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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts 151 - 195

Author(s): Members

Vol. 55, No. 1 (2006-01 - 2006-07)

151. Morphometric Study Of Ear Lobule In ‘Northwest Indian Males:

A. Sharma, N. Sidhu, M. Sharma, B. Singh, K. Kapoor,
Govenment Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh.

Anthropometry provides scientifiic method and technique for taking various measurements in different geographic regions and races. Physiognomy of the auricle is different for every individual. In this study the complete morphometric study or ear lobule was done in 260 subjects subjects were all normal male with no history of trauma and surgery on ear and also without any history of piercing, length, breadth, thickness, attachment of root and shape of lobule were measured. Various shapes or lobule considered were pendulous, square and tapering. Maximum percentage of tapering lobules werc found in 6­10 years of age while percentage of square lobules were maximum between 16-20 years. The length of root on left side was significantly larger then the right side. It was observed that the length of lobule in increased with age on both the sides while there is a small decrease ill breadlh in between 16-40 years. The thickness of root attachment increased with age. It was also seen that northwest Indians males have smaller lobules as compared to Caucasians and Japanese population.

152. Anatomy Of Human Arterial Ageing:

Keshaw Kumar
M.L.N. Medical College Allahabad.

To compare ageing and atherosclerotic changes in arteries interrelating with their pulse pressures of blood in physically active persons and mentally active persons of different age groups having no history of suffering from any cardiovascular disease condition of radial arterial wall was examined for atherosclerotic changes, pulse pressure was taken, and ageing changes in elastic tissue of ascending aorta were observed, from 50 to 79 year of age pulse pressure ranged from 42 to 57 mm Hg in persons having increased physical and decreased mental activity while in persons with decreased physical and increased mental activity pulse pressure ranged from 50 to 80 mm Hg; Ageing and atherosclerotic changes in tunica medial elastic tissue of ascending aorta and radial arterial wall were absent in all the persons with pulse pressure ranging from 50 to 60 mm Hg. But at the range of 60 to 70 mm Hg pulse pressure ageing and atherosclerotic changes were progressive in the form of high fragmentation of tunica medial elastic tissue in ascending aorta and hard radial arterial wall while at the range of 70 to 80 mm Hg pulse pressure ageing and atherosclerotic changes were observed establishing in the form of loss of tunica medial elastic tissue in ascending aorta and harder radial arterial wall.

It was concluded that process of arterial ageing can be controlled but it can not be reversed from old age to young age. Arterial ageing can not occur without arterial atherosclerotic changes exact cause of which is increasing pulse pressure of blood. Decreased physical activity with increased mental activity results into rise in pulse pressure which can be controlled by increased physical activity and decreased mental activity.

In pulse pressure which can be controlled by increased physical activity and decreased mental activity .

153. Donations Of Human Organs And Cadavers, A Noble Act:

Ex Prof. Of Anatomy, Govt. Colleges, Maharashtra.

Day by day the demand of cadavers in medica! institutions is increasing. The unclaimed bodies usually received are not sufficient and many times not fresh due to delay in completing formalities and procedures. Sometimes’ such bodies are of persons with major unknown diseases or disorders. The cadavers received by way of donation are fresh and of persons with known condition of health. Regarding wish of donation three classes of people are described. One class is of persons with firm decision of donation in spite of opposition by others, the second is of persons who are against such donation with the thinking that such donation is against nature’s laws and religion and the, third is of persons who are indifferent or have no knowledge about donation or are reluctant for donation due to opposition by others. These persons, if properly advised can be prepared to make decision of donation. Ways to promote cadaver donation are described. More and more propaganda through media, public speeches and personal meetings are essential. The problems due to difficulty in communication and transportation of body, are discussed. The system of’ receiving donation beyond office hours,especially at night time needs improvement, so that relatives not have bad experience.

154. Specific Gravity Adjusted Preservative For Retaining Normal Architecture For Dissection:

P.D. Athavia
Professor and Head, L.T.M.M.C, Sion, Mumbai.

Parenchymatous organs such as the liver, being semi­solid in the normal state tend to settle and flatten out when removed in the fresh state. When they are subsequently fixed, they tend to harden in their flattened state, distorting their normal architecture. While this is acceptable for the teaching of gross anatomy for medical students, it is a handicap for someone studying hepatic anatomy for the purpose of performing liver resections. We have attempted to develop a fixative which will cause the liver to be preserved, retaining its normal shape, consistency and internal architecture.

155. External Siphon Of Internal Carotid Artery:

Sree Lekha, Sai Sucheethra, Antony J. and S. Swayam Jothi, Raj, D.
Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur.

The two arteries supplying the brain are internal carotid artery and vertebral artery. The internal carotid artery angiogram shows carotid siphon. Here is a cadaver showing external siphon of internal carotid artery.

The two arteries supplying the brain are internal carotid artery and vertebral artery. The internal carotid artery angiogram shows carotid siphon. Here is a cadaver showing external siphon of internal carotid artery.

Observation was made in ten male cadaver aged above 50 years during our routine dissection. While making a coronal section prior to the study of pre vertebral region we saw the intrapetrous part of the internal carotid artery

In one cadaver on the left side the internal carotid artery showed dilatation and an S-shaped curve- external siphon before entering the carotid canal. Earlier in the same body while removing the brain we observed dilated posterior communicating artery and a small posterior cerebral artery on that side. Since that region of the brain got distorted we could not have a picture of the same.

But this shows that abnormality of the internal carotid artery is reflected in the formation of circle of willis. The presence of external siphon outside the bony canal can lead to vascular symptoms.

156. Abnormal Facial Artery – A Case Report:

Marx, S.C., Pai, S.R., Nair, N., M.S. Reddy, KMC, Manipal.

An abnonnal facial artery was observed on the Right side of a middle aged male cadaver, during routine dissection. It was seen to be entering the face at the antero inferior angle of the masseter and running tortuously upwards and medially. It terminated as inferior labial artery by passing deep to the Risorius and depressor labi muscles. Few muscular branches were observed in its course. On dissection of the left side of the face the facial artery was to have a normal course, distribution and termination. The probable clinical implications will be discussed in detail during the presentation.

157. Anatomical Variation Of The Extensor Tendons Of The Little Finger:

Sawant, S.K.
Seth G.S. Medical College, K.E.M.Hospital, Parel, Mumbai.

To study the anatomical variation of the extensor tendons of the little finger in 150 embalmed cadaveric hands.

150 embalmed cadaveric hands of different ages were dissected and pattern of extensor tendons of the little finger was noted.

The various pattern of distribution of extensor tendons of the little finger were observed. The surgeon operating on dorsum of hand must bear in mind the existence of these variations while performing any surgical correction or tendon repair.

158. ORL1 Receptors In The Periaqueductal Gray Of Morphine Tolerant Rat An Autoradiographic Study:

M. Khanna and S.B. Ray,
AIIMS, New Delhi.

Morphine produces tolerance on prolonged administration. It is thought that anti-opioids like nociceptin can counteract the analgesic effect of morphine and lead to tolerance. Nociceptin binds to Opioid Receptor Like1 (ORL1) receptor. The present study investigated the expression of ORL1 receptors in periaqueductal gray (PAG) after development of morphine tolerance.

Albino Wistar rats were injected with morphine in progressively escalating doses (10-50mg/kg) for 5 days. Pain sensitivity was measured using tail flick apparatus. Then the rats were sacrificed and brains were dissected out. Cryostat sections containing the PAG were exposed to tritiated nociceptin to radiolabel ORL1 receptors.

ORL1 receptor expression was noted in both control and morphine treated animals. Quantification of autoradiographic density revealed an overall increase in receptor expression of 22.66%


Increased expression of ORL1 receptors will lead to increased antagonism of analgesic effect of morphine. The findings suggest that specific antagonist may decrease the level of tolerance.

159. Inferior Olivary Nucleus In Human Brains – Study Of Profile Of Neurons:

B.N. Rao and N.B. Devi
MIMS Nellimarla.

Inferior olivary nucleus has been studied in medulla oblongata after fixation of brains of cadavers, they were removed and medulla oblongata was separated. 2mm thickness of medulla at olivary level was processed. 5 microns thick sections were stained with cresyl violet and hematoxylin and eosin.

Neurons of inferior olivary nucleus were multipolar, with rounded outlines. Neuronal count as well as diameter of neurons were assessed. The details of the morphometric study will be discussed at the conference.

160. Morphometric Study Of Coronary Arteries Luminal Diameter And Wall Thickness In Mammals:

Huma Khan, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Nafis Ahmad Faruqi Department of Anatomy, Jnmc, Amu, Aligarh.

Coronary artery is considered to be a medium size muscular artery. In the present study hearts of buffalo, goat, rabbit and rat were immersion fixed in 10% formalin. Blocks of 1 cm size containing proximal part of the right coronary artery were processed for paraffin embedding, 10 thick sections were stained with Haematoxylin-eosin observed under light microscope. In all animals the three tunics of the arterial wall were clearly discernible. The profiles of representative sections were drawn out carefully from the endothelial lining to outer margin of tunica adventitia on a tracing paper. The absolute value of arterial wall thickness varied from one animal to other. It was minimum (0.06 0.020) in rat varied from 3-4 months of age, 200-250 gm of weight and maximum (0.57 0.016) in buffalo of age group 2-4 years, 90-150 kg of weight. Thus the total arterial wall thickness appeared to be in proportion to the somatic size of the animal. The ratio of luminal diameter and arterial wall thickness showed variation among species. As compared to luminal diameter, the walls of the coronary arteries are thick and make up about one-half in buffalo, one ninth in goat, one-tenth in rabbit and one-sixth in rat of luminal diameter. The significance of such variation among species needs further study. Wall thickness of coronary arteries in relation to luminal diameter

161. Histochemical Study Of Mucosubstances Covering The Human Placental Villi (Fibrinoid Material):

Mrs. M.A. Doshi, B.N. Umarji, Mrs. R.R. Karambelkar.
Krishna Institute Of Medical Sciences, Karad.

Mucosubstances forming cell coat perform a wide variety of functions like protection, lubrication, chemical digestion etc. In the present study the mucosubstances covering full term normal human tertiary chorionic villi are studied. Fifty normal human placentas were collected and fixed in 10% formalin with 2% calcium acetate. 4 to 5 micron thin sections were cut after preparing paraffin blocks. The sections were stained by Periodic acid Schiff, Alcian Blue, Aldehyde Fuschin etc for the presence of Glycogen, nature of Mucins i.e. whether neutral or acidic and for the presence of sulphated or corboxylated groups in the Mucins.

The glycoproteins covering the surface of placental tertiary chorionic villi (fibrinoid) were observed to be formed of Carboxylated mucosubstances predominantly. These Carboxylated mucosubstances posses an antigen masking property and are protective in nature because they posses an antiviral and antibacterial property.

162. Histochemical Study Of Mucosubstances In Glands Of Normal Human Palatine Tonsil:

Rohini R. Karambelkar, B. N. Umarji, M. A. Doshi
Krishna Institute Of Medical Sciences, Karad.

The oral cavity and oropharynx is lined by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium withstanding wear and tear; and many glands secreting mucosubstances which perform a wide variety of functions like lubrication, protection chemical digestion etc. In present study mucosubstances present in glands situated at the bases of crypts of human palatine tonsil are studied. Ten normal human palatine tonsils obtained during autopsies or surgical removal were collected and fixed in 10% formalin with 2% Ca acetate. 4-5 micron thin sections were cut after preparing paraffin blocks.

The sections were stained by using specific stains like Periodic acid Schiff, Alcian blue of different Ph and aldehyde fuschin alone and in combination. Confirmatory tests were also carried out. The glands in normal human palatine tonsil show presence of both neutral and acidic mucosubstances which are predominantly Carboxylated or weakly acidic.

The Carboxylated mucosubstances posses an antiviral and antibacterial property, while neutral Mucins help in flushing and lubricating the crypts.The results will be discussed while presenting the paper.

163. Ultrastructural Changes In The Colonic Microvasculature Of Monkeys Infected With Shiga Toxin Producing E.COLI (STEC) O157: H7 Strain 84-01:

Ms. Sakunthaladevi, Ambikaipakan, Nachiket Shankar, Gagandeep Kang And Rachel Koshi, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu.

Shiga toxin producing E.coli (STEC) are responsible for causing haemorrhagic colitis. The aim of the study was to identify the ultrastructural changes in colonic microvasculature of monkeys infected with STEC. Tissue samples were taken from ascending colon, mid colon and descending colon of 2 monkeys each sacrificed at 6 and 24 hours postinfection(PI); and one control. The samples were processed for electron microscopy and all blood vessels in the mucosa and submucosa were studied. Prominent ultrastructural changes of endothelial swelling, membrane ruffling, organelle dilatation and vacuolation were seen in the microvasculature of infected monkeys. In addition, changes in blood cells and evidence of alteration in blood flow were also noted. Capillaries and venules were most severely affected. Changes were more prominent at 24 hrs PI than in 6 hrs PI.

164. Histological Observation Of The Cells Of Hippocampus Of Chick Embryo After Sound Stimulation:

Vandana, M. M. Shah, S. K. Ghosh*
JNMC, Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha. *MGIMS, Sevagram, Wardha

Memory is a phenomenon in which previous experiences are stored in brain and recalled when necessary. It necessitates repeated exposure to any experience, that is known as learning process. Studies have shown that music when presented in prenatal life learning is achievable and brain cells are sensitized for learning (Panicker H., Wadhwa S., 2001).

Hippocampus is the region which is responsible for memory and learning process. Present study aims at eliciting any change in morphology of cells of hippocampus of chick embryo when subjected to music.

Chick embryo (Control-17, experimental-16) were provided with sound stimulation from 9th day of incubation till 19th day of incubation (critical period) (J.P. Scot, 1961).

The neuronal population in experimental group per unit area were strikingly more in experimental group compared to that of the control group.

  • In the lateral area average density of control group varied 0.73 to 1.11 /0.04 mm2
  • While for experimental group it varied from 0.94 to 1.63/0.04 mm2.
  • In the intermediate area average density 0.71 to 1.77 / 0.04 mm2 in control group. While it was 1.47 to 1.91 /0.04 mm2 in experimental group.
  • Nuclear diameter in 2 axis were not different between control and experimental group both in lateral and intermediate area.
  • This suggested that Sound stimulation had stimulating effect on cell growth.

165. Distribution Of Zinc Iodine-Osmium Positive Dendritic Cells In The Human Appendix:

J. Suganthy, Indrasingh I., Koshy S.
Christian Medical College, Vellor.

Human appendix contains lymphoid tissue in the lamina propria and in the submucosa. Dendritic cells present in gut associated lymphoid tissue play an essential role in the antigen presentation in primary immune responses and are believed to be important in normal healthy responses of the mucosal immune system. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the distribution of zinc iodine-osmium (ZIO) positive dendritic cells in the human appendix.The tissue from normal human appendix was fixed in veronal buffered zinc iodide osmium tetroxide and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial sections of 6 thickness were taken, mounted in Canada balsam and viewed under microscope. ZIO positive cells were seen in the region of crypts of Lieberkuhn as well as in the surface epithelium. The cells showed a single long process directed towards the lumen. They were long, slender and triangular. In the region of the lymphoid follicle, two different types of dendritic cells were noted. Follicular dendritic cells present in the germinal center were few in number, larger in size with thick dendritic processes. But in the mantle zone, the typical dendritic cells were seen. They were smaller in size with many thin processes.The distribution of dendritic cells in the human appendix confirms the role of appendix in immune response.

166. Histoarchitectural Modification of Fallopian Tube in Response To Pathophysiological Alteration of Female Genital Tract:

M. Tariq. Zaidi. Aijaz. A. Khan,
J.N.M.C.A.M.U. Aligarh.

The present study was carried out to see the effects of different patho-physiological conditions affecting fallopian tube histoarchitecture. Samples of fallopian tubes obtained from hysterectomy served as controls and those obtained from caesarian ligation, ovarian cystectomy and others were treated as experimental. Formalin fixed tissue were processed for paraffin embedding. Observations were made on H/E stained paraffin sections. As compared to controls the tube from pregnant ones reveals reduction in the height of mucosal folds. with edematous connective tissue base. Beneath the mucosa is zone rich of blood vessels especially in venous sinuses and lymphatic infiltration with smooth muscle fascicles. The epithelium mainly consists of cuboidal and flattened cells interspaced with patches of columnar and pseudostratified epithelium. The presence of cilia could not be make out. The connective tissue core of mocosal folds had plugged vessels with leucocyte infiltration and plasma cells and occasional cells feature suggestive of decidual cells. The mucosa of benign ovarian cyst associated fallopian tube have hypertrophic mucosa and micro papillae lined by non ciliated simple columnar epithelium and congested and sclerosed blood vessels.There is inter muscular edema without any infiltration of cells. The mucosa of pelvic inflammatory disease associated fallopian tube shows atrophic changes with break down of epithelial continuity, edematous stroma, and lymphatic infiltration. The muscular layer shows muscular hyalinization and congested blood vessels. It is concluded that fallopian tube is the most vital segment to be affected in any condition affecting female genital tract.

167. Arsenic Exposure and Cerebellar Development In Rat Pups – A Morphological Study:

Dhar P, Mohari N, Mehra R.D.,
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi.

The role of arsenic (a ubiquitous element with metalloid properties) as a fast emerging environmental contaminant and a health hazard continues to be controversial. Various studies have demonstrated the role of arsenic exposure in affecting a multitude of organ systems and thereby producing certain adult onset disorders. Strong evidence supports the hypothesis that arsenic exposure during gestational period in rats and mice leads to certain teratogenic and embryotoxic effects (exencephaly and neural tube defects). Even, arsenic induced apoptosis of cerebellar neuronal populations in culture setup has been reported. These studies suggest the role of arsenic toxicity in producing structural malformations and thereby resulting in functional alterations. However, the exact mechanism of action underlying these suggested postulations remains elusive till date. The present study has demonstrated the effects of developmental arsenic exposure on Purkinje cells of rat cerebellum. Sodium arsenite was administered in increasing dosages (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body wt.) to experimental animal groups on postnatal days (PND) 4 to 11. On PND 12 (day of sacrifice) the Purkinje cells presented a multilayered pattern in experimental animals when compared to controls. In addition, various phases of differentiation persisted in Purkinje cells of experimental groups at PND 12. The number of apoptotic cells as demonstrated by TUNEL staining did not vary much amongst the control and experimental animals at this developmental stage. These observations are presumed to provide an insight into various factors underlying arsenic induced developmental toxicity.

168. Histological Features Of The Early Human Placenta:

Sarkar (Mondal), Maitrayee. Tickoo, Chandan Ingole I.V., Tarnekar A, Dr. Ghosh S.K.
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram.

The human placenta plays a key role in metabolic secretory and excretory functions to support the growing foetus. The purpose of this study is to examine the features of the cells and vasculogenesis of chorionic villus in the early weeks of normal gestation, to collect the basic data for comparison with placentae of mother with history of A.P.H. (Permission from college. Ethical Committee has been obtained) Before implantation nutrition of the mammalion conceptus is essentially histiotrophic. After implantation maternal blood flows through the developing placenta and establishes hemotrophic pathways for nutrients from mother to the foetus. For the present study tissues were collected from six mothers undergoing legal termination of pregnancy between 8-16 weeks of gestation from Kasturba Hospital Sevagram. The samples were fixed in 10% formol saline followed by routine tissue processing and embedding. 6 micron thick paraffin sections were cut and stained with Haematoxyline and Eosin and Massons trichrome method and examined under light microscope. The margin of chorionic villii showed two cell types. Syncytiotrophoblast forming the outer layer and were higher in density. The free surface of syncytium showed abundant microvilli. Cytotrophoblasts seen as pale discrete cells resting upon a basal lamina which did not form a complete layer. Sprouts containing cytotrophoblast cells were seen to form new villi. Core of villi showed large mesenchymal cells with cytoplasmic processes. Capillaries were scarce, small and lined by single layer of endothelium. Both nucleated and non-nucleated erythrocytes were seen within the chorionic capillaries. Langhans cell hyperplasia and multinucleated giant cells were also noted in the decidual part. The capillaries within core of villers were lesser in earlier placentae as compared to that of placentae of later age group.

169. Histomorphometric Study Of The Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery In Man:

Rustagi S.M., Bharihoke V., Sangari S.K.
University College Of Medical Sciences and G.T.B. Hospital, Delhi

Cerebral vessels are unique muscular arteries in their histological structure in having thin walls and a prominent internal elastic lamina. The intracranial internal carotid arteries are one of the earliest vessels involved in cerebrovascular accidents (Moossy 1966).The histological structure of the intracavernous part of internal carotid arteries was studied in thirty healthy adults, 20-40 years of age who had succumbed to road accidents. The intracavernous part of the artery was dissected out and processed for paraffin sectioning. Seven micron thick cross sections were stained withHematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome and Verhoeff’s stains.

The outer diameter was found to be more on the left side (4.32 mm ± 0.44) as compared to the right side (4.29 mm ± 0.43). The mean thickness of the tunica intima was found to. be more on right side (26.27 mm ± 12.71) as compared to left side (25.23 mm±9.59). The subendothelial tissue in the tunica intima was not uniform in thickness. It showed focal fibroelastic masses in three cases with migration of smooth muscle cells in the tunica intima from the tunica media. Splittings of the internal elastic lamina were seen bilaterally in six cases, in three cases only on the right side and three cases only on the left side.These changes are similar to the preatherosclerotic changes descibed by Simionescu and Simionescu(1977).These findings suggest that ageing changes begin in vessels of apparently healthy individuals as early as third decade of life.

170. Mucin Histochemistry In Developing Large Intestine Of Human Foetuses And Its Comparision With Normal Adult And Malignant Epithelial Tumours Of Large Intestine:

G.M. Ganga, P. G. Gaikawad M.S.
J.J.M. Medical College Davongere.

The study of Foetal mucin in different gestational age will prove basis for understanding pathophysiology in different diseases. Mucin pattern in developing large intestine of human fotuses from 12 week to 37 weeks o f gestational period have been studied, with differ histochemical techniques (PAS, Alcian Blue-PH-2.5. PH-I, AB 2.5- PAS – AF – AB – 2.5). These observation showed that there was progressive rise in sulphomucin but decrease in neutral mucin. Sialomucin was observed between 14 to 26 week but decreased in later period. Mucin pattern have studied in adult normal, malignant epithedial tumour in different grades (well, moderate and poorly differeritiated) villous adenoma and transitional mucosa in large intestine. There was alternation of mucin pattern in different grades of aderocarcinoma. Transitional mucosa adjacent to carcinoma was studied at three level 1) Adjacent to tumour. 2) 1.5 to 2.5cm away from tumour 3) 5 c.m. away from tumour – Transitional mucosa up to 2 c.m. away from tumour showed increased sialomucin at expepse of -sulphomucin. The raised level of sialomucin in transitional mucosa may have practical value in assessment of prognosis in colorectal cancer decrease in neutral mucin. Sialomucin was observed between 14 to 26 week but decreased in later period. Mucin pattern have studied in adult normal, malignant epithedial tumour in different grades (well, moderate and poorly differeritiated) villous adenoma and transitional mucosa in large intestine. There was alternation of mucin pattern in different grades of aderocarcinoma. Transitional mucosa adjacent to carcinoma was studied at three level 1) Adjacent to tumour. 2) 1.5 to 2.5cm away from tumour 3) 5 c.m. away from tumour. Transitional mucosa up to 2 c.m. away from tumour showed increased sialomucin at expepse of -sulphomucin. The raised level of sialomucin in transitional mucosa may have practical value in assessment of prognosis in colorectal cancer.

171. Neuronal Arrangement In Spinal Cord Of Rabbit:

Kirmani, F., M. Ullah
J.N.MC, A.M.U.Aligarh.

Study was done using eight adult rabbits with an aim to localize motor neuron somata of different nerves of upper limb. These rabbits were sacrificed and perfusion fixation was done in 10% buffered formalin.Cervical spinal cord segments (C5 – C8) and thoracic spinal cord segment (T 1) were processed for paraffin embedding. 40-micron thick serial transverse sections were obtained and stained with thionin. Reconstruction from serial section of different segments was done and following groups of cells were observed. Ventrolateral group, from 5th cervical to 1 st thoracic segment. Dorsolateral group, from 5th cervical to 1st thoracic segment. Retrodorsolateral group, from 8th cervical to 1 st thoracic segment. Ventromedial group, from 5th cervical to 1st thoracic segment. Dorsomedial group; from 8th cervical to 1 st thoracicsegment.Central group; from 5th cervical to 6th cervical segment.

172. Wall Thickness, Lumen Circumference And Microstructure of Tunica Media In Human Large Sized Arteries:

Keshaw Kumar,
M.L.N. Medical College Allahabad.

To compare wall thickness, lumen circumference and microstructure of tunica media in human large sized arteries, 10 mm long arterial segments of ascending aorta, arch of aorta, descending thoracic aorta, descending abdominal aorta, brachiocephalic artery pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, common carotid arteries subclavian arteries and common iliac arteries were obtained 1 cm distal to their commencements during autopsy from 50 human adults not suffering from any cardiovascular disease. Arterial segments were preserved in 10% fomalin after measuring their wall thickness and lumen circumference Paraffin sections of 10 micron thickness were cut to be stained with orcein and counter stained with haematoxylin and eosin.

Mean wall thickness was 1.5 mm in ascending aorta and arch of aorta, I mm in descending thoracic aorta, descending abdominal aorta and brachiocephalic artery, 0.75 mm in common carotid arteries, subclavian arteries and common iliac arteries, 0.5 mm in pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries.

Mean lumen circumference was 60 mm in ascending aorta, arch of aorta, and pulmonary trunk, 40 mm in descending thoracic aorta and brachiocephalic artery, 30mm in descending abdominal aorta, pulmonary arteries, common carotid arteries and subclavian arteries and 20 mm in common iliac arteries.

Tunica medial density of elastic fibers per magnified field was 4 + in ascending aorta, arch of aorta and pulmonary trunk, 3.5+ in descending thoracic aorta, brachiocephalic artery, common carotid arteries and subclavian arteries, 3+ in descending abdominal aorta and pulmonary arteries and 2+ in common iliac arteries.

Tunica medial density of smooth muscle fibers per magnified field was 3+ in common iliac arteries, 2+ descending abdomina aorta and pulmonary arteries, 1.5+ descending thoracic brachiocephalic artery, common carotid arteries and subclavian arteries, 1 + in ascending aorta, arch of aorta and pulmonary trunk.

173. Comparative Study Of Human And Animal Hair In Relation With Diameter And Medullary Index:

S.V. Kshirsagar, P.B. Hosmani, B.H. Bahetee
S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, Beed. M.S.

The material of medicolegal cases received by the department of Anatomy many times contains hair along with bones with the question; whether the hair are human or not? Hence, it is important to determine if the hair is of human or of an animal.

The present study was carried out in the Depart-Iment of Anatomy, S.R. T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai. The study material included human hair and hair of different animals. For the microscopic examination, the specimen was treated with hydrogen peroxide and mounted on the slide. The diameters of shaft and medulla were measured. It was observed that the diameter of hair was not a reliable parameter to distinguish human and animal hair. The ratio of the medulla and shaft diameters, known as medullary index was the most significant distinguishing feature of the human hair. In human hair, the diameter of medulla was one third or less as that of the shaft.

174. Malformed Position Of Duodenum-A Case Report:

S.Swayam Jothi, Seshi Parasuram, D. Sree Lekha And D. Sai Sucheethra
Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur.

During routine dissection we came across a body where the third part of the duodenum was not horizontal but ascended towards the right side of second part of duodenum and then curved upwards to become the fourth part.

The head of the pancreas merged with a mass of tissue which invaded the mesentery. Because of the difference in the curvature of the duodenum, we thought whether it may be a congenital extension of pancreatic tissue. There were no bands or adhesions.

A bit of tissue from the head of the pancreas and the mass which was in continuity were taken and processed for histological study.

The mass of tissue is due to enlarged matted lymph nodes which showed caseating necrotic material. Hence the position of duodenum is due to pressure effect and not due to any congenital cause.

175. Microanatomy Of Ileocaecal Valve In Man:

Madhur Gupta, Upjeet Kaur, Neeru Goyal Medicine and Biotechnology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh.

The presence of a valve and the concept of a functional sphincter at the ileocaecal junction have been debated in the literature. 24 specimens of ieocaecal organ complex including 10cm of ileum and colon were obtained from cadavers from the Departments of Anatomy and Pathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh. 5µ thick longitudinal sections from the upper lip of the ileocaecal valve were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Silver stain. Sections of the ileum and colon from 5 ileocaecal organ complexes were also prepared and similarly stained. All the sections were viewed under the light microscope. The muscle bundles constituting the muscularis propria in the ileocaecal valve were arranged in two rows and were tapering in size from the base to the apex. The disposition of the muscle fibres was not uniform in all the specimens. The muscle fibers could be traced up to the upper, middle and lower third of the valve in 8 (33.3%), 14 (58.3%) and 2 (8.3%) specimens respectively. Silver stain of these sections revealed large number of nerve elements distributed within the submucosa and muscularis propria. The density of nerve elements in the ileocaecal valve was similar in all the sections irrespective of the extent of the muscularis propria and was comparable to the density of nerve elements in the muscularis propria and submucosa of the ileum and colon. The present study shows that the ileocaecal valve has a well developed muscularis mucosa in 88% of the specimens and had a proportionate component of the nerve elements debated in the literature.

176. Orcein-alcian Blue Staining: A Histochemical Technique To Demonstrate Acid Mucins In Routine Laboratories:

Gowrishankar, R. S. Jnanesh,
V. J.J.M. Medical College. Davanagere. Karnataka.

Orcein has been used for staining elastic fibres for many years. Recently a new histochemical method Orcein-Alcian blue staining has been reported for demonstration of acid mucins. Some modifications in Orcein-Alcian blue staining gives good results in identification of sulphomucins and sialomucins. In the present study Orcein (synthetic)-Alcian blue staining of 6 surgically resected specimens of adenocarcinoma of colon and normal tissue have been studied. Findings of the present method in identification of malignant tumor from the normal tissue will be discussed with histochemical characteristics. This technique can be used to demonstrate sulphomucins and sialomucins of different glands (respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelium) and also used as an aid to the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions.

177. The Ultimate Teaching Model In Neuro Anatomy:

M.Gopalan Amrita
Institute Of Medical Sciences Cochin 26, Kerala.

Serial CT, MRI pictures and 3- D computer diagrams are valuable visual aids in teaching Anatomy. In spite of all these, teachers often find it difficult to make the students visualize the intricate nuclear components and connections of Thalamus the Sensory gate way to Cerebral cortex. An earnest approach to build up a 3-D THALAMUS-the gross features, it’s complex nuclear components, the Anatomical Projections, relations and connections, has been made and assembled in fiber glass medium in our Anatomy museum . It has been widely appreciated by Anatomy and Physiology Teachers, Neuro-Physicians and Surgeons, Undergraduate and Post Graduate Students.

178. 21st Century-A Changed Scenario; Students Guiding The Teachers:

Kumud, D., Satya, K., Tikshan D.,
Department Of Anatomy Sri Guru Ramdas Institute Of Medical Sciences And Research, Sri Amritsar.

In the continuum process of life, the change is a universal phenomenon. Everything changes but surprisingly the teacher and taught equation has remained static. The human resources development is thriving on the strategy of feedback. Similarly the student feedback should become a powerful tool in improving the quality of teaching. There is a vast explosion of knowledge around us but on the other hand the time available has been compressed to a capsule. So to create a symbiosis between the two, some novel methods have to be evolved. Therefore the students viewpoints were sought. The present study was aimed at.

  1. Imparting maximum knowledge to the students.
  2. Maximum utilization of the time at our disposal.
  3. Maximum involvement of students to make them feel as a part of this teaching programme.
  4. To get guidelines from students about what, which, when, where and how they want the teachings, so that they are most receptive.

A questionnaire was put to 200 students of our institution. The data was collected and compiled. The results were analyzed which will be discussed at the conference.

179. Feedback Given By Under Graduate Medical Students Following Modified Teaching Technology:

Bhatnagar R. And Zargar R.K.
AFMC, Pune.

The MCI issued the directives in 1997 resulting in compression of 1st MBBS curriculum into 1 year. It took both the teachers and students by surprise. The conscientious faculty felt committed to the cause of the students that demanded intense and speedy action. We deliberated to devise methods for improvement. Meetings were organised with representatives from each dissection table once a fortnight. The outcome of the interactions motivated us to modify the teaching methodology to meet the requirements. Thereafter, we got the efforts put in by us evaluated by the students. For this a questionnaire was given to the students after passing 1st MBBS examination. Data was compiled for three consecutive years. Students came up with suggestions and were forthright in pointing out the shortcomings of a particular teacher. Their views were taken sportingly and efforts made to improve and comply with some of the worthy suggestions. This helped us coming out with a well structured training schedule which was learner oriented and met their requirements.

180. Are The Clinicians Happy With The Teaching Of Anatomy In Medical Colleges And Knowledge Of Anatomy Of UG and PG Medical Students?

Vatsalaswamy and R. K. Zargar,
Armed Forces Medical College, Pune.

Chanced interaction with the clinicians reveals that there is perceptible decline in standards of anatomical knowledge of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. They opined that the medical colleges are providing inadequate anatomy teaching to students to equip them for their clinical practice.

With the commissioning of Health Universities and the time constraint imposed on the I MBBS Curriculum, the faculty in general was skeptical about the outcome of these health universities. It was expected that uniformity and objectivity in examination would gradually settle with all the medical colleges coming under Health University. Despite curriculum framed by the University and Anatomical society of India, there appears wide spread variation in the teaching methodology and curricular content in different colleges.This coupled with paucity of teaching faculty and change in the examination pattern have deflected the priority of imbibing anatomical knowledge. The result of I MBBS encourages the students to have laid back attitude. This accounts for the very weak foundation for taking on clinical subjects. This has manifested in gross inadequacies of anatomical background which is so essential for a confident clinician. No wonder our contemporary clinicians have perceived the decline and it is a matter of time that remedial measures have to be taken up.

To identify the cause and to frame a strategy it is imperative that we seek the clinicians’ help. To overcome falling standard of our future students, a questionnaire is framed and sent to the clinicians of all the colleges under Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nasik. The outcome of the reply and the action plan will be presented and discussed.

181. Redeeming Of Dissection An Evolving A Strategy To Bring In Objectivity And Uniformity In Practical Examination In Anatomy:

Lt. Col. Sushil Kumar, R.K. Zargar
AFMC, Pune.

With technical advancements, there is a distant possibility of doing away with dissection. This would adversely affect the conduction of practical examination.

The faculty aims to make the students Enthusiastically participate in dissection. Comprehend the anatomical facts. Grasp its clinical bearing.

To redeem the importance of dissection, make it more purposeful and edit it to highlight clinical relevance, it is essential to test the students often. The reasons and gain of these tests should accord objectivity and uniformity to be convincing and compelling for acceptance by the teacher and the taught.

How Do We Make It Happen? These tests have to be structured to make the student see the purpose of each dissection schedule. The methodology to evolve these tests is to be based on the premise that an examiner should judge whether the candidate is able to:

  1. Identify the structure pointed at.
  2. Seek and show the structures related to the main structure.
  3. Demonstrate the pertaining anatomical facts.
  4. Explain the pertinent clinical bearing.

The scope of incorporating all the dissection schedules for university examination, its impact on the students and the feasibility of subjecting other heads of practical examination to this structured methodology will be presented and discussed.

182. History Of Anatomy For Nurturing The Appropriate Attitude In Medicos:

Mrs.P.D. Athavia
Professor and Head, Dept. of Anatomy, L.T.M.M.C., Sion, Mumbai.

The subject of history of anatomy is always handled cursorily in medical courses. While students may have, at best, a familiarity with certain famous names; the significance of their contribution is lost on them. This is because, these giants of science are only named, and their places of work are mentioned only in passing. And because we don’t attempt to study in some depth what exactly these men were working at, it results in us repeating, what we are warned against, in the old axiom those who do not learn from history are condemned to repeat it.

At our department, we have a section of the museum devoted to history of Anatomy. We have depicted a map of the ‘old world’ as it was known during ancient times, with a commentary on what the major cities were like in those times, the socio-cultural milieu of the time, as also the state of scientific knowledge. The fears and prejudices of that particular time, the problems faced by anatomists in their working environment as well as in society are attempted to be portrayed vividly.

Prejudices of that particular time, the problems faced by anatomists in their working environment as well as in society are attempted to be portrayed vividly.

While a lot has changed in the world, a lot of the problems faced by the scientists of old are still there in an altered form. This will train students the right attitude and correct expectation resulting in less frustration and encourage more students to undertake research, which is a sadly neglected area in our country.

This paper attempts to recreate the scenario of those ancient times.

183. Perceptions Of Post Graduate Students On Post Graduate Medical Common Entrance Test (PGMCET):

Patil, R.A.
Department of Anatomy, Seth G.S.M.C and K.E.M.H. Parel, Mumbai.

  1. To evaluate certain aspects of the PGM-CET pattern on the basis of opinion of post graduate students.
  2. To study the opinion of the post graduate students on some new ideas on the mode of conducting PGM­CET.
  3. To suggest the authorities concerned the alternative methods that can be implemented.

Prevalidated questionnaire was distributed among the randomly selected 100 post graduate students (inclusive of clinical and non clinical departments) from the Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M Hospital Mumbai.

The response showed tremendous and interesting variability. Amongst the differing opinions that the students offered and which will be detailed during the presentation, two stand out very prominently. The first is the NEGATIVE MARKING ought to be there and secondly examinations should be held during FIXED DATES year after year. The uncertainty surrounding examination dates seemed quite disturbing to the students and their kith and kin.

184. Item Analysis Of Two Histology Examinations:

Bharihoke V.
University College Of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital Delhi

One sixth of the total time allocated to the teaching of Anatomy in the First professional Course at University College Of Medical Sciences is allotted to Histology. This forms 14% of the total theory classes and 20% of the Practical classes in Anatomy. During the examination usually 8 to 10% marks in theory and 25% marks in the Practical final examination forms a major chunk of the Anatomy curriculum. A need for evaluating the examination in Histology was felt in order to see if we are doing justice to this major part of the curriculum.

In this study the effectiveness of each response or item to different aspects of the practical examination was done to find out the difficulty level and the discriminating power of the students. The performance of an average of about 95 students who appeared in the two consecutive examinations within a period of one month was analyzed. Every student was given two randomly selected slides and asked to identify, draw labeled diagrams and give the salient identifying features of each slide. About 78% of the slides were identified correctly. A system wise analysis revealed 40 50% error in identifying slides of GIT, male genitalia, general histology. Slides of the skin and female genital system had an error rate of less than 10%. The diagrams and the points of identification were areas, which called for much improvement.

185. Interpreting The Human Body:

H. A. Buch, Desai, D.
University, Nadiad, Gujarat.

Human body is a network of networks. Such an interpretation does indicate that some of the current medicinal and surgical treatments based on linear thinking and reductionism are superfluous and symptomatic to the extreme (Buch, 2004). Under this situation, what are the modalities of dealing with the treatment purposes remains an enigma as fascinating as ever. network(s)in order and in disorder for diagnostic and treatment purposes remains an enigma as fascinating as ever.

Interpretation of Machina carnis (machine of the flesh) has attracted many scientists and philosophers other than anatomists like Capra, Crick, and Roger Panrose to name few. Our close proximity to the human body is blinding and hence we need to examine others more seriously. Plethora of books and articles has been written on networking and its problems and solutions by computer and electronic engineering experts. It remains to be explored how they may be of any help in our task of understanding the human. Can current or future super/quantum computer(s) be of any assistance in this regard? Do the computers understand any thing? 3999999 Target specific drug and its delivery are still not happening. We have already witnessed the demise of many what were once thought to be strictly monogenic disorders. Recurrence of pain and disease are common, and we are increasingly looking forward to evidence based medicine and surgery. Surely, better interpretation of the body is the need of the day.

186. Attitudes And Reactions Of First M.B.B.S Students To Dissection Of Cadavers:

Shaikh, S.T.
Department of Anatomy, Seth G.S.M.C and K.E.M.H. Parel Mumbai.

Human dissection features prominently in most medical preclinical courses and uniquely distinguishes medical students from other students of biological sciences. Dissection of the human body is usually the first in a long series of students’ encounters with death and such experiences are seen as unpleasant or frightening. Education of medical students and doctors about death and dying can alleviate their anxieties during training and later in practice.

To study the students’ response to the FIRST EVER exposure to cadavers and their methods for coping with their adverse feelings is the aim of study.

Newly admitted 100 students of first M.B.B.S were given a prevalidated questionnaire to record their aesthetic reactions to the first ever exposure to cadaveric material as also the dissection thereof. The study also noted the various coping mechanisms employed by the students to overcome their sense of abhorrence and to get used to the routine of dissection.

Most students expressed great feeling of unease for the first few days. With innate coping mechanisms and help from the faculty, they could restructure their inner responses and to come to terms with the routine and the benefits of handling cadavers for anatomic dissections.

187. Grand Revision A Tool To Improve Students Performance:

B.N. Umarji, M.A. Doshi, R.R. Karambelkar Krishna Institute Of Medical Sciences, Karad.

To improve the performance of average and below average students, a rapid revision of about two weeks is arranged at the end of academic year just before preliminary examination. The students are exposed to both theory and practical pattern during revision. By arranging spots they are made aware of common questions asked in practical. They are also made to solve M.C.Qs and S.A.Qs.

The students are motivated by declaring and distributing prizes, and by conducting competitions. Feed back from students is taken to modify and evaluate the pattern of grand revision.This method has given excellent results in examination for last three batches and will be discussed at the time of presenting paper.

188. Ultrasensitivity Of Retina, Cochlea And Stretch Receptors In Yoga And Samadhi:

Surwase, R.G., Kothari, M.L., Mehta L.
Dept. Of Anatomy, Seth G.S. Medical College, Parel, Mumbai.

Human finger tip can detect a surface difference of 1/ 25000 of an inch. A blind Russian girl could decipher colours through finger touch. Human retina can accept the minimum energy of six photons of light to amplify it into a perfect retinogram and send it to lateral geniculate body. This much of incidental energy on hify photoelectric cell will have to given for million years before you can accumulate electricity to light a 15 bulb for one second. Human cochlea is ten times more sensitive than retina and responds to a sound vibration amplitude of which is smaller than diameter of hydrogen atom. It rightly said that we Indians talk too loudly.

Humancochlea is ten times more sensitive than retina and responds to a sound vibration amplitude of which is smalle than diameter of hydrogen atom. It rightly said that we Indians talk too loudly.

Electrophysiologic studies of retina, cochlea and stretch receptors have shown that they work at their peak during remphase sleep. This means that a Niagara of impulses travel from these and other receptors to nourish the brain while you seemingly are fast asleep. This phenomenon accounts for the strong EEG recording during deep sleep in human and animal subjects. It is this nourishment to brain which gives you a feeling of freshness on waking up. Brain overworks to make you feel that you have not worked at all.

In the Yogis Samadhi, you are in the state that is fully awake but without a single thought. Your thoughtlessness allows your senses to work simultaneously at their hightest peak to give you the realization of your being Satchidanand. One is glad that fairly clear anatomic and physiologic basis exists for this highest achievement of any human being. Your moksh/nirvan has sound anatomic basis.

189. Acronymising Anatomy:

Nataraian, M., Mehta, L., Kothari M.
Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai.

Science is a perpetual search for clarity perceived and expressed through words. Many a anatomic term was conceived in haste, for its relevance as revealed by its etymology fails to hold water today. As teachers and writers in anatomy, we have two clear options: the preferred one is to drop the seemingly inappropriate term and replace it by logical verbal invention. Such an approach meets the high wall of medicos reluctance to shift their gear and more than that the term being entrenched deep in anatomic thought words and action.

For arriving at better sense a compromise appears helpful. The term should be retained but its letters be fully exploited to indicate the many structural and functional nuances that surround the particular term. We would like to call this conservative neologic radiacalism.

We propose that the term under question be used as an acronym and be spelt as such. Capitalizing acronym conveys to the reader the possible inappropriateness of the term as also an expanded perspective on the term itself. To wit, the term seemingly unquestionable joint is wrong both in concept and content.Embryogenic epigenesis and rational dissection reveal that nothing is joined to something but that a lytic gap during embryogenesis creates the convenient illusion of there being a joint.

Let joint be acronymized as JOINT to denote Juxta Osseous Interzone and Tissues. In a similar way how about Analyzing Nature To Organize Medical learning. It should be clear that likewise many such terms can be rejuvenated and made to throb with intellectual vigor.

190. Muscles And The Mind:

Gopal G. Bagal, M.L Kothari,
Seth G.S.M.C and K.E.M.H Mumbai

Anatomical students and teachers are traditionally obsessed with the motor nerve supply to a skeletal muscle. Rarely do they bother about the sensory supply the muscle gives to the brain except when they talk about sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius, motor supply by accessory nerve and who send fibers to CNS along posterior cervical rami. The dialogue between brain i.e. your mind and your muscles is both ways, except that the muscles dominant, in terms of their supply to the brain as their sensory input to the brain, surpasses the motor output from CNS to muscle. It is this outstanding fact which lies behind biblical advice. Though shall eat thy bread, in the sweat of thy brow. The Jew religion advises that during some part of day one must labour physically. In recent times Mahatma Gandhi andVinobha Bhave have been great champions of parishram or significant physical activities.

Anatomy textbooks do not emphasis the fact that, the diaphragm and heart are cephalic to the brain during development and exercise the distinct impact over the brain. Following coronary bypass pericardial nerves are invariably cut; profound depression, lowering of I.Q. and diminished cognitive function are very common. Surgical studies have revealed that vagi going to stomach contain 83%fibre going from stomach to the brain andonly 17% fibres from CNS to stomach. No wonder following vagotomy depression, alcoholism, drug addiction andsuicide are common.

The very tall cells of CNS need constant sensory input for intraneuronal circulation that assures their health. The best way to achieve this is to physically work as hard as possible, so that your mind has enough input from muscles.

Healthy tight muscles and peaceful mind go together. The other way is to constantly stretch one’s muscles so that stretch receptors and muscles spindles are activated during day and continuously activated during sleep. They thus nourish brain during one’s sleep and allows you to get up with fresh mind. This is the basis of positive effect of all yogi asans and exercises.

191. Anatomical Basis Of Clinical Procedures Our Experience:

P .S. Bhuiyan, L.Rajgopal A.S. Bendre and L.A.Mehta Seth G.S.Medical College, K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai.

Anatomy is a multifaceted discipline. Each and every subdivision of this dynamic branch has grown into flourishing specialities and superspecialities. To cope up with the technological advances in the field of medicine, there is a “felt need” by the clinicians to revisit anatomy so that they can apply their clinical skills.To fulfill this demand the department has setup a Laboratory for Clinical Skills and Research- First of its kind in India. It is mandatory that Anatomists equip themselves to suit the needs of Clinicians of different specialities.

With this in mind, the department conducted a hands on workshop on Anatomical Basis of Clinical Procedures using unembalmed cadavers.

This paper deals with our experience, procedures adopted, participants’ feedback and emergence of a growing need to build a bridge between Anatomists and the Clinicians so as to teach anatomy applied to health care i.e., CLINICAL ANATOMY.

192. Group Discussion For Improving Self Learning:

Elezy M.A., Sathidevi V.K., Lekha K.S.
Govt. Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala.

To study the effect of group discussion for learning. 2004 and 2005 batch MBBS admission students of Government Medical College, Thrissur.

During revision, students were given university questions for discussion. Total class of hundred students were divided into four batches.

Above said method was not fulfilling the expectations. Each such group was further divided into group of 5 each and allowed interaction under supervision. The group discussion proved very effective.

193. Simple Economical Teaching Module:

T. Rajan, P. S. Suresh

Teaching Anatomy is never been easy task. The concept of a three dimensional structure has to be communicated with teaching aid that are actually 2 dimensional (chalk and black board or an h transparency). To give 3 dimensions, the models are prepared with different materials (clay, plaster of Paris and fiber and rein). Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, but models prepared from any materials available in market has an unique disadvantage, that is high cost. To overcome this, the models are prepared with household materials to give the better knowledge about certain anatomical structure like middle ear.

This paper may give the idea about the preparation of simple and economical models.

194. A Study Of Socioeconomic And Educational Background Of Maharashstrian Students Admitted To 1st MBBS In Year. 2000- 2004.

M.M. Baig
Dept of Anatomy SBH GMC Dhule.

This study was conducted to asses the socioeconomic and educational backgroWld of Maharashtrian students admitted to M.B.B.S. through MH-CET. The data collected for this study was from students of Dr. V.M.G.MC. Solapur (2000and2004 batches) and S.B.H.G.M.C. Dhule. (2004 batch).The data was subjected to statistical analysis. The aim of the study was to asses whether any of these factors have an influence on the performance of the students.

The significant findings were:

  1. Father’s education, profession and family income did not show any association with performance (admission) between these batches while mother’s education as well as profession showed an association with the performance of the students. It was noted that 80% of mothers were housewives.
  2. Maximum amongst the father’s profession was the number of Government servants 31.8% while farmer’s representation was 8.9% least was Labourers 2.6%.
  3. Average female to male ratio was 0.67 while the same for Maharashtra is 0.92
  4. Residence – Urban: 52.5% . Rural: 21.25%
  5. Home studied 84%
  6. Attended coaching classes: 76.9%

195. Analysis Of The M.C.Q.s – A Guide To Judge The Examiners:

A. Jamkar
S.B.H., GMC, Dhule, M.S.

Sealing Item analysis is one of. the ways, to assess the single M.C.Q. (single often referred to as an “Item”) Calculating difficulty index and the discrimination index usually does it.

Dept. of Anatomy conducted four examinations of 1st MBBS students during academic year 2004 – 2005. The items appeared in the question papers of these examinations were assessed in the present study.

The items appeared in the question papers of these examinations were assessed in the present study.

Each of these items was assessed from the answers given by the students, by Calculating diffculty index and Discrimination index. The results obtained will be discussed during the presentation.

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