Indmedica Home | About Indmedica | Medical Jobs | Advertise On Indmedica
Search Indmedica Web
Indmedica - India's premier medical portal

Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Dermatoglyphics In Carcinoma Cervix

Author(s): Vaishali V. Inamdar, S.A. Vaidya, Pratima Kulkarni, D.B. Devarshi, Shailesh Kulkarni, Sudhir L.Tungikar

Vol. 55, No. 1 (2006-01 - 2006-07)

Vaishali V. Inamdar, S.A. Vaidya, Pratima Kulkarni, D.B. Devarshi, Shailesh Kulkarni, Sudhir L.Tungikar.
Government.Medical College Nanded


Dermatoglyphic study of fingertips and palm region and its association with various diseases, especially having genetic causes, has been reported by various workers in the past. Carcinoma of cervix is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and in developing countries. It accounts for 80% of the cases of cancer.

The material consisted of 90 histopathologically established females of cancer cervix and 90 normal healthy females (control group). In both patients and controls the age-range was between 25 to 65 years. Dermatoglyphic prints were taken by using ink method. Different parameters like fingertip patterns,patterns in interdigital areas,total finger ridge count ( TFRC), a-t-d angle, a-b, b-c, c-d and t-d ridge counts were studied. Statistical analysis of the data was done which showed significant increase in frequency of whorls and total finger ridge count in both hands and increase in frequency of arches in left hand,whereas there was significant decrease in a-t-d angle,t-d ridge count and frequency of ulnar loops in both hands of females having carcinoma of cervix as compared to controls. There was no significant difference in other parameters like a-b,b-c,c-d ridge counts and radial loop frequency between patients and controls.

Key words: dermatoglyphics,fingertip patterns,interdigital area patterns,TFRC, a-t-d angle, a-b, b-c, c-d, and t-d ridge counts.


Lines on the human hands have since long been a subject of interest. The skin of palm and sole has ridges, which are unique to every individual, this fact has been used for personal identification(Cummins H 1926). “Dermatoglyphics”” is a scientific method of reading lines and ridges of palm and sole. Cummins and Midlow first introduced this term in 1926, though Bidlow was first to give discription of ridges in detail in the 17th century.

The dermatoglyphic patterns make their appearance on volar aspect of palm as early as 12th to 13th wk of gestation.Once formed these patterns do not change throughout life and hence are used for personal identification( Schaumann and Alter,1976). Development of ridges was found to be affected by genetic and environmental factors. Dermatoglyphics is accepted as a simple and inexpensive method for deciding whether a patient has particular genetic disorder or not.However due to inherent variability of ridge pattern it is possible to arrive at any conclusion only in certain group of patients.

Aims and Objectives:

Carcinoma of cervix is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries it accounts for 80% cases of cancer and has a genetic background( Park 2000). So the present study was undertaken to evaluate dermatoglyphic features in females of carcinoma cervix, to compare and correlate this study with available data. An attempt was done to draw conclusions regarding diagnosis of carcinoma cervix.

Material and Methods:

Material consisted of 90 histopathologically confirmed females of carcinoma cervix and 90 normal healthy females all between 25 to 65 years with no other associated genetic disorder.

Ink method was used as described by Cummins and Midlow which requires ink slab, inverted ‘T’ shaped pad,Kore’s duplicating ink, white paper, magnifying lens, protractor, scale, soap and pencil.

Hands were thoroughly washed with soap before taking prints. Then requisite amount of ink was placed on the ink slab and inverted ‘T’ shaped pad was soaked in it.The ink was evenly spread on the ink slab by light dusting. Then fingers were rolled laterally on the slab on which ink was transferred. Then they were placed on a white paper with one lateral edge and then rolled over in opposite direction. To take palm print palm was lightly dusted with the same’T’ pad.The palm was then kept on white paper and firm pressure was given on the center of the dorsum of hand and interdigital areas.Thus dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded and studied with magnifying lens. Qualitative parameters {fingertip patterns – arches,radial and ulnar loops, whorls,patterns in five interdigital areas – thenar / I1 , I2 , I3 , I4 and hypothenar areas} and quantitative parameters [TFRC] (total finger ridge count),’a-t-d’ angle,ridge counts in interdigital areas like a-b, b-c, c-d and t-d ridge counts.] were studied and analysed using statistical methods.

Observation and Results:

Thus there was significant increase in frequency of whorls and TFRC in both hands and increase in frequency of arches in left hand in carcinoma cervix females, but the a-t-d angle,t-d ridge count and ulnar loop frequency was significantly decreased in both hands as compared to controls. Radial loop frequency and a-b,b-c,c-d ridge counts showed no difference between patients and controls(table I).


Carcinoma cervix is a disorder with genetic background. Very little work has been done on dermatoglyphic features in carcinoma of cervix. So the present study was undertaken to determine an association between dermatoglyphic traits and carcinoma of the cervix. The present study is compared and correlated with previous workers, Pal et al (1985) and Reddy et al (1977).

Reddy et al (1977) observed significant high frequency (P<0.05) for whorls only and Pal et al (1985) observed significant high frequency for arches (P<0.001) and low frequency of UL (P <0.5) in Ca Cx females as compared to controls.We found high frequency of whorls and low frequency of UL in both hands but frequency of arches was increased in left hand. Reddy et al (1977) observed significant difference in frequency of presence of pattern in I, II, and IV interdigital areas.Pal et al (1985) observed this difference for only III interdigital area (p<0.01) where Ca Cx females showed low frequency of presence of pattern.In the present study no difference was observed in the frequency of presence of pattern in all 5 interdigital areas.

Reddy et al reported increase in TFRC and Pal et al reported decrease in TFRC.There was significant increase in TFRC (P<0.001) in patients as compared to controls in our study which can be attributed to increase in frequency of whorls.

Parameter RT. Hand LT. Hand
Ca Cx Control Ca Cx Control
Arch 5.3% 5% 8.4% 3.8% P<0.05
RL 2.3% 2% 2.9 2.4%
UL 60.4% 78% P<0.001 53.3% 76.4%P<0.001
Whorl 32% 15% P<0.001 35.4% 17.4%P<0.001
ID area pattern
6.6% 7.7% 11.1% 14.4%
 I2 13.3% 11.1% 12.2% 0.0%
I3 15.5% 16.6% 15.5% 13.3%
I4 5.5% 8.8% 11.1% 17.7%
Hypothenar 5.5% 4.4% 6.6% 4.4%
TEFC 88.35
72.83 P<0.001
71.31 P<0.001
a-t-d Angle 39.87
51.03 P<0.001
51.25 P<0.001
Ridge Count a-b 35.65+5.4 34.44+5.6 36.18+ 4.3 35.30+ 5.7
b-c 24.56+5.7 23.60+6.7 22.04+ 5.8 23.38+6.4
c-d 27.06+7.8 26.04+7.8 28.07+6.4 26.66+6.7
t-d 85.45
119.21 P<0.001
118.80 P<0.001

Ca Cx-carcinoma of cervix, RL-radial loop, UL-ulnar loop, ID-interdigital area, Th-thenar, TFRC-total finger ridge count.

Reddy et al reported decrease in the value of ‘at- d’ angle and Pal et al reported increase in the value of ‘a-t-d’ angle.In our study the value of ‘a-t-d’ angle was decreased in Ca Cx females (mean 40°) as compared to controls (mean 51o ).

Decrease in ‘t-d’ ridge count in carcinoma cervix females as compared to controls was observed by Reddy et al and Pal et al in their studies. The same was observed in the present study.

The result of our study along with those of Reddy et al (1977) and Pal et al (1985) have shown certain specific association between Ca Cx and ridges indicating that genes are responsible for this disease. The dermatoglyphic parameters which have shown association with carcinoma cervix as diagnostic aid will be of limited use at this stage, more detailed studies in different populations are desirable before arriving at some definitive conclusions.


  1. Berg J M . A study of t-d dermal ridge count on the human palm,Human biology 1968; 40:375-385.
  2. Cummins H. Epidermal ridge configuration in developmental defects in part reference to ontogenic, American journal of anatomy 1926;38:89.
  3. Holt S B. Dermatoglyphic patterns, Harrison G.A.(Ed.)., Genetical variation in human population oxphord pergemun 1961;Page 79.
  4. K Park. Text book of preventive and social medicine, 16th edition by m/s Banarasidas Bhanot publishers 2000;Page No. 288.
  5. Pal GP, Roufal RV, Bhagwat SS . dermatoglyphics in carcinoma cervix, Journal of anatomical society of India vol 34, 3,1985; Page 157-161.
  6. Reddy SS, Ahuja YR and Reddy OS .Dermatoglyphic studies in carcinoma of the cervix ,Indian journal of heredity vol 9 1977; page No. 35-40.
  7. Schaumann B. Alter M. Dermatoglyphics in medical disorders, New York Springer verlag. 1976:2
Access free medical resources from Wiley-Blackwell now!

About Indmedica - Conditions of Usage - Advertise On Indmedica - Contact Us

Copyright © 2005 Indmedica