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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstract of papers presented during the 54th National Conference of The Anatomical Society of India, 2006 held at Amrita Medical College, Kochi, Kerala (100 - 150)

Author(s): Editors

Vol. 56, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007-06)

100. A Pilot Kap Study Of I MBBS Students, Regarding Eamcet Selection Exam

Leela MP, SS Sarada, KV Vijayasaradhi

BMC and Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad.

The Engineering Agriculture and Medical Common Entrance Test viz. EAMCET, is the qualifying examination for selection of students to the MBBS course in 28 medical colleges of Andhra Pradesh.

The aim of this study was to obtain feedback from the respondents, about their experience of the test, and their attitude and perception of this selection procedure.

Students of I MBBS were administered a questionnaire consisting of 36 statements about the EAMCET test, with reference to their knowledge and experience of the First Year medical curriculum.

25 statements were graded on the Likert Scale, and 11 statements on the Osgood Semantic Differential Scale.

The content and administration of EAMCET were rated by 150 students of batch of 2005, at the end of Phase I, i.e. one year pre-medical phase of the course. An additional cohort of 100 students of batch of 2006, i.e. freshers, took the same questionnaire, rating 20 Likert statements and 11 OSDS statements.

Responses were graded, and graphed, and the results were statistically analysed to determine the significance and trend of student perceptions regarding their selection. Discussion of the data will be presented.

101. Undergraduate Medical And Nursing Students Perception Of Anatomy Teaching

Vishnumaya G, K Ramnarayan and Sreemathi Mayya.

K.M.C. Manipal, Karnataka

Feedback on Anatomy teaching was collected from 170 undergraduate medical and 137 undergraduate nursing students of two different medical colleges. The questionnaire administered to them included items representing teaching, teaching aids, assessment, workload, time and pace of teaching. The questions were asked under two parameters one being overall teaching assessment and the other teaching characteristics. Feedback on each item was collected on a five point Likert scale. The findings will be summarized by computing percentage. College wise as well as overall findings will be presented during the conference.

102. Incidence Of Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Accessorius In The Human – A Study At Manipal

Vasavi Rakesh, Mmamata T and Narga Nair.

K.M.C, Manipal

Fifty six adult human cadaver forearms were studied in the Department of Anatomy, KMC, Manipal to identify the presence of the anomalous muscle slip that arises from the flexor digitorum superficialis and terminates by getting attached to the tendon of flexor pollicis and / or to the tendon of flexor digitorum profundus. 12 male and 5 female cadavers (25 forearms) and 31 isolated forearms were studied. The above mentioned anomalous muscle was identified in 14 instances of which it was seen on the left side in 4 instances and on the right side in 10 instances. Analysis of the results and their clinical correlation will be presented at the conference.

103. Radiographic Appearance Of Articular Cartilage Of Knee Joint In Persons Of 35 To 65 Years Of Age

Vasantha M, M Ravinder, T.K.Rajasree

S.Sreelatha and S.Rajagopal

OMC, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.

50 cases with symptoms like pain and stiffness of knee joint and 25 cases without symptoms were evaluated with the investigation and diagnosed by orthosurgeon.

In this study author has taken radiological appearances of knee joints of above patients. Changes in the joint space, the presence and absence of osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis, subchondral cysts were noted.

The correlation between the patient’s age, symptoms and radiological appearances with precipitating factors were observed.

The results of the above study will be elaborated at the time of presentation.

104. Malposition Of Caecum In Newborn

M.Nirmaladevi And Sudha Seshayyan

Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Tamlinadu.

A rare case of preterm newborn with incomplete descent of caecum and fixation of caecum at subhepatic position. The embryological basis and subsequent possible features and complications associated with this embryological anomaly is discussed.

105. Variation Of Phrenic Nerve: A Case Report

Prakash, Latha V. Prabhu and(1)Gajendra Singh Centre For Basic Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Bejai, Karnataka

(1)Institute Of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University Varanasi

During routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy following anatomical variations of phrenic nerve were observed on right side in the neck region of a 30 years old male cadaver. The phrenic nerve in its early course close to its origin was giving a communicating branch to C5 root of brachial plexus and at the level of the root of neck just before entering the thorax, the phrenic nerve was placed anterior to the subclavian vein. This unique case of phrenic nerve variation gains tremendous importance in context of subclavian vein cannulation, implanted venous access portals, and supraclavicular nerve block for regional anaesthesia.

106. Concurrent Anomalies Of Superior Venacava, Coronary Sinus And Azygos Veins

(1) S.Sundarapandian And K.K.Krishnamma
(1) S.R.M Medical College, Tamil Nadu.

A.I.M.S, Kochi, Kerala.

One of the major issues raised by the cardiac surgical procedure requiring cardiopulmonary bypass is the question of myocardial protection. Retrograde coronary sinus cardioplegia (RCP) has gained wide spread use as a method of myocardial protection in a broad range of cardiac procedure.

The anatomic variations of the coronary sinus, its orifice in the right atrium and associated persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) may affect the distribution of retrograde cardioplegia. PLSVC results in excessive run off of the cardioplegia solution into PLSVC and right atrium, during RCP and leads to maldistribution.

During routine cadaveric dissection, in one male cadaver we found out PLSVC with dilated coronary sinus and the azygos vein on the left side, hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins on the right side.

Embryological basis, clinical implications, sonographic pitfalls, associated congential cardiac anomalies and complications during cardiopulmonary bypass are discussed.

Awareness of PLSVC with dilated coronary sinus is important for the sonologists, physician and also ICU staff because it can complicate central venous catheterization.

107. Effects Of Prenatal Stress On Postnatal And Behavioral Development In Rats

Saju Binu Cherian, K L Bairy And Muddanna S.Rao

MMMC,I.C.H.S, Manipal, Karnataka.

Stress in adulthood can have a profound effect on physiology and behavior, but the extent to which prolonged maternal stress affect brain function of offspring when they are adult remains primarily unknown. In the present work, pregnant rats of Wistar strain were subjected to restraint stress from E11 till delivery. It was observed that the pups born from stressed mothers showed low birth weight when compared to controls and also showed few delayed milestones. Furthermore, these pups were subjected to various behavioral tests. It was observed that pups born to stressed mothers showed decreased exploratory activity. These results suggests that prolonged maternal stress leads to longlasting malfunction of the hippocampus, which extends to and is manifested in adulthood.

108. Study Of Arterial Architecture Of Palate In Still Born Fetuses With Normal And Cleft Palate

Sarasu.J, Sudha Rao, K R Rao, K Agarwal, S Aghavan and John C Lalji.

JIPMER, Pondicherry.

Cleft palate is one among the commonest of congenital anomalies. The surgical success of which depends on its vascular integrity. Therefore, the arterial supply of palate of still born fetuses with normal and cleft palate was studied by micro dissection and radiography.

The main arteries supplying the hard palate were greater palatine, lesser palatine and in a few by accessory greater palatine artery. The soft palate was supplied by either the ascending palatine branch of the facial artery or the ascending pharyngeal artery, or by both either one being dominant. The artery supplying the soft palate places itself in a vulnerable position to the pterygoid hamulus. Anastomoses were observed at the junction of hard and soft palate amongst the arteries supplying them.

The above mentioned arteries were also found in cleft palate but of displaced position.

The surgical repair of cleft palate which involves lateral release incisions, dissection into lateral pharyngeal recess and fracturing of ptergoid hamulus put the principal vascular supply at risk and thus attributes to the failure of cleft repair. Hence, a thorough knowledge of the distribution of these arteries is mandatory for an effective anatomical reconstruction and functional efficiency.

109. Standardization Of Evaluation Tool By Comparing Spots, Unstructured Viva With Structured Viva In Microanatomy At Seth G.S. Medical College

Anjali Sabnis

Seth G.SMC, K.E.M.Hospital, Parel, Mumbai

Evaluation is a vital component of any educational process.

Evaluation of students is necessary to asses their performance and also to get a feedback of teaching process so as to improve the performance of both teacher and student. It is also paramount importance to evaluate the tool used to asses the students so that the competencies aimed to achieve in the learner, can be measured.

To fulfill the above goal, a project was undertaken for 1 st M.B.B.S. students at Seth G.S. Medical College. Students were exposed to two methods of evaluation viz a viz routine university evaluation method in microanatomy (spots with unstructured viva and structured viva). Feedback was taken in the form of questionnaire and statistical analysis was done. The result showed that structured viva is superior to the conventional method practiced by university.

110. Age Changes In The Human Oculomotor Nerve

S Sharma, LK Singh, B Ray and TS Roy

AIIMS, New Delhi

In the present study, neural and the connective tissue organization of the extradural part of the fetal, adult and aged Oculomotor nerve (ON) were studied using light and electron microscopy.

Twenty-two ON from 16 cadavers and a full term stillborn fetus were collected, processed and blocked in resin. Semi thin sections were stained with toluidine blue and used for morphometry. Axon area of myelinated fibers and total count of the ON was determined using unbiased stereology techniques.

Light microscopy revealed multifascicular nerve with myelinated fibers of various calibers intermingled with each other. In the cross section of the nerve, number of small to intermediate sized myelinated fibers was noted at the junction of the central and the paracentral zone of most of the nerves, indicating location of parasympathetic fibers. The total axon count ranged from 12,000 to 22,000 with axonal area of <1 -40 ým2. There was no significant difference in regard to the above parameters with respect to age, except an apparent increase in the total number of axons till the middle age followed by a decrease at old age. Ultrastructurally, both myelinated and unmyelinated axons were identified distinctly. With aging the myelin thickness was increased and compactness of the connective tissue was lost. The myelinated fibers in the 70-year-old individual had an irregular profile with numerous infoldings and outpouchings. The Schwann cells had definitive basal lamina and no apparent change noted with age. The intact cell junctions indicated maintenance of blood nerve barrier in the ON.

The ON is involved in focal neuropathy in multiple sclerosis that may lead to squint and improper functioning of the extra and intraocular muscles. Baseline data are required to compare the pathological conditions involving the ON. The present study provides novel baseline morphometric data on the ON with aging.

111. A Study Of Anencephaly

P. Satyavathi Devi and B Sheshu Kumar

P.I.M.S, Karimnagar.

In the recent advances of embryological studies, cranial neurulation, which is part of the development of Central Nervous System, is widely focused Upon, since Anencephaly is the most common lethal neurulation defect found.

Out of 100 fetuses, sent by the Obstetrics and Neonatal Departments of PIMS, 12 are Anencephalic with or without meningoceles. Due to the anxiety on the part of the parents of the affected, and the curiosity of the students at PIMS, a study was taken up to know the etiology, prevention and cure if any, of anencephaly.

We have seen any associated anomalies, by doing autopsy of the fetuses and the histopathological Examination of the defective organs noted, a detailed study on the embryological factors. Detailed case histories taken, to know Environmental and Genetic factors. And the possibility of application of the preventive and curative measures studied. Recent corrective microsurgical methods adopted in the early fetal life, may be enlighted to the public. A survey to be done in small villages, to note the incidence.

This study may stimulate other departments to contribute further research in this field.

112. Additional Head Of Biceps Brachii – A Case Report

M.Sree Bhanu, A.Vani And Satyaprasad.V

M.N.R Medical College, Sangareddy.

Biceps brachii is known for its variation. Normally it has two heads, short head originating from the tip of the corocoid process and long head from supra glenoid tubercle of scapula.

During routine dissection in a male cadaver, it has been observed that an extra or third head of biceps brachii muscle in both the limbs was present. In 10% of cases, a third head arises from the supero- medial part of brachialis and is attached to the bicipital aponeurosis. But the present case is having unique feature of arising from tuberosities of humerus. This may be an important observation which will widen the knowledge on the subject of variations with respect to biceps brachii.

113. Thumbs Up! Ligaments Down!!

Johnson Wms and Archana J

Sree Balaji Medical Collegeand Hospital, Chennai.

Tools continue to change us in extraordinary ways. Evolutionary changes in the thumb in the place of index finger as the key ‘doing’ digit in habitual mobile users drew attention to study integrity of muscles.

Isometric hand grip test, card grip test, coin test, screwing and unscrewing bottle cap and speed of text messaging was done in two groups of thirty each inclusive of both sexes namely Group I messaging more than 100/day and Group II less than 100/day and compared with the control who were non users (n=30). Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA.

The ability to perform the above tasks was significantly greater in Group I when compared with Group II and non users.

Outwardly it may look encouraging to see better results with text messaging addicts. However, repetitive stress to muscles and ligaments will result in disability to thumb which will be disastrous in future. Several decades from now a super-thumb generation will be senior citizens not with thumbs up but with ligaments down!

114. Bilateral Symmetry Of Lateral Ventricles: A Neurosonographic Study In Infants

Rashmi AP, LAMehta and Late Govind N Hoskeri

Seth G.S.M.C and K.E.M.H. Parel, Mumbai.

To study the bilateral symmetry of the ventricles. 136 randomly selected infants were ultrasonographically scanned in the Department of Radiology of Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M Hospital Mumbai.

There are many studies done so far confirming the bilateral lateral ventricular asymmetry in the brain and an infant brain is no exception. But, surprisingly the present study did not show any bilateral symmetry. The paper reviews the literature and deals with the detailed aspects of each.

115. Morphology And Morphometry Of Coronary Ostia In Adult, Human Cadaveric Hearts

Murli Manju, Dalbir Kaur and Narga Nair

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka.

According to a study conducted in Haryana, The prevalence of coronary heart disease was 22.8 per 1000 in males and 17.3 per 1000 in females. Since procedures like coronary angiogram, angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting and coronary artery stenting are becoming more common, an attempt was made to study the morphology and morphometry of coronary ostia. The morphology and morphometry of coronary ostia were assessed in 50 adult human, formalin fixed hearts. Of the above, 16 were isolated specimens, 30 belonged to adult male cadavers and 4 to adult female cadavers. In all the specimens the left coronary artery was found to be arising from the left posterior coronary sinus and the right coronary artery was found to be arising from the anterior coronary sinus. Accessory coronary ostium were seen in 6% of the cases.

Right coronary ostium was found arising below Sino tubular junction in 82% of the cases, at the Sino tubular junction in 16% of the cases and above the Sino tubular junction in 2% of the cases. The left coronary ostium was found arising below Sino tubular junction in 84% of the cases, at the Sino tubular junction in 10% of the cases and above the Sino tubular junction in 6% of the cases. The mean diameter of the right coronary ostium was 4.29▒0.40 mm and that of the left coronary ostium was 4.96▒0.40mm. Analysis of the data and conclusions will be presented at the conference.

116. Up-Regulation Of L-Type Calcium Ion Channels In The Spinal Cord Of Opioid- Tolerant Rats

S.B.Ray, D.Verma And I.Patro(1)A.I.I.M.S., N. Delhi

(1)Neuroscience Centre, Jiwaji University, Gwalior

Influx of calcium ions into presynaptic nerve terminals is necessary for release of neurotransmitters. Morphine produces pain relief by closing two different subsets (N- and P/Q-types) of calcium ion channels in central terminals of primary afferent neurons. However, repeated use of morphine leads to development of tolerance. The exact reason for the development of tolerance is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of N and L-type calcium ion channels in the spinal cord during morphine tolerance. Albino Wistar rats (n=18) were injected with morphine at a dose of 20 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days and 30 mg/kg of morphine twice daily for next 7 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of this period and perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. The lumbar region of the spinal cord was dissected out and cryostat sections (20ým) were cut at 18°C. Later, N- and L-type calcium channels were localized in these sections by immunohistochemistry. The expression of both the channels was noted to be up-regulated. Based upon this finding, morphine was readministered along with nimodipine, a L-type calcium channel blocker, in a separate set of rats (n=18). There was an increase in the analgesic response with delay in the development of tolerance. This finding may be useful in the treatment of chronic pain.

117. Macrocephaly – A Case Report

Varghese PD, Sheela B, Krishnakumari KS and Indira IV

Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala.

Pre-term stillborn baby received from OandG Department was dissected and the various parts of the brain studied.

The cerebral hemispheres were larger compared to the other parts of the brain. There was a large defect in one of the hemispheres of cerebrum. Corpus callosum was not seen.

Other observations and conclusions will be discussed during the presentation.

118. Agenesis Of Thyroid Isthmus A Case Report

K Devi Sankar, P S Bhanu and K Vimala

Narayana Medical College, Nellore.

Thyroid gland is the first endocrine gland to start developing in the embryo. Thyroid gland is well known for its developmental anomalies ranging from common and frequently seen to rare. Common anomalies include persistence of pyramidal lobe and thyroglossal duct cyst.

Uncommon anomalies are failure of isthmus to fuse and absence of a significant part of lateral lobe while thyroid hemi-agenesis with or within isthmus is rare anomaly. An uncommon developmental anomaly of thyroid gland showing the agenesis of thyroid isthmus in the midline resulting in two lateral lobes with two levator glandule thyroidae for each is unreported and discussed during presentation.

119. Incidence Of Agenesis Of Palmaris Longus In Andhra Population

P.J Susan, S Geetha and P Sharmila Bhanu

Narayana Medical College, Nellore

Palmaris longus (PL), functionally a more active muscle in non-human primates for grasping, has an interesting note for its incidence of agenesis in human beings. 471 students of our medical and dental college and 52 upper limbs of 26 cadavers were used for this study and results obtained were statistically analyzed. The percentage of incidence of agenesis of PL in AP is more in female’s left upper limb than in males. In females, overall agenesis is three times greater than males and the further details will be discussed during presentation.

120. Humeral Head (3rd Head) Of Biceps Brachii An Anatomical Note

P Sharmila Bhanu and K Devi Sankar

Narayana Medical College, Nellore.

Eighteen cadavers of both sexes being dissected for Upper Limb (UL) demonstration for students, a 3rd head of biceps brachii (Bbr) muscle slip was observed in five (5) cadavers. Three was observed in the left UL of a female1 and a male2 cadaver. One was in the right UL of a male3 cadaver and another one was found in bilaterally in both right4 and left5 of the UL of a male cadaver. All these slips of the 3rd head of Bbr was found to be supplied by a branch from the musculocutaneous nerve except one slip i.e., left of bilateral variant was innervated by a branch from median nerve.

The presence of this additional slip may be due to embryological, genetical or evolutionary changes. Further details will be discussed during presentation.

121. Multiple Abnormalities Of GIT and Gut In Newborn

K.C.Shanthi and Sudha Seshayyan

Stanley Medical College, Chennai.

A one day old newborn baby with omphalocele and exostrophy of urinary bladder with ambiguous genitalia (1ower midline syndrome) with cleftlip was observed in dissection. Embryological basis of the defects with related syndromes and their clinical implications are discussed.

122. Histochemical Study On Morphological Characteristics Of Melanocytes In Normal Human Skin

SM Yunus, NA Faruqi, F Ahmad, MMaque and SK Singh

J.N.M.C, A.M.U, Aligarh

To study the morphological features of melanocytes in human skin biopsy was obtained from different sites of normal human skin. Initially 2.5 mm thick piece of tissue was fixed in 10% formalin for I hour at room temperature. Then tissue was processed by DOPA Oxidase (Tyrosinase) Method (Tissue Block Technique) for enzymatic activity by incubating it in buffered DOPA solution (Ph 7.4) at 37° C for 16-20 hours. Finally, it was fixed in conventional 10% formalin for 1-2 days. Paraffin process in the usual way was done and 7-8 micron thick sections were cut. The sections were counter stained with routine Heamatoxylin (Hammistype) and Eosin Method. Morphometric measurements of melanocytes were made by using graduated eye piece and micrometer scale. Mean diameter of melanocytes, mean distance between adjacent melanocytes and their frequency per HPF were taken into consideration to find out crowding of the cells. Mean distance of the melanocytes from the surface were determined to find out the possible migration of cells towards the surface of skin in Normal Human Skin.

The Mean diameter of melanocytes was found to be 15.71 microns, mean distance between adjacent melanocytes was 55.30 microns, crowding of melanocytes per HPF was found to be 8 cells and mean distance of melanocytes from surface was 175.52 micron. Results will be discussed.

123. Maldisposition Of Descending And Sigmoid Colon And Right Sided Inferior Mesenteric Artery

Mandal Subhra, Gupta Indrajit and Ghosh Maya.

Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College And Hospital,

Kolkata, West Bengal.

During routine cadaveric dissection in a 70 years old male in the Department of Anatomy, N.R.S.M.C.H, Kolkata, a rare anomaly of disposition of colon and origin of inferior mesenteric artery were noted. During extraction of the abdominal viscera, what we found were, right lumbar position of cecum, Mobile ascending colon with mesentery, second transverse colon (fixed), second Right Colic flexure (fixed), right sided descending and sigmoid colon. (absence of descending and Sigmoid colon on left side), right sided inferior mesenteric artery (No inferior mesenteric artery on the left side).

Above mentioned anomalies can be embryologically explained from the malrotation of gut during second and third stage of rotation of gut. Such maldispositons are very rare and have immense surgical importance.

124. Study Of Mandibular Foramen In Dry Human Skull

P R Singh, Raksha Bhatt And M K Anand

Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad Gujarat.

A study was carried out on 100 dry human skulls, which were collected from various medical colleges and medical students of Gujarat State. Mandibular foramina was studied for its presence and if present whether it is unilateral or bilateral and also if they are single or multiple. The foramina were confirmed with the help of a probe and the dimension noted comparing the difference on right and left side.

Mandibular foramen was found to be present in all the mandibles. The average size of the foramen is 3.5 mm; right sided average being 3.61 mm and left sided average being 3.41 mm. Largest foramina was of 5.5 mm dimension and the smallest was 2.5mm in dimension. When compared bilaterally the difference in the dimension of more than 0.5mm bilaterally was noted in 10% of mandible. Multiple foramina were noted in 2% of the skulls.

Mandibular foramen is present on the internal aspect of mandibular ala. It is the oblong entrance to the mandibular canal and transmits the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve from which branches enter the tooth roots, periodontal sockets and septa.

It is very important to know the variation in location and dimension of mandibular foramen for dentist and surgeons due to the presence of important nerve and vessels passing through it. Other important aspects of the foramen will be dealt at the time of presentation.

125. Morphometric Study Of Articular Surfaces Of Gleno-Humeral Joint

Priti l. Mishall

Seth G.SMC, K.E.M.Hospital, Parel, Mumbai

To study the morphometry of glenoid fossa of scapula and the articular surface of the head of humerus in human subjects.

The shoulder joints of 30 cadavers embalmed with 10 % formalin were meticulously dissected and the following parameters were recorded like, the vertical length of the glenoid fossa, the width of the glenoid fossa, the breadth of the glenoid labrum, the thickness of the glenoid labrum superiorly and inferiorly, the vertical diameter of the head of humerus, the horizontal diameter of the head of humerus, the circumference of the anatomical neck of the humerus. The results and clinical importance will be discussed.

126. Variation In The Hilar Branches Of Splenic Artery A Case Report

V. Ravikumar, HV Rajasekhar and AV Angadl

J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka.

During the routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka; we found one spleen which had 4 hilar branches at the hilum, instead of the usual 2 branches.

Splenic artery is a branch of coelic trunk, which runs along the superior border of pancreas and enters the hilum of spleen by dividing usually into 2 branches.

In our specimen we found that the splenic artery divided into 2 branches at the hilum, apart from this 2 more branches were seen arising from the main splenic arterial trunk, at 3 cms and 5 cms from the hilum, and they were supplying superior and inferior pole respectively. The branch going to the inferior pole again divided into 2 branches and it showed ramification between the 2 branches.

Hence the knowledge of these variations are of significant importance during surgical and radiological procedures of the upper abdominal region to avoid any catastrophic complications.

The details of the study will be discussed at the time of paper presentation.

127. The Anthropometric Study Of Mandible In Vidarbha Region

Chimurkar VK, Kamble RA, Shende MR and Fulpatil MP

JNMC, Sawangi(MH).

The study consists of 140 mandibles of Vidarbha region from the department of Anatomy, I.G.M.C., Nagpur The measurements were taken with the help of osteometric board, tape, spreading caliper as suggested by (Singh I.P., Hardlica A.,Ashley M.F. and Morant G.M.).After localizing bony points with the help of India ink.Height of left ramus, height of left ramus up to incisura mandibularis, distance from mandibular angle to the symphysis menti, mandibular arc (half), and distance from right to left gonion were measured and mean values were taken to get accurate results.

On statistical analysis of our observations, we derived demarcation points(D.P.)by which we could accurately sex the mandibles with height of left ramus(Male 63% and Female 20% ), mandibular ramus height upto Incisura Mandibularis (Male 46% and Female27.5%), distance from mandibular angle to the symphysis menti (Male21 % and female 20%), mandibular arc(half) (Male 50% and Female 17.5%), distance from left to right gonion (rv1ale 35% and Female 17.5%).

These results help to determine gender using the mandible.

128. Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia – A Rare Congenital Anomaly

Deshmukh AG, Morab MV, Bhosikar N, Kulkarni PR and Devershi DB.

GMC, Nanded, (Maharashtra).

Anomalies of urinary system have been reported frequently contributing 3% of live births. In our hospital we came across a rare case of crossed fused renal ectopia.

A 30 yrs old male was investigated for urinary system complaints. On per abdominal examination a lump was felt in right lumbar region. USG examination showed evidence of non visualization of left kidney and gross hydronephrosis of right kidney. IVP was done which showed two lobulated kidneys with fused cortex on right side. There were wo separate pelvicalyceal systems with separate ureters which have joined at the level of L4. On left side non visualization of any contrast in 24 hr follow up film. On cystoscopic examination there was single ureteric opening in urinary bladder.

Embryologically there is fusion of metanephric blastema which does not allow proper rotation.

129.”Tibial Torsion” – A Cadaveric Study

Jami Sagar Prusti, Bishnu Prasad Patro, Lalatendu Swain, ET Patro and PC Maharana

M.K.C.G. Medical College, Berhampur,Orissa

It is inherent property of all long bones to bend or twist on themselves to solve different functional needs of body. To site an example, so happens are the acetabular version, femoral anteversion, and pelvic inclination. The list is endless as all bones have been studied and many still lying in the corner of a dark room.

Tibial torsion is nothing but the twisting of shaft of tibia on itself, leading to angulation between transverse axis of upper and lower ends of the bone. In the intra uterine life the tibia is internally rotated likely to be accommodated in the womb. After birth there occurs lateral rotation of tibial, so that in adult hood, the normal foot is about 200 lateral to midline. But if there is failure of postnatal external rotation of tibia leading to internal tibial torsion or intoeing foot. Intoeing is not accepted physiologically as it hinders normal gait. It has been postulated that tibial torsion to some extent compensates for the increase or decrease femoral torsion.

Till today there is sparse information about average tibial torsion and that to of Orissa population. It was a step to calculate so the average angle of tibial torsion on randomly selected 50(Fifty) cadaveric bones. Hope this study can enable further scholars to correlate different pathologic process of ankle and foot to that of tibial torsion.

130. Histology Of Human Thymus In Pre And Post Natal Period

JV Krishna murthy, v. Subhadra devi, and J Vasudeva reddy

S.V. Medical College, Tirupati.

A total of 55 human thymuses were collected from the cadavers of pre and postnatal age groups. The specimens were preserved in formalin and were subjected to routine histological procedure by automatic tissue processor. The blocks were prepared embedding the specimens in paraffin wax. They were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Early thymic primordia along with parathyroid primordia were observed at the age of 6 weeks of gestation. At 9 weeks thymic tissue was observed on either side of trachea. Thin capsule with thymic lobules was observed only at 14-16 weeks and thick capsule with branching blood vessels and Hassall’s corpuscles by 20 weeks. Starry – sky apprearance at cortico medullary junction was present by 36 weeks of gestation. Infiltration with adipose cells in interlobular septa was observed by 5th year of postnatal age. By 13 years, there is cortical compression by adipose tissue. A decrease of thymic tissue and Hassall’s corpuscles was present by 20 years and these were exaggerated by 55 years of age.

131. Bilateral Variations In The Cervical Part Of Internal Carotid Arteries – A Case Report

Shailaja Shetty, Roopa Kulkarni, Yogesh and Manjunath.

M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

The internal carotid arteries are one of the arteries providing arterial supply to the brain considered as feeder vessels of the brain. It is of importance especially to the vascular and neurosurgeons due to its involvement in cerebrovascular accidents.

In the present case bilateral kinking and looping of internal carotid arteries, were observed in the upper cervical segment just before its entry into the cranial cavity. The probable cause, clinical and embryological significance will be discussed.

132. Histological Observation Of The Cells Of Hippocampus Of Chick Embryo

Vandana, MM Shah and SK Ghosh

J.N.M.C. Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha.

M.G.I.M.S. Sewagram, Wardha.

Memory is phenomenon in which previous experiences are stored in brain. It necessitates repeated exposure to any experience that is known as learning process. Hippocampus is the region which is responsible memory and learning process.

Chick embryo were incubated from day zero till hatching.

Chick hippocampus is a well differentiated area medial to the hippocampus area and shows three different layers. Most medially it showed myelinated nerve fibres. Intermediate layer shows large size neuron, with prominent nucleus and nucleolus. Neurons are pyramidal in shape, multipolar and showed short dendritic pattern. Lateral area (nearer the ventricular cavity) showed smaller size neuron as compared to the intermediate area. Pyramidal in shape, multipolar showing prominent nucleus and nucleolus. Density of neural population in lateral area is less as compare to the intermediate area.

133. Audiovisual Teaching Aid To Teach The Development Of Cardiovascular System

Sikandarbanu N. Yerolavi

Seth GSMC,KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai.

To prepare an audiovisual teaching aid to teach the development of cardiovascular system.

Photographs of models on development of cardiovascular system from anatomy department were taken. PowerPoint presentations of the same were made. Preparation of script and its rectification by teachers. Insertion of recorded sound of respective models in the photographs of the PowerPoint was made. Animation in the presentation was done.

Development of cardiovascular system is difficult to understand by students. If we do in simplified manner it will be better understood. One way of teaching is by three dimensional models. Here we prepared an audiovisual commentary for development of cardiovascular system. Animation was done to show fusion of heart tubes and for folding of heart. So it will be better understood by students.

134. Estimation Of Stature From The Bony Markers Of Proximal End Of Ulna

Suja RS, holla SJ, Suganthy J. Selvaraj KG and Nithyan

Christian Medical College,Vellore.

The aim of this study is to measure and correlate bony markers at the proximal end of the ulna with the length of the ulna for formulating equations to estimate length of the ulna and stature in a south Indian population.

The present study deals with the computation of linear regression formulae for reconstruction of ulnar length and stature from bony fragments of upper end of the ulna. A total of 110 ulnae were measured. Fourteen markers at the proximal end of ulna and the length of the ulna were measured. Radiographs of the forearm showing both ends of the ulna of thirty individuals were taken. Four markers from the proximal end of the radiograph of the ulna and the length of the ulna were measured with a measuring scale. Stature of these individuals was measured with a measuring rod. Independent t-test, Pearson correlation test, and Stepwise regression analysis were used for this study. All analysis were carried out using SPSS version 11.5.

The data revealed non-significant bilateral variation in the measurements of the ulna. It was shown that a single dimension for the right side, the distance between the tip of the olecranon process posterior1y and the anterior-most point on the radial notch can be used to estimate the stature of an unknown person with great accuracy. A regression equation for finding out height from the length of the ulna was also derived from the radiographs.

135. Accessory Middle Colic Artery With Malrotated Gut – A Case Report

AM Tarnekar, H Wechalekar, JC Chattopadhyay, J Anbalagan and SK Ghosh.

Mahatma Gandhi Institute Of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, District Wardha (M.S.)

During routine dissection in a middle-aged man an additional artery supplementing the marginal artery of colon was found. A communication between superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was also noted. Malrotation of large intestine with infantile caecum, persistence of mesentery of caecum and right sided sigmoid colon coexisted in the same cadaver. Knowledge of variation in gross anatomy and vascular pattern of large intestine is of immense importance during surgical emergencies as well as routine operative interventions involving abdomen, hence being reported.

136. Determination Of Sex From Aetabular Dimensions

S.B.Sukre, M.Laeeque And C.V.Diwan

Government Medical College, Aurangabad.

Determination of sex from skeletal remains is a difficult task faced by Anatomists. The problem is more severe if only a part of skeleton is available. The present study is therefore an attempt to establish the identity of sex from the dimensions of acetabulam and derive the formula for the Discriminant Linear Regression analysis of the said parameters like vertical diameter, transverse diameter, circumference: of acetabular margin and length of the acetabular notch. 100 hip bones 50 of each sex available in the bone bank of the department of anatomy Government Medical college Aurangabad were studied for the above purpose.

It has been observed that the derived formula is far effective in determination of sex and is superior to the individual parameters taken alone by demarkating point method. Thus discriminant linear regression formula of the acetabular dimensions can be effectively used for determination of sex even if only part of the hip bone containing acetabulam is available. Details of the statistical tests and the results will be discussed in the conference.

137. The Position Of The Greater Palatine Foramen: An Osteological Study

Vasudha saralaya and soubhagaya ranjan nayak

KMC, Bejai, Mangalore, Karnataka.

The present study was planned to evaluate the relative position of the greater palatine foramen (GPF), in 132 adult dried dentulous human skulls of west coast region of India. Administration of the local anaesthetics to achieve the trigeminal nerve block in dental procedures and in maxillo-facial surgeries requires to locate the position of GPF accurately. An assessment was done for the location, direction, distance from the mid-line, from the posterior border of the hard palate and angle formed by the GPF with the midline. Variation in the number of lesser palatine foramen (LPF) and the shape of the palatal vault were also studied. On comparison of various values of both sides the results were not of much significance, except for the angle formed by the GPF with the midline (p<0.05, student chi sq. test).

138. Morphometric Study Of Sacral Hiatus: An Important Landmark In Caudal Epidural Block

Anjali Aggarwal, AAggarwal and SK AgarwalMMIMS, Sciences,Mullana,Ambala.

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh.

Caudal epidural block is widely used as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic tool in lumbar spinal disorders by Orthopaedic surgeons. Failure of block in 30-35% of cases is reported to be due to anatomical variations of sacral hiatus and the surrounding structures.

Objective of the study was to assess the anatomic variations of sacral hiatus as well as other bony landmarks of sacrum for improving the reliability of caudal epidural block. 100 dry isolated human sacra were used for this study. Using bony landmarks such as sacral hiatus and sacral cornua, various morphometric measurements were performed and sacral hiatus was classified morphologically. Locations of apex of sacral hiatus, diameter of sacral canal at apex of hiatus and distance between both cornua were measured.

Apex of sacral hiatus at S4 was observed in 68% cases. Both hiatus and cornua together were present in 62% cases. Average diameter of sacral canal was 5.2 ▒ 1.8 mm. Average distance between both cornua was 9.7 ▒ 0.25 mm. The clear understanding of the normal anatomy of sacral hiatus and other structures may be one of the important key factors of successful caudal epidural block. Hence it may improve the reliability of caudal block. Details will be presented.

139. Mesodermal Defects Leading To Life Threatening Congenital Anomaly: A Case Report

J M Kaul And Sabita Mishra

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

The Department of Anatomy with Biotechnology at Maulana Aazad Medical College New Delhi conducts foetal autopsies in coordination with department of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology to ascertain the degree and region of congenital malformations and also to correlate the ultrasound findings with the autopsy finding.

A 20 week old foetus was received from”Mother and Child Hospital” with ultrasonograph findings of oligohydramnios, IUD/ a single umbilical artery. Autopsy showed a plethora of findings, which were extensive and multi-organ, and predominantly of mesodermal origin. The foetus had kyphoscoliosis, defective muscle migration into the membranous sheath of the anterior abdominal wall, ectopic vesicae. Other mesodermal derivatives will be discussed later. An effort was made to ascertain the critical period of insult and cause of intrauterine death.

140. Defect In The Intermediate Mesoderm – A Case Report

Sabita mishra and JM Kaul.

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

The Department of Anatomy with biotechnology at Maulana Aazad Medical College New Delhi conducts foetal autopsies in coordination with department of pediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology to ascertain the degree and region of congenital malformations and also to correlate the ultrasound findings with the autopsy finding.

A 20 week old foetus was received from the labour room of LN Hospital after medical termination of pregnancy with the request to match the U/S findings with gross findings. The U/S findings were congenital absence of kidney on one side and polycystic kidney on the other side. On gross examination all the external body parts were in perfect proportion and normal in morphology. The autopsy confirmed the U/S findings and also threw up a surprise in the development of reproductive system which will be discussed later.

141. Potential Entrapment Due To Axillary Arch And Complete Absence Of Musculocutaneous Nerve A Case Report

S.Koshy, K Narendiran and SNSomayaji.

Asian Institute Of Medicine, Science And Technology School Of Medicine, Malaysia.

We report the rare occurrence of axillary arch and absence of musculocutaneous nerve in a male cadaver encountered during routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Asian Institute of Science, Medicine and Technology, Malaysia. The muscles of the arm were supplied by the branches from median nerve. This case is reported for its clinical significance in case of any investigative, surgical procedures or an injury to the axilla. The details of these variations and their probable clinical significance are discussed.

142. Innovations In Teaching Anatomy

Pritha S Bhuiyan, Praveen lyer and Yuvaraj Bhosale

Seth G.S Medical College, Parel, Mumbai

The subject of Anatomy is vast and ever expanding. Each of its subdivisions is a discipline by itself. In the limited time of little less than a year, it is impossible to comprehend the subject in a holistic manner. Further, the subject is highly volatile as far as the students are concerned. Hence it is a Herculean task facing the teachers to make the subject comprehensive and interesting, so that the students can retain what they learn. The department has initiated various innovative methods in teaching anatomy using the principles of Andragogy to make it student-friendly so that students learn the subject in a more meaningful way.

This paper deals with the methods that are employed in our department and discusses the feedback of the students on the methods presently in vogue.

143. Positional Anomaly Of Kidney

Shobha Ramnarayan

GMC, Thiruvananthapuram.

The presentation is basically related to the description of a developmental anomaly of one of the kidneys in one cadaver, encountered during the regular routine undergraduate dissection exercise (First M.B.B.S). This anomaly afforded an opportunity to examine the detailed topographic anatomy of the kidneys, one of which had developmental defect (right) An attempt is made to look into the embryological reasons for the non-ascent of the right kidney. Clinical implications of positional anomalies of kidney were looked into by reviewing the literature. The concerned specimen is mounted as a museum specimen after colouriug the renal vessels and ureters.

144. Effect Of Cissus Quadrangularis Plant Extract On Ossification Of Rat Fetal Skeleton – An Experimental Study

Bhagath Kumar, Muddanna S Rao, Narga Nair and N. Gopalan Kutty.

KMC, Manipal, Karnataka

Estrogens have important effects on growth of bone in both humans and experimental animal models. It has been well established by in-vivo and in-vitro studies that estrogen decreases bone resorption. Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant compounds, which bind to estrogen receptor and exhibit estrogen like biological activity. It has often been suggested that the consumption of phytoestrogens have beneficial effects on bone health. One such plant having phytoestrogenic property is Cissus quadrangularis. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Cissus quadrangularis plant extract on ossification of rat skeleton system during intrauterine growth period. In the current study, pregnant rats were treated with 750 mg/kg body weight of Cissus quadrangularis plant extract orally, from gestation day 6 till delivery. Neonatal pups born to drug treated and vehicle treated control groups were double stained with Alizarin Red S and Alcian blue to differentiate bone and cartilage respectively. Results showed a significant increase of bone formation in the drug treated group compared to the control group. This may be due to modification of maternal estrogen levels during pregnancy by the plant extract. This study thus suggests that plant Cissus quadrangularis has phytoestrogenic properties.

145. Unilateral Polycystic Hypoplasia Of Left Kidney With The Compensatory Right Kidney – A Case Report

S.Chakravarthy Marx and Ravindra Prabhu

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka.

During routine anatomical dissection in our department, a case was seen in which unilateral polycystic hypoplasia of the left kidney with the compensatory right kidney. In addition to this I have found thin left ureter and accessory renal artery to right kidney. Moreover multiple aneurysm and thrombus in the arch of aorta and abdominal aorta was observed. The developmental origin and clinical significance of the unique case will be discussed.

146. Morphometric Study Of The Trigeminal Ganglion In Human Adult Cadavers

Thejodhar, Narga Nair, Murli Manju,Binod Kumar Tamang and Jency Thomas

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, SMIMS Gangtok, Sikkim.

Considering the fact that the incidence of trigeminal neuralgia has got a gender and side based variation, this study has been done to look for any significant differences in the dimension of the ganglion. Our aim is to assess the morphometry of the trigeminal ganglion and the objectives are to measure the mean transverse diameter of the trigeminal ganglion in Indian human adult cadavers. In the present study we dissected 41 cadavers and a total of 82 adult trigeminal ganglia were studied. The measured dimensions are, the mean transverse diameter of the trigeminal ganglion was 0.97 cm .The mean transverse diameter of the ophthalmic nerve was 0.37 cm at its origin and 0.33 cm at the termination of its intracranial part. The mean transverse diameter of the maxillary nerve was 0.39 cm at its origin and 0.40 cm at the termination of its intracranial part. The mean transverse diameter of the mandibular nerve was 0.65 cm at its origin and 0.66 cm at the termination of its intracranial part respectively.

After the study there was no significant difference between the male and female and also between the right and left side ganglia. However there was a significant difference between the male and female(p value is 0.02 i.e, less than 0.05) at the origin and termination of the maxillary nerve. The variation cannot be explained based on this study because only 11 female specimens were compared with that of 69 male specimens. A larger female sample needs to be studied, before any conclusions can be drawn.

147. Fusion Of First Two Ribs: A Morphological Description And Clinical Implications

Gupta V, Suri Rk, Rath.G And Lohiya H

VMMC and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi.

Anomalies of ribs whether normal variants or pathological are often an indication of unsuspected systemic diseases (Ronald BJ et al 2002). The normal variants such as cervical rib, rudimentary first rib, exostoses have been well documented in literature and their clinical significance known. However there is paucity of reports on the morphological description and clinical correlation of fused first and second ribs. Routine examination of ribs during undergraduate teaching in the department of anatomy revealed one such instance of fused first and second rib of the left side. The bone specimen was examined in detail to study the relevant anatomical features and various measurements were recorded. The two ribs were partially fused posteriorly and displayed an osseous tunnel in the area adjoining the tubercles. This tunnel could be designated as intertubercular tunnel and might transmit a branch from first thoracic nerve. Anteriorly the two ribs imperceptibly blended with each other leading to obliteration of first intercostal space. Such skeletal abnormalities may be associated with variations in disposition of neurovascular structures, thus rendering them vulnerable to compression.

148. An Assessment Of Conventional Versus Computer – Aided Teaching Methods In Anatomy For The First Year MBBS Students – A Randomized Control Trial

Punita Manik, Anita Rani, Ashok Sahai, MS Siddiqui,AK Srivastava and PK Sharma

KG.Medical University, Lucknow

With the growing trend of computers,Anatomy teachnig can be made very interesting. Still we need to evaluate which method is more effective, Conventional method or Computer-aided teaching of Anatomy.The study group constituted the first year MBBS students of 2004 Batch, were randomized and divided into two groups. one group was taught by the conventional method i.e. chalk and black board and other group by the help of modern methods i.e. LCD, overhead projectors, 30 animations’, interactive models etc. Six lectures were planned on different topics of Anatomy like gross, histology, embryology etc. Teacher first taught Conventional group with chalk and black board and later taught the same topic to the other group with the help of computer and newer technologies. The two groups were subjected to pre-test before the teaching and a post-test after the teaching to evaluate the effectiveness of the study. The mean score gained in the Convetnional group was sigificantly higher than that of the Computer-aided group. Thus the conventional group of teaching is still the better method of teaching in the present scenario.

149. Valdecoxib Induced Biochemical And Histological Changes In The Kidney Of Albino Rats

Niranjan Richa, Srivastava AK, Manik, Punita and Natu SM

King George’s Medical University, Luck now.

Valdecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, which is widely used as an analgesic in few countries. This study was conducted on thirty, 15 male and 15 female, Duckrey(DR) strain albino rats, weighing 180 220g. They were equally divided into three groups A, Band C. Group A; control group was given normal saline orally as placebo. Group B was given at the dose of 1mg/kg bwt/day for 30 days. Group C was given valdecoxib at the dose of 2mg/kg bwt/day for 30 days. Rats were sacrificed after 30 days of treatment. To see the biochemical changes in kidney, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in group BandC were significantly higher in comparison to the control group. To see histopathological changes the hematoxylin and eosin stained slides were examined under light microscopy. There was increased cellularity of glomerulus with thickened basement membrane. Degeneration and denudation of epithelium was also seen in both proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Tubules in the medulla also showed degenerative changes were more marked in group C that was given drug at the higher dose. Thus the study revealed that if the drug is used as an analgesic for a longer period oftime may cause deleterious effect on kidney.

150. The Effect Of Valdecoxib On The Liver Of Albino Rats

AK Srivastava, Richa Niranjan and Punita Manik

K.G.Medical University,Lucknow,U.P.

Valdecoxib,a widely used drug for pain and inflammation has a safer gastro-intestinal profile. The study was done on Duckrey strain of albino rats. Thirty rats,fifteen male and fifteen females were equally divided into three groups. Group A,control group was given normal saline orally for thirty days. Group Band C were given the drug orally at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight and 2mg/kg body weight respectively for thirty days. The rats were sacrificed after a month and the liver tissue was processed to see the histopathological changes. There were enlarged hepatocytes with cytoplasmic blebbing and dilatation of the central vein along with that of bile canaliculi.Some binucleated cells were also seen along with single nucleated cells. Female rats showed all these features along with periportal lymphocytic infiltration. The changes with the highdose were same but were much more prominent.

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