No. 1, Januray, 2004
Prevalence of ABO
& Rh Blood Groups in Colour Vision Defective Punjabi
Baljeet Singh Dhillon, Sukhdyal Singh Shergill
Colour blindness and ABO & Rh blood groups are inherited
entities. Once occurred cannot be changed in life time.
So our aim was to study relationship between ABO & Rh
blood and inherited colour blindness. For this, 100 cases of
colour blind individuals were examined and were identified and
confirmed by testing colour vision of the person by Ishihara's
Chart and yarn matching test. Those found to be
suffering from congenital colour blindness were then subjected
to ABO & Rh grouping by slide method. Our results
showed statistical significant positive relationship between
congenital colour vision defective individual and their ABO
& RH blood groups.
The first observation on the existence of difference between
the blood of normal individual belonging to the same species
was made by Landsteiner in 1900, in human beings. On the
basis of 150 agglutination reactions Landsteiner divided human
beings into 3 distinct groups i.e. A, B & O. The
foruth and rarest of all AB was discovered by
Landsteiner's pupils Von Decasteue and Sturli in 1902.
Blood groups represent a system of antigens on the surface of
red cells. These antigens are inherited according to
Simple Mendellion Law. The major system ABO and Rh are
inherited independently from each other. During last
four decades evidence has been forthcoming that persons
belonging to different blood groups differ in their
susceptibility to certain diseases. Different studies
show that there is relationship between blood groups and some
diseases i.e. peptic ulcer, certain neoplasm, cancer of
stomach and female genitalia, carcinoma urinary bladder,
pancreas and salivary glands 2-5. Association
of blood groups have also been studied extensively in various
mental disorders6 and congenital disorders etc.
Like blood groups, anomalies in colour vision especially
congenital ones are also determined by heredity.
Encouraged by above mentioned facts the present study has been
under taken with the aim to find the association between ABO
blood groups and colour defects in Punjabi population.
100 positive cases of colour defective individuals were
identified by screening the persons using Ishihara Chart and
yarn matching test. The subjects suffering from colour
blindness were then subjected to ABO and Rh blood grouping by
slide method. A drop of commercially prepared and
available anti sera A, B, and Rh was taken and placed on left
and right side of glass slides and for Rh on separate glass
side. Anti sera and red cell suspensions were mixed with
each other by separate glass rods. AFter minutes both
slides were examined for clumping of red cells, with naked eye
and was confirmed with magnifying lens. Blood grouping
of 100 medical students who were not suffering from colour
blindness and were healthy individuals, served as control for
blood grouping of normal populations.
Distribution of blood groups in control and colour
defective population and level of significance by using Chi
Square test as shown in table 1 and 2 respectively.
Table - 1
distribution of ABO blood groups in general population
Table - 2
distribution of ABO blood groups in colour defective punjabi
table-2 it is observed that blood group AB shows marked rise
in prevalence (18%) where as blood group B & O showed
decrease by 2% and 5% and blood group A showed significant
decrease by 11%. This prevalence rate is compared to
control group. However distribution of Rh grouping in
control and colour defective Punjabi population did not show
any statistical significant results.
I. Distribution of ABO blood group and diseases. Proc. of
Royal Soc. of Med 1955; 48:139.
W. ABO blood groups and diseases. Exp. Path 1921; 2:66.
and Highly ET. Relationship of blood group to disease.
Brit. J. Exp. Path. 1921;2:247-55.1
R. Association of colour blindness and liver cirrhosis.
Rey Med Chile 1967;93 (2):519.
Blood Group and heredity. Indian J Med Res 1935; 22:495.
Congenital deformities. System of Ophthalmology, 1964,
Frequency of distribution of blood groups in India. Text
book of Physiology 1997;1:117.
Dr. B.S. Dhillon, Deptt. of Ophthalmology,
Govt. Medical College, Amritsar.