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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts 101 - 150

Author(s): Members

Vol. 55, No. 1 (2006-01 - 2006-07)

101. Maxillary Central Incisor Morphometry In North Indians – A Dimorphic Study:

Agnihotri G, Kaushal S., Patnaik VVG*,
Dept. of Anatomy, DMC and H, Ludhiana. * GMC, Patiala.

Teeth provide excellent material in populations for anthropological, genetic, odontologic and forensic investigations. Their morphometry is known to be influenced by cultural, environmental and racial factors. The maxillary central incisors occupy a strategic anatomical position being in centre and in front of the upper arch. The present study defines the criteria of maxillary central incisor size for the North Indian population. It also emphasizes that there is no such thing as a ‘typical tooth’ The teeth by their formation and structure are indespensible in predicting sex. Whenever it is possible to predict sex, identification is simplified because then only persons of one sex need to be considered . The present study establishes the existence of a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in the morphometry of the central incisors.

Perzigian (1976) and Nairetal (1999 have calculated the percentage dimorphism in Knoll and South Indian populations The present pioneer study in North Indians, documents the dimorphism to be 3.84% and 4.52% for right and left maxillary central incisors respectively.

102. Study Of Precondylar Tubercles In South Indian Skulls:

Sridevi N.S., Roopa Kulkarni And R.N. Kulkarni,
Dept. Of Anatomy, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

The exhaustively studied variations within and between populations suggest that the occurrence of supernumerary ossicle variants and discrete cranial traits may result from a process of adaptation to various environmental patterns as well as random drift by population size.

In the present study, the precondylar tubercles are observed in skulls, which are the nonmetrical parameters in the racial classification of the bones. 100 skulls were studied to note the absence or presence of precondylar tubercles, their number, size, shape, and bilateralism. The detailed description and statistical analysis will be discussed during presentation.

103. Study Of Wormian Bones In Human Skulls In Nagpur Region:

Sanjay M. Walulkar, M.R. Shende, D.D. Ksheersagar, (Mrs.) N.K. Pathak,
NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Digdoh, Nagpur.

Wormian bones are the bony ossicles i.e. supernumerary bones of the human skull that develop as extra islands of bone within the calvarial sutures of the skull.

Aim of the present study is to find out the incidence and percentage frequency of wormian bones in gross, at various fontanelles or along different cranial sutures. The study also evaluates various sizes, shapes and also differentiate whether it is wormian or fractured skull as seen in medicolegal cases.

The study includes 225 adult human skulls and in each skull presence of wormian bones at different sites were noted. The measurements were taken with the help of Vernier Callipers.

The study revealed 34.22% gross incidence of wormian bones. 39.13% incidence rate of these bones was observed in males and 21.87% in females. These bones appear in Lambdoid sutures most commonly followed by lambda, asterion and then sagittal suture. These bones are predominantly occurred unilaterally on left side of the skull. The occurrence of wormian bones on lambdoid suture is higher in females, whereas their occurrence in remaining sites of skull is higher in males. Most commonly wormian bones are irregular in shape followed by oval shape.

104. Morphometrical Study Of Zygomatico-facial And Zygomatico- orbital Foramina In Dry Adult Human Skulls:

Sujatha N, Manjunath KY, Balasubramanyam V.,
St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore.

Forty adult skulls of unknown sex were examined for variations of the zygomatico-facial and zygomatico-orbital foramina. In which 18 skulls had bilateral symmetrical numbers of foramina and 22 skulls were asymmetrical. In 5 skulls both zygomatico-facial and zygomatico-orbital foramina were absent bilaterally and 4 skulls had absence of these foramina unilaterally. Absence of only zygomatico­facial foramina were seen in 8 skulls bilaterally and in 4 skulls unilaterally. Absence of only zygomatico-orbital foramina were seen in 5 skulls bilaterally and in 8 skulls unilaterally. Single zygomatico-facial foramina were seen bilaterally in 10 skulls and unilaterally in 16 skulls. Two zygomatico-facial foramina were seen in 3 bilateral and 14 unilateral skulls. Three zygomatico-facial foramina were seen in 2 skulls unilaterally, and four zygomatico-facial foramina were seen in 1 skull unilaterally. Single zygomatico-orbital foramina were seen bilaterally in 9 and unilaterally in 14 skulls. Two zygomatico-orbital foramina were seen bilaterally in 6 and unilaterally in 11 skulls. Three zygomatico-facial foramina were seen unilaterally in 5 skulls. The location of these foramina is of importance during orbital surgery.

105. Reliability Of Metric Vs Non-metric Study In Race Assessment By Prognathism- A Study In 60 Indian Punjab Crania Of Known Sex:

Subhash Kaushal, Patnaik VVG and Sumati,
Govt. Medical College, Patiala.

Race determination is one of the essential prerequisites for identification of an individual. The skull is the best part of the skeleton to use for the determination of racial affinity, both morphologically and osteometrically. Inferring from observations related to morphological indicators depends largely upon the experience of the observer while adequate level of methodological standardization, is an essential precondition at the outset. There is great deal of variability with regard to prognathism among members of all major racial groups. Assessment of race, using metric studies vis-ą-vis use of morphological indicators was put to comparison for reliability in the present study, subsequent to estimation of prognathism by both methods on skulls of 60 individuals of known sex (30 of either) of Indian Punjab. The prognathism was estimated (1) non-metrically – by inspection using casts prepared and standardised by Australian National University and (2) metrically – by calculating gnathic index (as defined by Breathnach, 1965). Upon statistical analysis, determination of prognathism applying metric studies were graded superior in reliability compared to morphological indicators using casts.

106. Unilateral Para Mastoid Process:

D. Sai Sucheethra, D. Sree Lekha, V. Vathsala and S. Swayam Jothi,
College Of Medicine, IMTU, Tanzania.

The Cranio vertebral region is a very important area for the Neurosurgeons and for neurological manifestations and hence this anomaly is presented.

50 Skulls from SRMC and RI and Chengalpattu Medical college, Tamilnadu and Pre and Para clinical center of IMTU, Tanzania at Gutur were studied. One of the skulls came for study to forensic dept of our college, caught our attention as it had a prominent projection on the left side, midway between occipital condyle and mastoid process. Its lower end presented a flattened area with well defined articular facet lined by hyaline cartilage, measuring 7 mm anteroposteriorly and 10 mm transversely.

This lead to the assumption that there must have been a joint on the left side between this the Right side. There was a large posterior condylar foramen on the left side. All the bony ridges characteristic of male skull were exaggerated including the external occipital protuberance.

Paramastoid process and the transverse process of the Atlas. There was no such projection or facet on t h e Right side. There was a large posterior condylar foramen on the left side. All the bony ridges characteristic of male skull were exaggerated including the external occipital protuberance.

Earlier authors Nicholson et al. (1968), Bhagwati et al. (1997), Dhanraj singh(1998) who have done work on the anomalies of cranio vertebral junction have not come across such anomaly.

Because of the presence of a joint the prominent paramastoid process would not have hindered with the movement nor would have given rise to clinical manifestations.

107. Morphometric Analysis Of Basi – Cranium In Adult Indian Skulls:

Nagar M. and Khatri K.
University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi.

The cranium is well represented in fossil remains and it is possible to assess the body stature from this part of the skeleton alone. Basicraniometry is useful in comparative anatomy, human evolution, congenital deformities and for evaluation of growth studies. The present study is an attempt to collect data from hundred and ninty skulls of Indian origin and compare them to other available figures of different regions and races.

Linear basicraniometry was done by the help of Arnolds reconstructive Anatomy using the Latin cross. The mean basal length was 17.12 + 0.68 cms ranging between 15.0 to 18.40 cms. Anterior and posterior segments were 10.80 + 0.51 and 6.29 + 0.55 cms respectively. The mean basal breadth was 11.96 + 0.45cms and ranged between 11.10 to 12.90 cms. A basal index has been determined to help in sexing the crania and an attempt has been made to corelate it with the cephalic index. The mean basal index was 70.11 + 3.87cms ranging between 59.32 to 77.84 cms. All dimensions have been statistically analysed to establish a regression correlation of the various measurements.

108. Morphology Of Dens Of The Axis Vertebra:

Priya Ranganath, Manjunath K.Y., Balasubramanyam V.
St. John Medical College Bangalore.

The dens (odontoid process) projects cranially from the superior surface of the body of the axis vertebra. Several studies of dens morphology have been based on direct measurements. The present study aimed at investigating the measurements of the dens of the axis vertebra. The parameters observed in 38 axis vertebrae were height of the dens from its tip to its base, and from its tip to the inferior border of the body of theaxis, the anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the dens just below the apex, at its middle and at its base.The average anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the dens was4-9 mm and 6-10 mm respectively at the upper part; 8-12 mm and 8-11 mm at the middle part; and 8-11 mm and 8-11 mm at the basal part. The height of the dens was 12-18 mm. Height of dens from inferior border of the body of axis was 29-39 mm.

109. Size of The Foramena Transversaria of the Cervical Vertebra And Size of The Vertebral Artery In The Cadavers:

Ranganath V., Manjunath K.Y., Balasubramanyam V.
St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore.

The foramena transversaria transmit the vertebral vascular bundle (the vertebral artery and veins) and the sympathetic plexus which accompains the vessels. Derangement of these structures in their course because of narrowing or deformation of the foramen or osteophytes impinging on them has been extensively investigated. There have been several studies on the variability of the size and form, duplication and absence of one or more of the foramen transversaria. In the present study, the shape and size (anteroposterior and transverse diameters) of the formena transversaria of 132 cervical vertebras and the external diameter of the vertebral artery on 20 sides of the dissection room cadavers has been measured using sliding calipers. The correct interpretation of the variations of the foramena transversaria in CT scans is of importance in clinical practice.

110. Some Observations Of The Foramina Ovale And Spinosum Of Human Sphenoid Bone:

Arun Kumar S.
Dept. Of Anatomy, NAMC, Nepal Ganj Medical College, Chissapani, Nepal .

To study the percentages of incidences of variations in shapes, sizes, numbers and also percentages of incidences of bony growths around the margins of foramina ovale and foramen spinosum in the form spines, tubercles, bridges (bony spurs) and bony plates Comparing the above findings both on right and left sides and correlating with other races. with available literatures.

Twenty five dry unknown adult human skulls from the department of Anatomy of Nepalgunj Medical College, Chisapani, Nepal Costituted the materials for the present study. Each skull was examined for the numbers sizes shapes of foramina ovale and spinosum along with their bony growths (if present) around the margins of foramina ovale and foramen spinosum in the form spines, tubercles, bridges (bony spurs) and bony plates on both sides. Then their percentages of incidences were calculated compared on left and right sides, and correlated with the other races.

Foramina ovale were of different sizes, shapes, dimensions in sixty sides in twenty five skulls The shapes were oval (40.00%), round (14.00%) slit like (12.00%), irregular, (24.00%) and triangular (6.00%) shapes. Few were of similar in shape, on both side (bilateral) while other were of different shapes in same skulls(unilateral)

Different types of bony growths around the margins of Foramen Ovale in 50 sides 0..125 skulls were in the form of, tubercules, bony spur, bony ridges and bony plates were observed. There was absence of a bony partition between foramen ovale and foramen spinosum in 2 skulls (4.0%) One skull showed rudimentary foramen spinosum (3.3%) . Maximum length of foramen ovale was-9.8 mm and minimum length was 2.9 mm Mean length on left side was 6.56 mm,on the right side was 5.08 mm; Mean width on left side was 3.60 mm on the left side, on the right side 3.64 mm.

This study has not only has developmental anatomical importance, but also has profound surgical importance as in trigeminal neuralgia and diagnostic importance as in tumours and in various types of epilepsy. Hence it has been studied and reported.

111. Sexual Dimorphism of Human Sternum In Maharastrian Population:

Shahin Hunnargi, N.G.Herekar.
KMC, Manipal.

The correct determination of skeletal sex is a critical requirement in medico legal cases and the accuracy with which sexing of skeleton can be done depends upon the nature of material, method applied and above all experience of anthropologist. A study of 115 adult, fully ossified, dried sternums (75 males and 40 females) of Maharastrian population was done. The parameters calculated were; length of manubrium, length of body, combined length of manubrium and body. Univariate statistical tests were applied to access whether the differences between means of each parameter was statistically significant or not. Also by using “Demarking Points” tests were carried out for this population by using formula: mean ± 3 S.D.

112. Typing Of Mesosterna And Sex Determination From Manubrium Of The Sternum Of Adult Manipuri A Preliminary Report:

Th. Naranbabu Singh, M. Matum Singh, Th. Bijoy Singh, A. Momomnchand Singh.
Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal.

The present study was conducted to find out the types of mesosterna and to determine sex from manubrium of the sternum.

130(male 102, female- 28) Sterna of adult Manupuri (Meetei) were collected during post- mortem examination in the Department of Forensic Sciences after due consent from the concerned party. Typing of the mesosterna was done using Ashley’s classification modified by Balbir et al. (1993) and determination of sex from manubrium sterna was conducted from the length of manubrium / breadth of manubrium x 100 (Manubrium Index- MI).

Type II sterna was found to be the most common (50) followed by type III (48) and type I (32). Type III was most common among the female. Among the types of sterna, no inter-sex and inter-age differentiation was significant. MI was comparatively larger in female (male-mean 82.416 7.185, female – mean 90.53 8.19) and the statistical significance was very high (<0.000).

The different types of sterna were prevalent in all ages of both sex and there was no significant difference. But MI was well differentiated between male and female, and it may be a tool in the determination of sex.

113. Unusual Facets On The Ala Of Sacrum: An Anatomical Des-cription With Clinical Correlation:

Preeti Shrivastava and Gayatri Rath,
Department of Anatomy, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi.

During routine teaching, unusual articular facets on the postero- lateral aspect of the ala were encountered in ten sacra out of fifty bones studied. Six of the ten sacra were female out of which four had unilateral facets and the rest two had bilateral facets. The four male sacra had unilateral facets on two and bilateral facets on the other two. These articular facets were round to oval or even hemifacet in shape. The surface of these facets was either smooth or irregular or pitted in different cases. Their surface level was raised, depressed or even flat. The articular margins were smooth or irregular and a few had one or two spinous processes. Presumably the presence of such unusual facet(s) in the ala of sacrum is morphological evidence of sacralization between transverse process of fifth lumbar vertebra and ala of sacrum. The present work is an attempt to provide anatomical details of the facets on sacral ala that may be of interest to orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists in clinical practice.

114. An Unusual Case Of Sacralization:

Ahuja M.S.
Dept of Anatomy, AFMC, Pune.

Sacralization of fifth lumbar vertebra is a well-known entity. Sacralization is described as inclusion of fifth lumbar vertebra with the sacrum which may be complete or incomplete, the latter being limited to one side. Lumbarization is the reverse of sacralization, where the first sacral segment resembles a ‘sixth’ lumbar vertebra. This vertebra is partially or completely separate from the sacrum. A case of sacralization is described which is at variance with those described in standard textbooks.

115. Determination Of Sex By Discriminant Linear Regression Analysis Of Radius:

Jwalanth Waghmare, Mohd. Laeeque, A.A. Mahajan, S.K Ghosh.
Mahatma Gandhi Institute Of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Wardha.

Determination of sex from morphological parameters is a difficult task, moreover they are not reliable. Metrical parameters are widely studied but show a lot of overlapping in the ranges of males and females and hence cannot alone help in the determination of sex. Discriminant linear regression analysis of metrical parameters is more reliable than individual parameters. Present study is an attempt to establish sex from radius by Discriminant linear regression analysis of length, circumference of head, circumference of midshaft and width of distal end. The coefficients differential functional scores and the sectioning point were obtained. Retrospective evaluation of the samples from the Bone bank showed that 120 out of 133 males and 59 out of 65 females (i.e. approx 90% of radii) were correctly sorted using the obtained formula.

The above parameters were studied by Hanihara (1958) in Japanese population. Details will be discussed in the Conference.

116. Vascular Anatomy Of Fibula And Its Clinical Applications:

Sridevi N.S., Anand K. And Roopa Kulkarni, M.S.Ramaiah
Medical College And Mallya Hospital, Bangalore.

Fibula is a non-dominant bone of leg. We would like to discuss the anatomy and blood supply of fibula. Fibula being non-dominant bone can be harvested along with the blood vessels supplying the bone excluding the lower eight-centimeter and can be used as vascularised bone graft in various bone defects. In this paper we would like to discuss the vascular anatomy and uses of vascularised fibula bone in bony defects due to trauma oras in tumor resection. This paper would highlight the surgical implications of constant vascular anatomy of fibula.

117. Study Of Talus Bone For Sex Determination:

Rajesh N. Dehankar, D. D. Ksheersagar, Mrs. N. K.Pathak
NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Digdoh, Nagpur.

Sex determination of a human being can be done by using various parameters of different bones in the human body. But it is difficult to determine the sex when only small bones like carpals or tarsals are available. Aim of the present study is to determine the sex of a human body by using various parameters of talus bone. In this study 300 talus bones of both sexes (150 males and 150 females) are studied for sex determination. Talus bones are collected from various medical colleges in Nagpur.

Various parameters of the talus bone used in this study are: 1. Length of talus. 2. Breadth of talus. 3. Weight of talus. 4. Head circumference. 5. Neck circumference. 6. Length and Breadth of Articular facets. 7. Depth of sulcus tali. The anthropometric measurements and the statistical data has indicated that sex determination can be done with high degree of reliability by using various parameters of talus bone, which will be useful in medicolegal cases.

118. Femoral Anteversion – a Cadaveric Study:

Maharana, P.C., Prusti, J.S., Patro, B.P., Panda, R.L., Sahu, R.K.
M.K.C.G. Medical College, Berhampur, Ganjam, Orissa

Neck of the femur is a mystery in terms of its position, blood supply, direction and function. It doesn’t lie in the same plane like that of femoral shaft and its condyles. The neck sustains an angle with the shaft and lies anterior to it in the coronal plane-referred conventionally as femoral anteversion. Surprisingly in rare occasion neck lies posterior to the shaft-called as femoral retroversion.

The present study base on two elements. First, to determine the angle of anteversion and secondly, its relation to sex.

Exclusive of any deformity or features of fracture are studied with 100 cadaveric adult femurs with the help of Goniometer and self designed apparatus. The angle between the angle between the long axis of neck and the line joining posterior aspect of both femoral condyles on coronal plane were evaluated. The observations were tabulated.

Very few workers of the country have evaluated this aspect and globally the literatures covering the subject are rare; and the prosthesis commonly used for hemi and total hip arthroplasty are foreign manufactured. Considering the femoral anteversion, when used in our population, it presents some pitfall like restriction of squatting position, chronic hip pain, etc.

Hopefully this study will throw some light and guidelines for manufacturer of prosthesis in this country keeping these facts in mind.

119. A Mushroom Shaped Swelling Of Femur A Case Report:

Kumud, D., Madan D.
Department Of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ramdas Institute Of Medical Sciences And Research, Sri Amritsar. Medical Sciences And Research, Sri Amritsar.

In a routine clinical examination a young, 18 years old, male patient, presented with a swelling on the medial aspect of the lower end of the thigh. This swelling was growing very slowly for the last 10 years. It was not accompanied by any shortening or deformity of leg. No other swelling was found in the body and no such familial history was present. This was a well formed bony hard swelling. It was not associated by any oedema or lymphadenopathy. The skin overlying was normal. There was no tenderness over it. The routine laboratory tests were conducted, the skiagram was taken.

The anatomical, pathological, clinical and genetic aspects will be presented at the conference.

120. A Study Of Bicondylar Angle A Gift Of Bipedalism:

Mistri, S., P.P. Pradhan
Dept. of Anatomy, R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata, WB.

Adducted position of the knee in human brings the lower ends of femora close to each other, causing inclination of the shaft. Resultant angle formed by the long axis of the femur with the vertical axis on the bicondylar plane is termed as the bicondylar angle or the angle of obliquity of shaft of femur or condylo-diaphysial angle.

We studied on 130 adult femora (both right and left) of Eastern India and measured the above angle to make a data-base in that region.

121. A Study of the Pattern of Talar Articular Facets in Human Calcanei:

Sharada R., Mysorekar Y.R., Prakash Kumar
M.R. Medical College, Gulbarga.

300 undamaged and non-pathological calcanei from Bangalore was studied for the types of facets on the superior surface of the calcanei. The facets were classified according to the classification of Gupta et al (1977). All the four types of facets were encountered, type-1 – 67%, type­2 – 28.66%, type-3 – 3% and type-4 -1.33%. The findings were in general, agreement with those of all the other Indian and Western., authors.

122. Sex Determination From The Head Of Femur By Demarking Points In Vidarbha Region:

Meshram M.M., Rahule A.S., Palikundwar K.G.,
Department of Anatomy GMC, Nagpur.

Sexing of an individual from the available skeleton is of great medicolegal significance. Anatomists are often called to give an expert opinion in medicolegal cases pertaining to sex from the available skeleton of the deceased. In the present study various measurements from the head of femur were taken which could be helpful in determination of sex. Vertical, Anteroposterior and Mediolateral (Transverse) diameter of the head of femur were measured in 140 adult femora (96 males and 44 females) from the Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra. The demarking points for determination of sex were worked out from these different parameters.

Anteroposterior diameter of the head of femur was found to be the best criteria for sexual dimorphism. By rly vertical diameter and transverse diameter of the head of femur were also discriminant parameter in order of their accuracy.

This parameter 73% of the right male,73% of right female, 75% of left male and 54.54% of left female bones could be identified accurately. Similarly vertical diameter and transverse diameter of the head of femur were also discriminant parameter in order of their accuracy.

123. Nutrient Foramen Of Femur:

Ranganath P., Manjunath K.Y., Balasubramanyam V.
St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore.

The role of nutrient foramina in nutrition and growth of the bones is evident from the term ‘nutrient’ itself. Most of the nutrient arteries follow the rule, ‘to the elbow I go, from the knee I flee’; but they are very variable in position. The present study focused on studying the number of nutrient foramen of femur foramen in the femur, their direction and location. Most of the bones had a single or double nutrient foramen. All foramina were seen on the posterior aspect of the femur and faced upward following Wolffs law. They were located in the middle third in the right femora and in the upper third in the left femora, most of them on the linea aspera.

124. Muscular, Vascular And Neural Variation Of A Single Upper Extremity – A Report:

T.S. Gugapriya, N. Rajasekaran
Institute Of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai.

Variations in the relationship of vascular and neural elements of upper limb is a frequently encountered feature during routine dissections which are just passed on as dissectors curiousities. Muscular variation adds on to the interest.

An interesting report of variation exhibited in a upper extremity of a male cadaver during routine dissection, in the 1. Presentation of biceps brachii muscle, both in its mode of origin and insertion. 2. Relationship of brachial artery with median nerve. 3. Presentation of pronator quadratus muscle. The developmental basis of this cluster of variations is also discussed in this paper.

125. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia – A Case Report:

T.S. Gugapriya, N. Rajasekaran, T.R. Kalavathy,
Institute Of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai.

“Survival of the Fittest”- essence of evolution, often challenged by congenital and growth abnormalities that do occur at a frequent rate leading on to a ‘fight for survival’ for those unfortunate neonates.

A case of a preterm, low birth weight neonate delivered alive and died within a day due to asphyxia and hypothermia was dissected,as it presented with a single umbilical artery during delivery, scaphoid abdomen, prominent full chest, extensive cyanosis with shifted heart sounds to right and no breath sound on left. On the dissection it was found out to be a case of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and the findings discussed with embryological basis and clinical implications.

126. Observation On The Size Of The Body Of Rat In First 100 Days In Normal Health And Under Stress:

B. Mukerjee., Shaligram D.*
Vinayaka Missions Medical College, Karaikal. *BPKHS, Dharan, Nepal.

This paper describes the weight and some of the linear measurements of male albino rats in the first 14 weeks of postnatal life. The methods of measurements will be described at the form of the dais.

The results show, the velocity of the body weight, body length, tail length and the head length are in independent geometrical progression. At birth, the body weight is around 5.0 +0.33 gm, body length is 4.42 + 0.13 cm, the tail length is 1.64 + 0.11 cm, the head length is 1.76 + 0.5 cm. Weakly growth rate was monitored. At 14 weeks body weight of normal rats became 280.00 + 24.15 gm, but rats grown under stress were 201.40 +24.15 gm, body length of normal rats was 23.54 cm and that of stressed rats it was 19.84 + 4.11 cm, the tail length at 14 weeks was 18.94 + 3.22 cm in normal and that of stressed rats was 16.66 + 4.37cm, the head length measured in normal rats was 5.10 + 0.15 cm and of the stressed rat it was 4.94 + 0.8 cm. These results showed that the velocity of linear growth of body of the rat is retarded under prolonged period of intermittent stress. 24.15 gm, body length of normal rats was 23.54 cm and that of stressed rats it was 19.84 + 4.11 cm, the tail length at 14 weeks was 18.94 + 3.22 cm in normal and that of stressed rats was 16.66 + 4.37cm, the head length measured in normal rats was 5.10 + 0.15 cm and of the stressed rat it was 4.94 + 0.8 cm. These results showed that the velocity of linear growth of body of the rat is retarded under prolonged period of intermittent stress.

127. Simple Methods Adopted For Linear Measurements Of Rat:

B. Mukerjee, Shaligram D.*
Vinayaka Missions Medical College, Karaikal. *BPKHS, Dharan, Nepal.

Rats are generally nocturnal animals. They feed voraciously in the darker part of light-dark cycle (L:D) cycle). Thus, weight of the rats is generally more in the darker period of L:D cycle. This increased weight is the sum of actual body weight of the rat plus the weight of food ingested during the active feeding period especially at dark cycle. Therefore, we suggest that the record of the weight should be noted in the later part of light period of the L:D cycle, when the contained food in the GIT is least. To record the body weight by a sensitive digital balance, it is advisable that light anesthesia should be used so that minor rapid fluctuations of the readings are avoided.

For the measurements of length of various parts of body like nose-rump length, tail length and the head length, a simple device has been designed which will be displayed and explained at the dais during the paper presentation. The mean of the readings with SD gave fairly accurate linear growth pattern of male albino rats in normal health and under stress.

128. Morphometric Study Of Auricle In North West Indian Males:

M. Sharma, N. Sidhu, A. Sharma, B. Singh, K. Kapoor,
Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh.

The purpose of this study is to establish parameters of auricle in North-west Indian male population. The study was conducted on 260 normal males ranging from 0-80 years. Males with congenital abnormalities, trauma or surgery on auricle were excluded from the study.

Various measurements were taken with the help of Vernier caliper. The parameters were based on Schwalbe’s system of lines. Physiognomonic and morphometric indices were calculated with the help of measurements.

The maximum over all length of the auricle increased up to the age of 20 years. There after the growth was negligible till the age of 40 years. Again sharp increase in length was observed between 41-80 years of age in both auricles. The maximum overall breadth also increases up to 15 years and then again from 41-80 years. However, the rate of growth in the breadth of auricle was much less as compared to length of auricle. Height of the base of the auricle showed continuous growth on both the sides. The present data was compared with the other available studies. The parameters of auricle are helpful in correct placement of reconstructed ear.

129. A Study Of Enthesitis In Spondyloarthropathy In Patients From A Tertiary Care Service Hospital:

S. Ghatak, K. Shanmuganandan And J. Raphael
Armed Forces Medical College And Command Hospital, Pune.

The enthesis is defined as the site of insertion of a tendon, ligament, joint capsule, or fascia to bone. A variety of anatomical sites can be symptomatically affected in Spondyloarthropathy. The spectrum of Spondyloarthropathy consists of Primary Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter’s syndrome/ reactive arthritis, Psoriatic arthropathy and arthropathy associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. One of the pathologic hallmark of the disease is entheseal involvement with insertional tendenitis at different locations. A study of the distribution of involved enthesis was carried out in a tertiary care service hospital. The study group included 54 patients from diverse age groups and from different geographic areas in India. All these patients had historical evidence of sacroiliitis in the form of Inflammatory Back Pain and were diagnosed as Spondyloarthropathy according to ESSG criteria. The male to female ratio in this study is 8.2:1. The distribution of enthesitis in our study showed a maximum incidence of heel and costo-sternal joint. The other enthesis involved were greater trochanter, anterior superior iliac spine and ischial tuberosity. MRI was compared against Plain radiography of Sacroiliac joints for detecting sacroiliitis changes. MRI was found highly sensitive in detecting sacroiliitis when the duration of symptoms was less than 2 years included 54 patients from diverse age groups and from different geographic areas in India. All these patients had historical evidence of sacroiliitis in the form of Inflammatory Back Pain and were diagnosed as Spondyloarthropathy according to ESSG criteria. The male to female ratio in this study is 8.2:1. The distribution of enthesitis in our study showed a maximum incidence of heel and costo-sternal joint. The other enthesis involved were greater trochanter, anterior superior iliac spine and ischial tuberosity. MRI was compared against Plain radiography of Sacroiliac joints for detecting sacroiliitis changes. MRI was found highly sensitive in detecting sacroiliitis when the duration of symptoms was less than 2 years.

130. Study Of Caudate Lobe Focusing Its Shape and Presence Of Caudate Process In Maharastrian Livers:

Phatak Y.
Lecturer In Anatomy, Punjabrao Deshmukh Memorial Medical College, Amravati.

Gross anatomy of caudate lobe as far as it’s shape and occurrence of caudate process concerned has created confusion amongst anatomists. Hence this study was mainly focussed on shape of the caudate process. In 60% cases shape was found rectangular, while in 30% it was piriform and irregular in remaining 10%. This finding was done in ‘50’ livers taken from Maharastrian male cadavers, age ranging from 40 to 80. Percentage of rectangular caudate lobe is much less than previous studies done by anatomist. As far as caudate process is concerned, its presence is found in 62% cases which matches previous studies. All liver studied were apparently healthy weighing from 1500 gms to 2000 gms. Because of infrequent nature and ill defined prominence papillary process was not taken into account.

131. Variations In The Shape Of Thyroid Gland:

Joshi.S.D, Joshi.S.S., Daimi.S.R. and Athavale S.A.
Dept. of Anatomy,Rural Medical College, Loni, Ahmednagar.

Wood Jones (1953) while describing the thyroid stated that its size is subjected to much variations. Literature is replete with the large number of variations of the thyroid gland. By utilizing various techniques like gross dissection, histology, developmental anatomy and recently thyroid scan and scintillography some common and certain rare anomalies of thyroid, with their possible developmental basis, are described in the literature. As no study on variations of thyroid from this region is available, an attempt has been made to study this in the cadaveric material (in 40 cadavers) available in this department.

In our series height of left lobe was greater than the right lobe; although usually we find in the literature that right lobe is larger than the left ( Decker and Duplessis. 1986 ). Thickness of right lobe was greater than the left lobe. The incidence of absence of isthmus was very less. The pyramidal lobe invariably was associated with levator glandulae thyroidae. Anson and Mcvay(1984) described the presence of pyramidal lobe as a common finding.

Knowledge of variations of thyroid assume significance as this has relevence in ressection of thyroid, tumours of thyroid and tracheostomy.

132. Variations In The Lobar Pattern Of Thyroid Gland:

L. Hema
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anatomy, J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka.

The current study reveals the variations in the lobar pattern of thyroid in the cadavers to the extent of 24%.

The variations in the size of the lobes, absence of isthmus, presence of pyramidal lobes and levator glandulae thyroideae are of much clinical significance.

133. Multiple Developmental Anomalies Of The Heart – A Case Report:

Jayanthi .V, Veena Devi, R.N. Kulkarni, G.V. Hebbal, Lavanya Badami, Rajini T. M.S.Ramaiah
Medical College – Bangalore.

During the routine dissection at our college, we came across a male cadaver having multiple anomalies in both the atria of the heart. The papillary muscles of both ventricles showed a few variations.

The possible causes and the clinical significance would be discussed during the presentation.

134. Congenital Anomaly Of Lung: A Case Report:

Parthapratim P., Jaydeep D., Sujay M., R.G. Kar
Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal.

A 22 year male patient was admitted in the Department of Chest Medicine with severe cough along with purulent expectoration, left-sided chest pain and breathlessness. There was history of chronic cough, occasional chest pain as well as dyspnoea on exertion since his childhood. The height of the patient was 126cm and the body weight was only 17Kg. The chest x-ray (PA view) showed no left lung shadow, inflation of right lung and gross shifting of mediastinum towards left side. CT scan of different parts of his body was done along with echocardiography and other relevant investigation were done. Many other abnormalities were detected in that patient along with lung agenesis, which is a very rare congenital anomaly.

135. Extralobar Bronchopulmonary Sequestration: A Rare Case Report:

Asha K. R, N. M. Shama Sundar, C. M.nanjaiah, Mr. K. Kathiresan
J.S.S. Medical College, Mysore.

During routine dissection of the cadavers allotted to undergraduates, a male cadaver aged about 40 years, showed the presence of a pyramid shaped mass near the middle lobe of right lung, compressing upon right principal bronchus and tracheobronchial bifurcation. It was invested by its own visceral pleura and mottled with carbon particles.

On fine dissection, it was found to be supplied by one of the branches of right bronchial artery and venous drainage to the right bronchial vein. It had no connection with any of the bronchi. Literature on differential diagnosis pointed out Extralobar Sequestration, Thymus or enlarged Lymph Node.

On histo-pathological examination, the tissue consisted of dilated alveoli with plenty of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages.

The above findings confirm that the tissue is an Extra lobar bronchopulmonary sequestration which is defined as a disconnected or abnormally communicating bronchopulmonary mass or cyst with a normal or anomalous arterial supply or venous drainage, lying outside the visceral pleura, enclosed in its own pleural sac.

Clinical features include recurrent chest infection and symptoms resulting from compression of normal lung tissue.

136. Dissection Of Corner Stone Of The Heart:

K.D. Khushale, M.L.Kothari, Lopa Mehta.
Department of Anatomy, Seth G.S. Medical College, Parell, Mumbai.

To study the aortic annulus of the heart- The corner stone of the heart.

The fibrous skeleton and the aortic annulus of the heart were dissected and studied in 50 adult cadavers. The morphological features such as position, shape and extent were noted.

Steps for dissecting the aortic annulus (corner stone of the heart) are presented here based on dissection of 50 cadaveric hearts.

The dissected specimen displaying theaortic annulus of the heart is helpful for both undergraduate and post graduate students of anatomy, cardiology and C.V. Surgery.

137. A Case Of Double Gall-Bladder With Abnormal Cystic Ducts And Cystic Arteries:

Indrajit Gupta, and Subhra Mondal
Depertment of Anatomy N.R.S. Medical College, Kolkata.

During routing cadaveric dissection at Depertment of Anatomy N.R.S.M.C. and H, in a seventy years old male,revealed a rare anomaly of gall-bladder.The anomaly was “Double gall bladder with abmormal “cystic ducts and cystic arteries’’. The first gall bladder was intra hepatic and its duct opens into the right hepatic duct and its cystic artery come from right hepatic artery.The second gall bladder was in the original position and its cystic duct opened into common hepatic duct and the cytic artery originates from gastrodeuodenal artery.

It’s a rare variety of gall bladder development. ‘Meyer Dowlin and Reinglass’ found forty eight cases in 1949 and reported that the incidence rats is 1 in 4,000 to 1 in 5,000 persons.So this knowledge of anatomical variation of gall bladder development will help the surgeons during oparation.

138. Developmental Defects of Caecum and Ascending Colon – A Case Report:

Pushpa M.S., Roopa K., Sheshgiri C. And R.N. Kulkarni
Department Of Anatomy, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

Variations in the development of caecum and ascending colon are very rare. During the routine dissections of the human cadavers it was observed that caecum and ascending colon showed variation. They are of surgical importance,and difficulty in diagnosis.

The details of the defect will be discussed during presentation.

139. The Study Of Variations In Hepaticoduodenal Ligament and Its Correlation With Liver Transplant:

A. Kalyankar
Department Of Anatomy, Grant Medical College, Mumbai.

Variations in biliary tree and its associated vascular elements are so frequent that it is important to identify major structures in this area before surgery is attempted, because injury to these structures may result in troublesome hemorrhage and subsequent injury to common bile ducts or hepatic ducts, or even inadvert ligation to the rt or common hepatic arteries with resultant hepatic infarction, necrosis or so called liver death. Similarly variations in duct system can be basis of serious and fatal complications. Hence the study of variations in hepatic pedicle is of interest to surgeon and anatomist. To valuate the presentation oth types,andtheir frequency of variations of structures in hepatic pedicle, this study is undertaken.

To study hepaticoduodenal ligament for its morphology, contents and variation of its contents and to correlate its importance in liver transplantation.

A total of 100 cadavers were dissected as per the routine method with routine instruments. The hepaticoduodenal ligament was dissected and its contents were followed towards the porta hepatic. The branching pattern of hepatic artery and portal vein as well as morphology of extra hepatic biliary system were noted. After collecting the data, statistical analysis was done.

The normal branching pattern of proper hepatic artery was found in 86% cadavers and remaining 14% cadavers had variations which were of 3 types.

The branching pattern of portal vein was normal in 56% cadavers while variations in branching pattern of portal vein was seen in 44% bodies.

The draining pattern ofextra hepatic biliary drainage system was normal in 90% bodies and its variants were seen in 10% of bodies.

The number of cadavers having all 3 structures of normal pattern was 43% only.

The study shows a significant frequency of variations in the anatomy of contents of hepaticoduodenal ligament. Hence a detailed study of these structures is warranted before and during hepatic transplant procedures to avoid post operative complications such as biliary ischemia, stricture or hemorrhage.

140. A Study on Gross Features Of Vermiform Appendix Including Different Positions:

K. Ashalatha, K.S.N. Prasad
Siddhartha Medical College, Vijayawada.

Study of gross features of appendix including different positions. To measure length and diameter of appendix. To record the positions of appendix and compare them with previous studies and to record any variations.

32 specimans collected from cadavers of various medical colleges which are situated in and around vijayawada and foetuses are also studied. A vernier calipers graduated to measure upto 0.02 mm is used. Detailed diagrams drawn and photographs obtained insitu where available. Pelvic and ileocaecal positions are refered to as anterior and retrocaecal and subcaecal are refered to as posterior (Bushard and Kjaeldgaard 1973).

During routine dissection of abdomen in 32 specimens observed postitions are pelvic-14, retrocaecal-9, paracolic­6, antecaecal-1, postileal-2.

As per Buschard and Kjaeldgaard who compared the results of several studies including Wakeley’s and Collin’s.

Wakeley’s ratio of anterior to posterior are 32.4% to 67.6%. Collin’s ratio of anterior to posterior are 78.5% to 21.5% In my studies ratio of anterior to posterior are 75% to 25 %. The study is closely related to the studies of Collin’s.

141. Presence Of Intussusception With Meckel’s Diverticulum (a Case Report):

Khare, S., Sharma, A., Jain, S., and Asthana, A.K.
Subharati Medical College Delhi-Haridwar, Meerut. (U.P.).

During the routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy at Subharati Medical College, Meerut a Meckel’s diverticulum was found, it was about 50 cms, proximal to the ileocaecal junction, the length of the diverticulum was about 7 cm.

After exploring the abdomen there was presence of intussusception at Two Places, First was seen at about 30 cm. from Duodeno – jejunal junction and other one was 21 cm distal to the first one.

142. Length Of The Spleen:

V. Rajaram Institute Of Anatomy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.

The spleen consists of a large encapsulated mass of vascular and lymphoid tissue situated in the upper left posterior region of the abdominal cavity between the fundus of the stomach and the diaphragmThe size and weight of the spleen vary with age, with the individual and in the same individual under different conditions. In the adult it is usually about 12 cm long, 7 cm broad and 3-4 cm wide. It tends to diminish in size and weight in older people. Its average adult weight is about 150 g (normal range: 80­300 g, largely reflecting its blood content).

The length of the spleen studied in 33 cadavers.It is found that twenty spleens are less than 12 cms and ten spleens are more than twelve cms. As it is remarkable. It is presented here.

143. Some Interesting Observations On Caudate And Quadrate Lobes Of Liver And Presence Of Accessory, Fissures and Grooves:

Athavale. S.A., Joshi S.D., Joshi,S.S., and Siddiqui A.U.
Dept. of Anatomy, Rurai Medicai College, Loni, Ahmednagar.

We have conducted a detailed study on the caudate and quadrate lobes of liver on 50 livers availabale in our Department.With the advent of segmental resection of liver knowledge of lobes of liver has assumed greater significance. Caudate lobe is described to have 5 surfaces and is connected to many segments of liver and a wide variety of pathological conditions affect this lobe. In the present series the lobe was anteriorly continuous with the main mass by vertical strip 0.85 cm thick, maximum average width of the posterior surface was 2.5 cm. A distinct notch was seen along the inferior border in 28010 and a fissure was found in equal number of cases. Continuous with the main mass by vertical strip 0.85 cm thick, maximum average width of the posterior surface was 2.5 cm. A distinct notch was seen along the inferior border in 28010 and a fissure was found in equal number of cases.

In one case quadrate lobe was absent. In 16% it showed accessory fissures of variable length. Porta hepatis bridged the fissure for ligamentum teres in approximately 20% of cases. Where the fossa for gall bladder was small, quadrate lobe was seen to be confluent with the right lobe of liver.

Fissure for ligamentum teres cut through the inferior border in 80% cases to a variabale depth.

Accessory fissures were tound extending into the right lobe at the level of porta hepatis (20%); from the right margin of fossa for gall bladder and at other sites (28%). Details of the findings of the present work shall be presented and compared with that of other workers.

144. A Study On Splenic Notches, Tubercles And Thumb Like Projections:

Kumari, K.D.U., Prasad, K.S.N.
Siddhartha Medical College, Vijayawada, A.P.

Aim of study is to make a detailed study on splenic notches, tubercles and thumb like projections. Spleens show various notches along the superior margin extending to the viseral surface i.e gastric area. Few notches are extending on to the diaphragmatic surface. Few notches are observed on the inferior margin. They are of developmental significance. They represent the foetal lobulated spleen. During the study of tubercles it is observed that they are confined to the superior end of hilum of the spleen.

57 spleens studied from embalmed cadavers. Photographs showing splenic notches, tubercles, and thumb like projections are taken. Measurement of depth and length of splenic notches taken using tape.

Results observed are tabulated:

  1. Out of 57 spleens – Notches are observed in 27 spleens.
  2. Out of 57 spleens – Tubercles are observed in 9 spleens.
  3. Single notch is found in – 13 spleens.
  4. Two notches are found in – 3 spleens.
  5. Three notches are found in 9 spleens.
  6. Four notches are not found in any spleen.
  7. Five notches are found in 2 spleens.
  8. Six notches are found in – 1 spleen
  9. Splenic tubercles are of varying size found in 7 spleens.
  10. Thumb like projections in two spleens.

145. Morphology Of Seminal Vesicle In Goat:

Rajan T., and Mukerjee B.*,
Pondicherry. *Vinayaka Missions Medical College, Karaikal.

This study described the seminal vesicle of common Indian goat. Recently, we have reported details aboutthe seminal vesicle of albino rat (J Anat Soc India 54(2): 2005, in press). There, we have described the weight, volume and the epithelial height of the seminal vesicles The present paper describes the gross feature of the seminal vesicles of common India goat. In this animal, the seminal vesicles are quite large masses of multiple vesicular patterns which ejaculate through a common duct on either side of the urethra. The seminal vesicles on either side are surrounded by thin, tough connective tissue coverings. Relative to the seminal vesicle of goat, prostrate gland was found to be very small. Further study is needed to ascertain the seasonal changes in the prostrate and correlate the changes with that of the changes that occur in the size of the seminal vesicles.

146. Pelvic Parameters and Inguinal Hernia:

K. Aravindhan
Vinayaka Mission’s Medical College, Karaikal.

Inguinal region is a potential site for the development of hernia due to the defects in the parieties. Even though, various tests are used to determine the type of inguinal hernia ‘false positivity’ is also not uncommon due to the anatomical variation. Attempt has been made already to correlate the pelvic parameters and type of occurrence of inguinal hernia in whites. In our study one hundred south Indian patients with definite presentation of the inguinal hernia were examined and data were collected presurgically and during surgery with strict aseptic precaution and the pelvic parameters were correlated with the type of occurrence of inguinal hernia and results were recorded. surgery with strict aseptic precaution and the pelvic parameters were correlated with the type of occurrence of inguinal hernia and results were recorded. The length of the inguinal ligament is directly proportionate to its angle of obliquity and to the interspinous distance.

The strong association of particular type inguinal hernia with the length of the inguinal ligament and interspinous distance was not seen in this study.

147. Cranio – Facial Anthropometry In Newborns And Infants:

Agnihotri G., Sood V., Singh P., Singh D.*
DMC and H, Ludhiana. *DMC and H, Ludhiana.

The face is a complex anatomic unit and it is best to evaluate each distinct region of the face separately taking care to relate the various parts as a whole . These soft tissue facial landmarks are known to be influenced by age, race and sex and it is imperative to identify a balance between them before reconstructive surgery. Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits, an individualized norm can be established to optimize facial attractiveness.

As such a study was devised in the Anatomy department, D.M.C. and H in which measurements were made on 60 infants (30 males and 30 females) aged between 14 months and 60 newborns (30 males and 30 females) with a view to establish the criterion of facial anthropometry for this age group in North Indians. A special emphasis was given in this study to sexual dimorphism.

  1. The mean value and range for all the parameters was determine for the North Indian population.
  2. A statistically significant sexual dimorphism was noted to exist in ear length (p<0.01) and length of the philtrum ( p < 0.05). Head Circumference, Intercanthal distance, Nasion to nose tip, lower lip to chin and mouth width did not show any significant sexual dimorphism.
  3. The mean value of philtrum width and the philtral commisural ratio were determined for the North Indian population. Philtrum width = oral width / 3.2. This relationship is expected to assist in planning philtral constructionin cleft lip patients.

148. Cyamella In Man – Case Report:

Reddy, S. and Pai, S.R.
KMC, Manipal.

During routine dissection of a right leg of male human cadaver aged 48 years revealed a very rare sesamoid bone in popliteus muscle. It was observed at the Tendo muscular junction. It was observed to be marticulating with posterior aspect of the lateral condyle of the Tibia and lying close to the head of the fibula. The probable functions and clinical significance will be discussed in the presentation.

149. Malignancy Of Thyroid and Prostate Malignancy:

N. Yerolavi, S.N., Kothari, M.L
Dept. of Anatomy, Seth G.S.M.C. and K.E.M.H. Mumbai.

The word cancer continues to excite fear and apprehension amongst the lay and learned. There is enough biologic and anatomic evidence against such taken for granted malignant behavior of a universal natural process called cancer.

Detailed postmortem anatomic studies carried out on large number of male and female cadavers- reveal startling presence for example of thyroid and prostate malignancies. Beyond the 6th decade of human life both these malignancies may reach as high a proportion as 100% in subjects who never had any trouble there from.

These two common cancers exemplify the inherent benignancy of what is microscopically identified as cancer.

Brooke of U.K has described this as the discrete silence of cancer.

The aim of this anatomic presentation is to highlight the occurrence of a cancerous change as mere feature of aging, thus not constituting any pathology in real sense. Such foci of cancer anywhere in the body cause neither disease nor death and warrant neither diagnosis’ much less treatment.

The advent of imaging techniques have ushered in the new syndrome of diagnosing illnesses that in reality do not exist such unnecessary knowledge makes a person into a patient and breeds an enormous amount of unnecessary and unavoidable diagnostic and therapeutic expenses. We anatomists need to guide the clinicians.

150. Incidence Of Skeletal Deformities In The Male Population Of Some North Indian Districts:

Lt. Col. B.K. Mishra
Army College of Medical Sciences, Delhi.

A study was undertaken in a male population of some north Indian districts of the incidence of skeletal deformities. All the candidates presenting over a period of one and a half years for enrollment in the defense forces at a Defense Enrollment Centre were subjected to medical examination. The persons who had or were suspected of having disabilities were referred to the concerned specialist for confirmation of the disability. All those persons whose disability was adjudged by the concerned specialist as being within permissible limits were taken as fit and the others whose disabilities were beyond permissible limits were taken as unfit. The results were compared with similar studies and discussed.

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