oesophagus. ZIO positive dendritic cells were suprabasal and were located midway. The dendritic processes were thin and numbered two to three (Fig. 3).

Discusion:

Dendritic cells, which belong to mononuclear phagocyte family, initiate immune reactions in lymphocytes and have a critical role in antigen handling (Nossal, Abbot, Mitchell and Lummus, 1968; Veerman and van Rooijen, 1975.)

Dendritic cells have been observed in human epidermis (Mackenzie & Squire 1975), cervical epithelium (Figueroa and Caorlsi, 1980), tonsillar epithelium (Chandi et al. 1988), and oesophagus epithelium (Al Yassin and Toner, 1976).

Dendritic cells are revealed in human and animal epidermis (Mishima and Miller-Milinska, 1961) and in pigmented and unpigmented human, guinea pig and mouse skin (Riley, 1967). Information on epithelial dendritic cells has been derived mostly from epidermis (Prunieras, 1969; Fitzpatrick et al. 1967).

Oral epithelial dendritic cells are present with the epithelium of vestibular gingiva, hard palate, tongue, cheek mucosa, and skin of the external lip of the Rhesus monkey; the presence of dendrites easily distinguished such cells from keratinocytes; in no incident were dendritic cells found within the epithelial cornified layer (Hutchens et al. 1971).

Chimpanzee dendritic cells can be tested as immunotherapeutic agents for cancer, and be studied in relation to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (Barratt-Boyes, Henderson, and Finn, 1996). Dendritic cells can stimulate protective antitumour responses (Morse and Lyerly, 1998). Immunotherapy using autologous dendritic cells loaded with unfractionated tumour-derived antigens in the form of RNA is a powerful & useful vaccination strategy for cancer (Gilboa, Nair and Lyerly, 1998). Dendritic cells have an emerging role in novel cancer therapies (Hermans, Rawson, Ronchese and Richeie, 1998). Dendritic cells have the capacity to induce responses and are used as potent adjuvant for the treatment of human cancer (Nestle and Burge, 1999). Dendritic cell tumour vaccines for cancer immunotherapy reverse T cell energy and result in tumour rejection (Avigan, 1999). Efficient capture and presentation of antigens by dendritic cells is central to the induction of an immune response (Colaco, 1999). Human tumours express a number of protein antigens recognized by T cells. Dendritic cells are potent to present antigens to T cells. The dendritic cells are applied to cancer vaccines (Timmerman and Levy, 1999). Presence of dendritic cells in monkey suggests that these animal models may be used for vaccine and other experiments.

The location of the palatine tonsils at the gateway to the respiratory and digestive tracts suggests a functional role in generating an immune response to inhaled or swallowed antigens (Chandi et al. 1989). Similarly, to respond to inhaled or swallowed antigens, presence of the dendritic cells in the lip, tongue, and oesophagus is possible.

The distribution of ZIO positive dendritic cells in tongue and oesophagus and probably similar cells in lip in this study is important because of the antigens that enter through mouth. Dendritic cells are potent stimulators of primary T cell responses (Steiman, 1991). They reside in the interstitium of many tissues and epithelium of mucoa, where they take up and process both soluble and particulate antigens. Following exposure to antigens, dendritic cells mature and develop potent immunostimulatory activity whilst migrating to draining lymph nodes; there they interact with T cells to initiate T cell responses (Pavli et al. 1996). The distribution of dendritic cells in mucosal (luminal) epithelium suggests that these dendritic cells act as immune adjuvants by recruiting T cell responses when foreign luminal antigens enter the mucosa.

Acknowledgements :

The authors thank Dr. Gunasekaran Vaz for permitting us to take the tissues from the monkeys used for his experiments and fluid Research Committee of Christian Medical College, Vellore for funding this study.

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Opp. 34 Z.I.O. Positive Cells In Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Missing Image

Fig.1. Lip. ZIO positive cell (arrow):
E – Stratified squamous epithelium;
S – Subepithelial tissue ; 230x.

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Fig.2. Tongue. ZIO positive dendritic cell (arrow) ;E - Stratified squamous epithelium;S - Subepithelial tissue; 550x.

Missing Image

Fig.3. Oesophagus. ZIO positive dendritic cell (arrow);E - Stratified Squamous epithelium;S - Subepithelial tissue; 165x.

J. Anat. Soc. India 50(1) 34-36 (2001)

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