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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Estimation of Height from Measurements of Foot Length in Gujarat Region

Author(s): Patel S. M., Shah, G. V., Patel S.V.

Vol. 56, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007-06)

Patel S. M., Shah,(1) G. V., Patel S.V.(2)

Medical College, Bhavnagar,(1) B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad(2)

Abstract:

The present study is based on the measurements of foot length and body height of total 502 students between 17 to 22 years of age. The foot length was measured by spreading caliper. The height was measured in standing erect, anatomical position with standard height measuring instrument. To avoid diurnal variation, all measurements were taken at a fixed time. Obtained data was analysed and attempt was made to find out correlation and to derive a regression formula between foot length and height of an individual. A good correlation of height was observed with foot length and it was statistically highly significant. The results of the present study would be useful for Anthropologists and Forensic Medicine Experts.

Key words: Anthropometry, Correlation, Foot length, Total height.

Introduction:

Growth – the vital process is measured by measuring the height of a person, which itself is a sum of the length of certain bones and appendages of the body, represent certain relationship with form of proportions to the total stature. This relationship is very useful anthropologically to find racial differences and medico-legally, when only parts of the deceased body are available.

Height estimation by measurement of various long bones has been attempted by several workers with variable degree of success. Each worker has derived his own formula for calculating the stature from long bones. However, foot measurement has not frequently been used for this. It was Rutishauser (1968) who for the first time showed that reliability of prediction of height from foot length was as high as that from long bones.

Ossification and maturation in the foot occurs earlier than the long bones and therefore, during adolescence age, height could be more accurately predicted from foot measurement as compared to that from long bones. Hence, an effort has been made to find out correlation between foot length and body height and Gujarati population.

Material and Methods:

For present study, total 502 (278 male and 224 female) asymptomatic, healthy medical students belonging to various regions of Gujarat were selected. There ages ranged between 17 to 22 years.

The left foot was selected for measurement as per recommendation of the international agreement for paired measurements at Geneva (1912). Foot length was measured as a direct distance from the most prominent point of the back of the heel to the tip of the hallux or to the tip of second toe, when the second toe was larger then hallux by spreading caliper.

Height of the individual was measured in standing erect anatomical position with standing height measuring instrument. The measurements were taken at a fixed time between 2.00 to 4.30 p.m. to eliminate diurnal variation and by the same person to avoid personal error in methodology.

Discussion:

The estimation of height from various long bones, head length and hand length has been attempted by many workers. However, foot dimensions have not frequently been used for this. The present study deals with the observations on correlation of total standing height with foot length in students of Gujarat.

Table I, shows the mean height and mean foot length of male and female students in the age group of 17 to 22 years.

Table II shows various important parameters. The correlation coefficient between height and foot length is positive, suggesting that it is significant.

Singh and Sohal (1951), Jit and Singh (1956), have shown a significant correlation between height and length of clavicle. Charnalia (1961), showed the significant correlation between height and foot length. Athawale (1963) derived a regression equation between total height and forearm bones. Patel, Joshi and Dongre (1964), have derived regression equation between tibia and total height in Gujarati population. Shroff and Vare (1979), have also derived the height from length of superior extremity and its segments. Saxena et al (1981), derived a regression equation between head length and height and find significant correlation coefficient, + 0.2048.

Regarding the estimation of height from foot length, no data is available except Qamra et al (1979), who derived a regression equation between foot length and height in North West India population. There correlation coefficient between foot length and height was, +0.69 in male and +0.70 in female.

No such type of study was carried out in Gujarat. In the presence study the formula is derived as under.

Observations and Results:

Table I: Age V/s Height and Foot Length

Age Mean Height (cm) Mean Foot length (cm)
  Male Female Male Female
17 168.57 155.32 23.80 22.10
18 170.17 156.09 24.40 22.26
19 171.48 156.32 24.48 22.57
20 174.03 155.53 24.75 22.04
21 171.22 157.87 24.81 22.66
22 174.26 159.10 24.92 23.55

Table II: Height, foot length, correlation coefficient®, regression coefficient (b) and value of constant (a) in Males and Females.

  Male Female
Total Number 278 224
Height range (cm) 155.7 – 183.5 143.2 – 169.6
Mean height (cm) 170.96 156.14
S.D. of height 5.13 5.15
Foot length Range (cm) 21.2 – 27.4 19.5 – 24.8
Mean foot length (cm) 24.44 22.34
S.D. of foot length 0.99 1.12
Correlation Coefficient(r)
(Height and Foot Length)
0.65 0.80
Regression Coefficient (b) 3.35 3.70
Value of Constant (a) 89.02 73.43

Regression Equation

For Male: Y = 75.45 + 3.64X

For Female: Y = 75.41 + 3.43X

Where Y = Total height

X = Foot length

The correlation coefficient between height and foot length is + 0.65 in male and + 0.80 in female which is most significant. It means there is a strong bond between height and foot length and if either of the measurement (foot length or total height) is known, the other can be calculated and this would be useful for Anthropologists and Forensic Medicine experts.

References

  1. Athawale MC. nthropological study of height from length of forearm bones. A study of one hundred Maharashtrian male adults of ages between twenty five and thirty years. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1963;21:105 112.
  2. Bhatnagar DP, Thapar and Batish MK. Identification of personal height from the somatometry of the hand in Punjabi males. Forensic Science International. 1984;24:137 141.
  3. Charnalia VM. Anthropological study of the foot and its relationship to stature in different castes and tribes of Pondicherry state. Journal of Anatomical Society of India. 1961; 10: 26-30.
  4. Jit Inder and Shamer Singh. Estimation of stature from clavicle. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1956; 44: 137-155.
  5. Patel MP, Joshi NB and Dongre AV. Regression equation of height on tibial length. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1964; 52: 531534.
  6. Rutishauser I.H.E. Prediction of height from foot length: use of measurement in field survey. Arch. Dis. Child. 1968; 43: 310.
  7. Saxena SK, Jeyasingh P, Gupta AK and Gupta CD. The estimation of stature from head length. Journal of Anatomical Society of India. 1981; 30: 78 – 79.
  8. Shroff AG and Vare AM. Determination of height form length of superior extremity and its segments. Journal of Anatomical Society of India. 1979; 28: 53.
  9. Singh B and Sohal HS. Estimation of stature from clavicle in Punjabis. A preliminary report. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1951; 40: 67 – 71.
  10. Suneel Qamra, Inderjit and Deodhar SD. A model for reconstruction of height from foot measurements in a adult population of Northwest India. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1980; 71: 77-83.
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