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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts 196 - 230

Author(s): Members

Vol. 55, No. 1 (2006-01 - 2006-07)

196. How To Teach Undergraduate Embryology Teachers’ Perspective:

Dutta, S., L. Chandramani Singh, S.K. Saxena.
Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical sciences, Tadong, Sikkim.

Embryology is the most significant subject of the medical science to understand the patho-physiology of various congenital anomalies. Though often teachers find students are not learning embryology to build the basic concept of human development which is reflected in the clinical practice. To evaluate different reasons we have conducted a questionnaire survey with the help of Likert’s type questionnaire among the teachers of the various disciplines in India and abroad. 350 questionnaire were distributed among the anatomy teachers and 338 were returned; 75 questionnaire were distributed among the pre and para-clinical teachers and returned 65; 90 questionnaire were distributed among the clinical teachers and 87 were returned. Our study finding shows that embryology should be taught in small group tutorials and practicals with the help of models, charts and/or multimedia to have better understanding of the specific topic after scheduled didactic lecture of a particular topic. To create more interest and to motivate novices’ clinical correlation is essential. We recommend for the better understanding of a particular health problem related embryology should be taught along with the specific topic of the concern clinical subjects.

197. Is The Hybrid Approach Best Method Of Teaching-learning Embryology:

Sukhendu Dutta, L. Chandramani Singh, S.K Saxena.
Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical sciences, Tadong, Sikkim

From the onset of the medical education there is a continuous effort being made by the faculties to improve teaching-learning strategy and how to motivate students to learn a subject in clinical context. We have conducted an experiment among the students of 2002-2003 batch to expose them to different teaching/learning strategies before the commencement of questionnaire survey to find out the applicability of the different teaching-learning strategies. For this purpose entire batch was made into five small groups.

Each group again subdivided into four subgroup, which comprised of 4-5 students. As the case study school follows conventional curriculum, hence there was no separate conventional lecture sessions. Whereas to expose the focus group about problem-based learning (PBL) and hybrid problem-based learning (HPBL) separate sessions were kept irrespective of their routine scheduled lecture classes. The whole batch had undergone the special classes except few of them who were regular absentee for the special classes. This strategy was adopted to ensure that novice should think in organized manner to solve any health problem and should be able to apply their acquired knowledge. At the end of the session researcher used to make concluding remark about the whole discussion as well as positive and negative aspect of each sub-group as well as each member. At the end of the session students were given a Likert’s type questionnaire to express their opinion. Our result shows that hybrid teaching learning is the best method to learn embryology and it was reflected in their university result. It is possible to implement HPBL to any set up of medical college, if and when there is well motivation and co-ordination in between the Deans’ office (administrative office) and the individual staff of the concern department.

198. Emotional Impact Of Cadaver Dissection, A Survey In A Medical College In Western Nepal:

Vijayabhaskar P., Shankar P.R., Dubey AK.
Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal.

Adverse physical and psychological effects to human dissection have been reported in many studies. In Nepal, the basic science subjects are taught in an integrated manner in the first four semesters of the MBBS course. Studies on the attitudes of medical students towards anatomy dissection are lacking in the MBBS course. Studies on the attitudes of medical students towards anatomy dissection are lacking in Nepal. The present study was carried out to obtain information on the present and initial perception of medical students on exposure to anatomy dissection and the association, if any, of the perception with demographic factors.

The study was carried out among the first, second and third semester students at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara using the appraisal of life events (ALE) scale in February 2005.

Sixty-three first semester, 57 second and 65 third semester students successfully completed the questionnaire and their responses were taken up for analysis. Information on sex, age, nationality, religion, food habits, occupation of parents and selection procedures of respondents was collected. The parameters loss, challenge and threat were measured on first exposure to dissection and at the time of the study. The scores were compared among different categories of students (p< 0.05).

185 of the 225 students (82.2%) successfully completed the questionnaire. The median initial loss, challenge and threat scores were 2, 19 and 4 respectively. The median present loss, challenge and threat scores were I, 20 and 0 respectively. The present threat score was higher among second semester students. The initial loss was higher among Indians and the present challenge score was higher among vegetarians.

The loss and threat score were low compared to that reported in a previous study. The challenge scores were higher than those reported previously. Majority of students considered anatomy dissection as a significant life experience and one which was largely positive. Further studies with a larger student population and in other medical colleges are required.

199. Why Students Want To Join MBBS – A Report From An Interview With 125 Students:

V. Rajaram
Institute of anatomy, Madurai medical college, Madurai.

REASON

No. of Students %
Prestige & money 9 7.2
Satisfaction 2 1.6
Study humanbody 3 2.4
To help poor 33 26.4
Parents motivation 19 15.2
Intrested 29 23.2
More contact with people 1 0.8
Respect 4 3.2
To get rid of sin 1 0.8
Noble 1 0.8
Teachers motivation 1 0.8
Inspiration by doctors 14 11.2
No doctor in the family 6 4.8
To rectify the Med. field 1 0.8
Don’t know 1 0.8
  125  

200. Absent External Iliac Veins – A Rare Congenital Anomaly:

Onkar, D., D.D. Kshirsagar,
NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur.

A young girl presented with complaints of prominent superficial vein over abdomen and thorax since birth. On colour doppler, both external veins could not be seen.

On venography venous drainage of both lower limbs was not seen in IVC. It drained in right subclavian vein through these superficial veins over abdomen and thorax.

201. Undescended Testes – Evaluation By High Frequency Ultrasound:

Onkar, D., N. K. Pathak, D.D.Kshirsagar,
Department of Anatomy, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur.

Undescended testes in the most common congenital anomaly of male reproductive system with incidence between 0.23 to 0.8% in the adult population.

The study was done to (1) Study the embryonic basis of the anomaly, (2) Study the efficacy of high frequency ultrasound in detection of undescended testes.

About 15 patients attending pediatric OPD and having absent one or both palpable testes were subjected to high frequency ultrasound to look for undescended testis in inguinal region and/or pelvis. Whenever undescended testis was found follow up of patient was done. Findings were compared with other studies.

High frequency ultrasound was found to be sensitive and specific measure in detecting undescended testes. It has helped greatly in timely surgery.

202. Axial Triradii In Carcinoma Of Breast:

Natekar, P.E. and K. G. Palikundwar, De Souza, F.
Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa

Hereditary breast cancers accounts for 5-10 per cent of all breast cancer cases wherein about 90 per cent of hereditary breast cancers involve mutation of the BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes. The palmar ridge pattern shows digital and axial triradii. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the axial triradii shows any significant changes in patients suffering from cancer of breast.

Palmar prints of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The incidence of axial triradius t’ and double triradius (t + t’) in both hands was significantly higher (p <0.001) in carcinoma of breast patients when compared with controls indicating possible genetic predisposition to cancer of breast.

203. Postnatal Histological Changes In Mouse Eyelids:

De Souza, F. and Natekar, P.E.
Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa.

At birth, the eyelids are not capable of protecting the eye as the tarsal plate, skeletal muscle and hair follicles are rudimentary. Seventy newborn Haffkine strain albino mice were sacrificed from first to thirteenth.-postnatal day in order to study the postnatal histological changes and to evaluate the role played by the tarsal plate, glands, skeletal muscles, hair follicles and epithelial keratinisation in separation of eyelids in albino mice. It was observed that the tarsal plate increased 2.8 times in thickness, the skeletal muscle was 2.4 times whereas the meibomian glands and hair follicle had doubled in size. The separation of eyelids and cornification was seen on the external surface as well as along the free margin on 13th postnatal day.

The purpose of this study was to determine the possible role of programmed cell death in opening the eyelids in albino mice.

204. Multiple Arterial Variations Associated With An Anomalous Muscle In The Upper Limb:

Vollala, V., Bhat, S.M., Deepthinath and Prasad A.M.
Dept. of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), ICHS, Manipal, Karnataka.

The arterial pattern of the upper limb shows a large number of variations. Since the upper limb is a frequent site of injury, it is important for the surgeons to be aware of arterial variations. Knowledge of such variations is of considerable importance during invasive and non-invasive investigative procedures or orthopedic, reconstructive, or surgical procedures. We report a case of low division and trifurcation of brachial artery, abnormal course of radial artery (passing deep to the pronator teres muscle) and an anomalous superficial palmar arch which was contributed by a branch from the deep palmar arch. An anomalous additional head of abductor digiti minimi was also found in the same limb.

205. High Origin Of Ulnar Artery:

Giriia Mony V.K., Elezy M.A.
Govt. Medical College Thrissur.

This study was done to understand the variations in the origin of ulnar artery.

20 upper limbs were dissected and 1 limb showed an alteration inorigin of ulnar artery from brachial.

The artery originated from middle third of arm and was traced further. Details will be discussed during presentation.

High origin of ulnar artery has been reported earlier and this is said to be only 2% when compared to high origin of radial artery which is about 15%.

206. Anomalous Course Of The Vertebral Artery – A Case Report:

Ranganath V., Manjunath KY, Balasubramanyam V.
St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore.

The vertebral artery is known to enter the foramen transversarium of the sixth cervical vertebra usually. However it may enter the foramen transversarium of ih cervical vertebra in 5% of cases or 5th cervical vertebra in 7% of cases. We report here a case of vertebral artery entering through 3rd cervical vertebra on the right side of a female cadaver. The vertebral artery courses 7cms from its origin before it enters through the foramen. On the left side, the artery is thinner and coursed through 6th formena transversaria the foramen. On the left side, the artery is thinner and coursed through 6th formen transversaria.

207. A Rare Variation In Branching Pattern Of Axillary Artery – A Case Report:

Prasad AM, Vijaya Paul Samuel, Seetharama M Brat And Venkata Ramana Vollala
Melaka Manipal Medical College, ICHS, Manipal, Karnataka.

The arterial pattern of the upper limb is one of the systems that shows a large number of variations in the human body. In the present article we report a unilateral rare variation in the branching pattern of third part of axillary artery on the left side. An abnormal trunk arose from the third part of the axillary artery. It gave origin to anterior and posterior circumflex humeral and subscapular arteries in the axilla and radial collateral, middle collateral and superior ulnar collateral arteries in the arm. There was no profunda brachii artery. The medial root of median nerve passed between the axillary artery and common trunk. The clinical and embryological significance of the variations are discussed.

208. An Innovative Method Of Making Anatomy Teaching Model – Spleen:

Alok Kumar, S.N. Kazi, Dr. D. Y. P.
Medical College,Pimpri, Pune.

Models form an integral part of anatomy teaching, whether it is gross anatomy or embryology. Authors have designed a innovative way of making a model of spleen. The spleen is removed from cadaver during routine dissection. The model so created is cost effective and easy to make.

The spleen is removed from cadaver. It is fixed by formalin and is dried under shade. It is painted with enamel paints showing the different areas and relations of the spleen.

The spleen was removed from cadaver and was dried under shade. It did shrink but the gross features like the surfaces, grooves, fissures, impressions did not alter. Hence, painting by enamel colors not only made them attractive but also show the various relations of neighboring structures. The model so prepared is easy to handle and helps in understanding the anatomical details for the students. Though many models of such organ made by clay, plaster of Paris, fiber glass or plastic are available in the market, the authors found this method is very much cost effective and easy to make. Various methods of preservation of organs like plastination are known. The present method encourages in making as many models as possible. Since the organs are available in plenty. The models will be shown during the presentation.

209. A Innovative Method Of Making Anatomy Teaching Model – Kidney:

Rohmehtra, M., S. N. Kazi
Dr. D. Y. P. Medical College, Pimpri, Pune.

Models form an integral part of anatomy teaching, whether it is gross anatomy or embryology. Authors have designed an innovative way of making a model of kidney. The kidney is removed from cadaver during routine dissection. The model so created is cost effective and easy to make.

The kidney is removed from cadaver. It is fixed by formalin and is dried under shade. It is painted with enamel paints showing the different areas and relations of the kidney. The pecimen did shrink in size but the original shape was retained.

The kidney was removed and was dried under shade. It did shrink but the gross features like the surfaces, grooves, fissures, impressions did not alter. Hence, painting by enamel colors not only made them attractive but also show the various relations of neighboring structures. The model so prepared is easy to handle and helps in understanding the anatomical details by the students. Though many models of such organ made by clay, plaster of Paris, fiber glass or plastic are available in the market, the author found this method very much cost effective and easy to make. Various methods of preservation of organs like plastination are known. The present method encourages in making as many models as possible. Since the organs are available in plenty. The models will be shown during the presentation

210. A Innovative Method Of Making Anatomy Teaching Model – Brain:

Patil, Y., S. N. Kazi
Dr. D.Y.P. Medical College, Pimpri, Pune.

Models form an integral part of Anatomy teaching, whether it is gross anatomy or embryology. Author have designed an innovative way of making a model of brain. The brain is removed from cadaver during routine dissection. The model so created is cost effective and easy to make.

The brain is removed from cadaver. It is fixed by formalin and is dried under shade. It is painted with enamel paints showing the different areas and relations of the brain. The specimen did shrink in size but the original shape was retained.

The brain was dried under shade it shrunk. The gross features like the surfaces, grooves, fissures, impressions did not alter. Hence, painting by enamel colors not only made them attractive but also show the various relations of neighboring structures. The model so prepared is easy to handle and helps in understanding the anatomical details by the students. Though many models of such organ made by clay, plaster of Paris, fiber glass or plastic are available in the market, the author found this method very much cost effective and easy to make. Various methods of preservation of organs like plastination are known. The present method encourages in making as many models as possible. Since the organs are available in plenty. The models will be shown during the presentation.

211. A Innovative Method of Making Anatomy Teaching Model Arterial System Of The Body:

S. N. Kazi, P. M. Manvikar
Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune.

Models form an integral part of anatomy teaching, whether it is gross anatomy or embryology. Authors have designed an innovative way of making a model of arteries of the body. The arteries of the body are removed from cadaver during routine dissection. The model so created is cost effective and easy to make.

The arteries of the body are removed from cadaver. They are fixed by formalin and are dried under shade. They are painted with enamel.

The arteries of the body were dried under shade. They did shrink. The arteries and their branches did shrink in size and length but the original architecture remained unaltered. Painting by enamel colors not only made them attractive but also show the various relations of neighboring structures. The model so prepared is easy to handle and helps in understanding the anatomical details for the students. Though the arterial system can be explained by charts or models made by clay, plaster of Paris, fiber glass or plastic, the authors found this method is very much cost effective and easy to make. Various methods of preservation of organs like plastination are known. The models will be shown during the presentation.

212. Absence Of Musculocutaneous Nerve And Variation In Origin and Branching Pattern Of Median Nerve (Case Study):

Kawle, M., Goyal, N., Choudhry, R.
Lady Hardinge Medical College and S. K. Hospital, New Delhi.

Triple roots of median nerve were noticed on the left side of adult male Cadaver. Out of the three roots one was emerging from the posterior cord, where as other two roots were from medial and lateral cord of Brachial plexus respectively. In the arm the medium nerve was infrolatral to Coracobrachialis and then descends between biceps and brachialis, sending branches to biceps brachii muscle only. At the middle of the arm it gave thick branch, which supplied the brachialis muscle and brachial artery and then continue as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. The Coracobrachialis was supplied by the twig coming from the posterior cord of brachial plexus. The absence of muculocutaneous nerve and muscular branches from the median nerve in the arm will be discussed, highlighting its development and possible clinical importance during reconstructive surgery.

213. Pain Pathway – Newer Perspective:

Goyal, N. And Gupta, M.
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh.

The quality of pain depends on the site of stimulation and fibers transmitting. There is a distinction between the sharp immediate pain transmitted by AD fibers and the prolonged unpleasant burning pain mediated through C fibers. The central processes of these synapse with the neurons located in the dorsal horn which is either nociceptive specific neurons or wide dynamic range neurons. The fibres from these neurons cross and ascend as contralateral spinothalamic tract carrying 10% uncrossed fibres, become spinal lemniscus in the medulla, relay in VPL and nonspecific centrolateral intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus and then via superior thalamic radiation travel to the primary sensory cortex (SI), secondary sensory cortex (SII), anterior part of insula and cingulate gyrus. SI is concerned with localization of pain while the others are thought to be concerned with the affective pain which can evoke emotional responses and reactions involving ANS. The nociceptive pathway pursues a polysynaptic course and is modulated all along via the neurotransmitters. The gene ‘c-fos’ and its cellular product, the protein called ‘Fos’ is nowadays used as a marker to study the pain pathway. Fos protein is expressed in the neurons of dorsal horn as a result of peripheral cutaneous and visceral noxious stimulation. Thus, immuno histochemical expression of Fos protein is an alternative approach to either behavioral or electrophysiological studies. In experimental studies retrogradely labeled Fos positive neurons were found in postsynaptic dorsal horn cells mostly in lamina III and IV and the vicinity of central canal, lamina X. retrogradely labeled Fos positive neurons were found in postsynaptic dorsal horn cells mostly in lamina III and IV and the vicinity of central canal, lamina X.

214. A Case Report Of Polycystic Kidneys:

A. A. Jamkar
Dept. of Anatomy. S.B.H. Govt. Medical College, Dhule.

A rare case of Polycystic kidneys was observed and is presented here.

During routine dissection, the female cadaver. aged about 65 years showed bilateral occurrence of large kidneys with multiple cysts. The kidneys were situated normally and were occupying a huge part of abdominal cavitv. The Cysts were thin walled and were containing fluid.

They were dissected carefully and histopathology was done. It confirmed the diagnosis of the polycystic kidneys. The details will be discussed during the presentation.

215. Dermatoglyphic Study Of A Topic Asthma Patients:

Arole, V., Reddy, C.
Dr. D. Y. Patil Meidcal College Pimpri, Pune.

Study of epidermal ridge patterns of palms, fingertips and soles is known as dermatoglyphics. This term was coined by Harald Cummins in 1926. Dermal ridge differentiation takes place early in fetal development the resulting ridge configuration is genetically determined.

Since Atopic asthma is hereditary allergic disorder it was thought of studying dermatoglyphic patterns of these patients and compare with normal healthy controls. Also study was conducted to know whether the differences found were statistically significant.

100 Atopic asthma patients with healthy normal controls were studied with rolled print method using duplicating ink.

Dermatolglyphic patterns studied were Whorls, Loops, Arches, Triradii, “atd” angle, Thenar and Hypothernar patterns.

216. Double Inferior Vena Cava:

V. Rajaram
Institute of Anatomy. Madurai medical college, Madurai.

Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and its tributaries’ have become commonly recognized. A double inferior vena cava results from the failure of embryonic regression of the left sacrocardinal vein. In double IVC, the left IVC typically ends at the left renal vein, which crosses anterior to the aorta to join the right IVC. In most cases of a duplicated IVC, the right and left iliac veins drain into the right and left IVC, respectively, and the left IVC ends at the ‘level of the left renal vein, subsequently draining into the right IVC.

In our routine cadaver dissection in the dissection hall, we noticed double I.V.C. (with transeverse anastomosis between the two internal iliac veins, and the rt ovarian vein ending in rt. IVC and the lt ovarian vein ending in the left ivc which has not been reported in the literature so far) in a female body and presented for its significance.

217. Posterior Urethral Valves – A Developmental Anomaly:

Dehankar, R.N. Ksheersagar, D. D., Pathak, N. K.
Dept of Anatomy, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Digdoh, Nagpur.

Posterior urethral valves is developmental anomaly, which develops during embryonic life. Incidence of posterior urethral valves is around 1: 5000 – 8000 male births.

Aim of the presentation is to show the development of posterior urethral valves and such a small abnormality can be very hazardous for a new born.

Material for the presentation was collected from the Forensic Medicine departments of various Medical Colleges.

Posterior urethral valves usually develops when the mesonephric ducts enters cloaca more anteriorly than the normal anterolateral position. This abnormal insertion leads to circumferential ridges which persist and fuse anteriorly. Posterior urethral valves if remain untreated can results in disorders like Renal dysplasia, Hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia.

218. Variations Of Inca Bones:

Walulkar, S.M., M. R. Shende, D. D. Ksheersagar, N. K. Pathak
Department of Anatomy, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Digdoh, Nagpur.

Inca bone is formed by the extra centre of ossification in interparietal or above the interparietal region. Incidence of Inca bones is around 3 – 4% in human adult skull.

As the interparietal part of occipital squama develops in membrane normally by two pairs of centre. One pair is for the lateral plate and other is for medial plate. Some times an additional pair of centre may develop at upper angle of medial pair of centre. This pair is referred to as preinterparietal center.

Aim of the presentation is to study the morphology of the Inca bones in respect with number of fragments, size and shape.

Materials for the presentation were collected from Dept. of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine of various Medical Colleges of Nagpur region.

As the Inca bones develops from additional pair of center of ossification. The centers of ossification may remain fuse or remain separate resulting in the formation of one, two or more fragments of Inca bones.

Hence Inca bones are found in one, two or three fragments. Their shapes may be triangular, oval or irregular.

219. Unilateral Rectus Sternalis Muscle – a Case Presentation:

Londhe, S., Ashwini, Jadhav, Teli, C.
VNGMC, Solapur.

Any unusual variation creates intrest among anatomists but is a cause of concern among clinicians when it mimics a pathology. One such variation over the pectoralis major muscle, is the sternalis muscle. We oberserved an unilateral right sided case of a well developed rectus sternalis muscle. The fibers arose from the manubrium sternum,from a cord like tendon.The muscle belly was placed vertically over the pectoralis major muscle and it terminated in the form of an aponeurosis which merged with the fibers of external oblique muscle of abdomen.The fibers of pectoralis major were normal.No other anomalies were noticed in anterior chest wall. This rare anomaly has puzzled radiologists and surgeons in confirming diagnosis, missing it all together or mistaking it for a tumor on mammography or C T scan.

220. Ultrasonographic Anatomy And Congenital Anomalies Of Kidneys As Detected By USG:

N. Damayanti Devi
Regional Institute Of Medical Sciences, Imphal.

So far the incidence of the congenital anomalies available in the literature are of the post mortem finding or the chance finding during dissection of cadavers. It is evident that the reports were exclusive of the asymptomatic cases in the living. With the advent of sophisticated noninvasive diagnostic tools like USG the detection of congenital anomalies of any organ during life is possible and reflection of the findings in the relevant literature would have given a more accurate indication of incidence of such anomalies. Further the intravenous urogram can reveal more information of the congenital renal anomalies.

The present study attempts to find out the incidence of various congenital anomalies including unilateral absence of kidneys, renal ectopia, duplication of collecting system, Normal ultrasonographic anatomy and congenital anomalies of the urinary system as detected by Ultrasonography have been studied in 500 cases attending the Radiology and Urology departments of this Institute. The anomalies were confirmed by IVU. Their brief clinical history has been recorded. The pictures of the various congenital anomalies detected in the USG KUB and IVU have been recorded and analysed. The characteristic modes of presentation of some of such cases were noted.

Thirty four instances of congenital anomalies were detected constituting 6.8% of the study population. The detection of such cases could draw the timely attention of the clinicians and also provide a new dimension of such cases in the literature.

221. Vascular Injection Technique Using Silicone Compound:

Martin Lucas A, Venkataramanaiah, Md. Ismail Department Of Anatomy, Navodaya Medical College, Raichur, Karnataka.

Vascular injection technique helps in analyzing and identifying the angiosome. Injection using coloured silicone compound provides excellent data about vascular anatomy by the contrast it produces. This article describes the technique that helps in the investigation and visualization of arteries which are of thin caliber. In this study coloured silicone was injected in the femoral artery at the apex of the femoral triangle in the cadaver of adult male. The vascular territory supplied by branches of the femoral artery in the different areas of popliteal region and leg were studied. This technique enables the visualization of infra millimetric arteries and helps in further dissection. The methodology and advantages of this technique is discussed.

222. Study Of Structural Fetal Malformations By Ultrasound:

Deepali Onkar, N. K. Pathak, D.D. Kshirsagar,
Department Of Anatomy, NKP Salve Institute Of Medical Sciences, Nagpur.

Structural anomalies occur in 2-3% of live-born infants.

The study was done to (1) Study the embryonic basis of the anomaly, (2) Study the efficacy of ultrasound in detection of structural malformations, 3) Counselling of the patients for prevention of recurrence of malformations.

About 1000 patients attending antenatal OPD were subjected to ultrasound to look forgestational age and screening for structural fetal abnormalities. Whenever abnormality was found follow up of patient was done. Findings were compared with other studies.

The structural fetal abnormalities have multi-factorial inheritance. Ultrasound was found to be sensitive and specific measure in detecting abnormalities. Prognosis of the defect can be determined for further management and counseling of patient.

223. Early Diagnosis Of Anencephaly – Value Of Ultrasound In Rural Area:

Dhapate S.S., Shingare A. K.
S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai.

The aim of this study is an effort to detect neural tube defects with the help of ultrasound in rural population, to know the incidence of anencephaly in rural area and to determine role of ultrasonography in diagnosis of cerebral anomalies at the earliest possible time.

Total 8640 antenatal mothers (attending ANC clinics) referred for routine USG screening were scanned f o r USG within a span of 2 years at S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai. Among these cases 35 cases of craniospinal anomalies were detected. Out of these 35 cases17 cases of Anencephaly were detected. Overall incidence is 0.19% for craniospinal anomalies while incidence for Anencephaly among all craniospinal anomalies is 48.57%. Out of 17 Anencephalic fetuses 14 were females and 3 were males. Female:male ratio for anencephaly in this study was 3.25:1. Antenatal screening revealed: sensitivity-94.28%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value-100%, overall accuracy 99.98%.

After advent of ultrasonography we are able to diagnose congenital anomalies at very earlier stages of pregnancy and even selective fetal therapies are carried out. Nowadays fetal therapies are playing a major role in reducing morbidity and mortality. In this way ultrasound occupies a central position in diagnosis of fetal congenital anomalies.

224. Alveolar Bone Loss In Leprosy Patients:

Shobha Rawlani, S.M Rawlani, M.M.Shah, S.P Wanjari
Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi, Wardha.

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by mycobacterium leprae of all communicable diseases leprosy is most important for its potential to cause permanent and progressive physical disability. In leprosy patients most of the studies in the past were done in peripheral bony changes and very few in Maxillo facial alveolar bone loss. Taking this into consideration we planned to take up this study.

Our study was conducted in 102 leprosy patients. out of these 25 patients randomly were subjected to xrays.

Alveolar bone loss was observed in leprosy patients in comparison with control group.

225. Holoprosencephaly – A Case Report:

Deshmukh A.G., Morab M.V, Dr.nimkar S., Chakote G, Kulkarni P.R., Devarshi D.H.
Govt. Medical College, Nanded.

A rare case of holoprosencephaly detected antenataly by USG and findings were confirmed after birth.

A 34 yrs old primigravida referred for congenital anomalies screening at 32wks of pregnancy to Dept. of radiology GMC Nanded.

On USG- There was no cerebral separation in to two hemispheres, no falx or interhemispheric fissure. Thalamic fusion was present, single ventricle and absence of corpus callosum was found .Facial abnormalities like supraorbital soft tissue at the centre (proboscis), nearly placed orbits (hypotelurism) and cleft palate were found. No any associated congenital anomaly was detected.

The findings were confirmed after birth with absent nasal bridge and cleft palate. C.T Scan of the baby was done on the same day and showed similar findings.

After two days baby expired. Complete or partial failure in division of the developing cerebrum into hemispheres and lobes results in to holoprosencephaly. There is a failure of lateral cleavage into distinct cerebral hemispheres and failure of transverse cleavage into diencephalons and telencephalon.

226. Variations Of Ostiomeatal Complex Complicating Fess:

K.K.Krishnamma Dept. Anatomy Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Vishwavidyapeetham,Cochin, Kerala.

To explore the anatomic variations of the ostiomeatal complex and the related clinical importance.

A retrospective study of coronal plane C.T. Scans of the paranasal sinuses and ostiomeatal complex (both sides) was done in 120 patients admitted in Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences for complaints related to sinuses and other causes. The clinical pictures from the medical records were correlated with the variations. The applied clinical relevance of these variations especially for the ENT surgeons and radiologists is discussed.

227. Angiographic Evalution Of Coronary Collateral Circulation And Correlation With Associated Comorbidities:

N. Puri, M. Syal. D Puri*, B. Singh, K. Kapoor
Government Medical Collegc and Ilospilal, Chandigarh and *Fortis Heart Institute, Mohali.

Present study was undertaken to angiographically evaluate collateral pathways that develop in coronary circulation and correlate the development of collateral pathways with age, sex, degree of obstruction and presence or absence of comorbidities like hypertcnsion, diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction.

This study included preoperative angiograms of 100 consecutive patients with CAD who later underwent CABG. The collaterals pathways were noted by observing retrograde filling of occluded vessels and were graded according to scale proposed by Nitzberg et al.. The degree of obstruction was correlated with development of collateral circulation with or without presence of comorbidities in different age groups in both the sexes. In the present study, 9 pathways for RCA, 2 {()J- LAD and 2 f

Collateral circulation is a signilicant indicator of presence of obstruction in the coronary vessels. Collateral circulation is an alternative source of blood supply for the major coronary vessels beyond occlusion thus preventing damage of hibernating myocardium in myocardial ischemia. Collaterals mostly develop after more than 70% occlusion. Prescnce or collateral circulation decreases the chances of angina and myocardial infarction.

228. C T Scan Image Gallery And Learning Of Human Cross Sectional Anatomy:

P K Sharma
Department of Anatomy, KG Medical University, Lucknow.

Imaging sectional anatomy study by medical students has been made mandatory by medical council of India. Conventional CT scan plates show very small sections on CT scan plates, which are difficult for undergraduate students to understand. Therefore big size pictures. which are well labelled and showing level of section, should be shown on each plate so that a medical student can study by himself the sectional anatomy of the region concerned.

Keeping this fact in mind, a CT scan gallery has been established in the Department of Anatomy, K G Medical University, Lucknow. This CT scan gallery is helping medical students to understand cross sectional anatomy of all the regions of Human body from Head to toe.

229. A Metrical Study Of Lumbar Vertebral Column In Radiograms:

S. S. Pande, C. V. Diwan
Dept. of Anatomy Government Medical College, Latur. M.S.

The present study – A Metrical Study of Lumbar Vertebral Column In Radiograms” was undertaken at S. R.T. R. Medical College. Ambajogai, during the period] June 2002 to 30 May 2004. The anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of lumbar spine of 320 adult subjects of Marathwada region were utilized. These radiographs were of known sex (170 males and 150 females) and of known age group (between twenty five and forty years of age).

The parameters used in the present study arc transverse diameter of vertebral body, antero-posterior diameter of vertebral body, maximum and minimum height of vertebral body, antero-posterior diameter or spinal canal, interpedicular distance (transverse diameter of spinal canal), maximum and minimum height or intervertebral discs. Spinal index of jones. Index of vertebral body index of rint,intervertrebral disc, canal body ratio and pedicle index.

This study presented a set of anthropometric measurements obtained from normal radiographs of the subjects of Marathvada region.

These parameters are studied and compared between males and females and with various ethnic groups to know whether the vertebrae exhibit sexual dimorphism and ethinic variation.

  1. Present study revealed that the antero – posterior and transverse diameter of spinal canal and Vertebral body. height of the vertebral body and height of the intervertebral disc showed statistically significant differences in their mean values for males and females indicating sexual dimorphism. The spinal index of Jones also proved sexual dimorphism.
  2. Comparison of these vertebral dimensions with corresponding dimensions from other ethnic groups showed variation in the findings.
  3. The study of these parameters and indices are found to be useful in radiological detection of clinical conditions like bony spinal canal stenosis, vertical compression of vertebral bodies and prolapsed intervertebral discs.

Thus the present study provides comprehensive data for the geometry of the vertebrae, where dimensions, and relations of spinal body segments are of importance.

230. A Study Of Renal And Accessory Renal Arteries:

K. Rathaiah, K.S.N. Prasad, M.S., Siddhartha
Medical College, Vijayawada, A.P.

It is proposed to study various anomalies of kidney including accessory renal arteries.

60 specimens from embalmed cadavers and 30 sonograms. Detailed drawings and photograph made. Parameters like length of the Kidney, breadth, length at superior and inferior pole are measured by Calipers and weight is measured in grams. Accessory renal arteries, variations in positions and variations in ureter were studied.

Accessory or aberrent or Polar arteries are observed as follows:

On the right side in 2 specimens from superior pole and in 3 specimens from inferior pole. On the left side from superior pole are nil and from inferior pole in 2 specimens. Accessory renal arteries were present on both anterior and posterior aspect. According to (Hollin Shead, 1971), accessory renal arteries commonly passing anterior to ureter, sometime cause Hydronephrosis.

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