Indmedica Home | About Indmedica | Medical Jobs | Advertise On Indmedica
Search Indmedica Web
Indmedica - India's premier medical portal

Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Palmar Dermatoglyphics In Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Author(s): Sangita S Babu, B.P. Powar, O.N. Khare

Vol. 54, No. 2 (2005-07 - 2005-12)

Sangita S Babu, B.P. Powar, O.N. Khare
R.D. Gardi Medical College Ujjain (MP)

Abstract: Studies were conducted in 100 patients of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and various dermatoglyphics parameters such as 'atd angle, finger print pattern, absolute finger ridge count and total finger ridge count were calculated. These parameters of study group were compared to those of controls. It was observed that the whorl pattern (56.6%) were pre-dominant with a decrease in loop pattern (32.1%) when compared those of controls and the difference was highly significant (P< 0.01). The difference in the mean total finger ridge count of the controls and study group was found to be highly significant (P< 0.02) ; while the difference in mean absolute finger ridge count of the controls and of the patients of pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). The 'atd angle had narrowed in the study group when compared to controls and the difference was highly significant (P<0.02).

Key Words: Palmar prints, tuberculosis, dermatoglyphics, axial triradius.

Introduction:

Dermatoglyphics is the study of surface markings of the skins, especially of the palmar and plantar regions. The study of dermatoglyphics was pioneered long back by Galton (1892) and it is a simple yet complicated tool in the study of genetic disorders. The study of palmar pattern is done especially it provides a better in sight in to the study of the disease under consideration.

Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculi is a world wide public health problem. The purpose of studying dermatoglyphics is to derive a diagnostic criteria from the dermatoglyphic point of view.

Materials and Methods:

In the present study 100 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis (sputum +ve) were collected from the department of TB & Chest. R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain. Diagnosis of the patients were based on their detailed history, clinical examination, chest X-ray and confirmed by sputum test. They were matched with 100 healthy subjects, those who are residing in the same locality and having no family history of tuberculosis or any other inheritable disease. Finger prints and palm prints were taken with the help of printers ink on white paper by 'ink & paper' method. After that these prints were studied for the pattern types, total finger ridge count (TFRC), absolute finger ridge count (AFRC) and 'atd' angle with the help of a hand lens. Student 't' test was applied for statistical analysis of the results.

Observations:

The finger print pattern of the pulmonary tuberculosis patients were compared with that of controls. The results obtained were like this: The whorls (56.6%) were pre-dominant in the study group when compared to controls (23.8% ) which was highly significant (P<0.02) while the study group showed a decrease in loop pattern (32.1%) while in controls it is (73.3%) and the difference is highly significant (P<0.01). The arches were very much reduced in the study group (3.3%) while in the normal population was found to be (11.3%). But these differences were statistically in significant (P>0.05)

On considering the occurrence of the patterns in both the palms, the ring finger is having maximum percentage of whorls (90%). Thus it can be assumed that the most common pattern in pulmonary tuberculosis patients is whorls in their ring finger. (refer Table 1)

TFRC: Total finger ridge counts is the number of ridges from the triradius to the core pattern, and is counted for all the digits of both hands. According to the study of TFRC in normals it was found to be 99.8 + 6.18 and in TB patients 112.4+ 7.36. The mean TFRC is higher in study group and on statistical analysis the difference was found to be highly significant (P<0.02) .( refer Table 2)

AFRC: Absolute finger ridge counts is the ridge counting on the tip of all digits of both hands from all the triradi present. Because a whorl is having 2 triradi there will be 2 counts in whorls. On considering ridge counts the ridge count of a whorl is between 11 to 15.

The AFRC was calculated in both the normals and study group and the value in the normals is 122 + 18.9 while in TB patients it is 180+ 50.6. The differences were found to be highly significant (P<0.05).(refer Table 3)

'atd' angle: It is the angle found by the axial triradius which is situated near the base of 5th metacarpal and the digital triradi (4 found near the distal border of the palm) 'atd' angle in both the hands of the controls and study group were examined and it is observed that in normals 43.6 + 5.56 (in degrees) is mean atd angle and in study group it is 38+ 3.77 the difference was found to be highly significant (P<0.02).(refer Table 4)

Discussion:

The dermal ridge patterns are formed very early in the embryonic period of life; because of that they remain unchanged during a persons life and is affected by certain abnormalities of early development (Walker 1958).

The genetic contribution is one of the causes of pulmonary tuberculosis. Susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in India has been linked to Mannose Binding Protein Gene (Selvaraj P, Narayanan PR and Reetha A.M 1999). Significant association has been found between IL – 1 Gene clusters and host susceptibility to tuberculosis (Bellamy R, Ruwende C, Corrah T , Mc Adam KP, Whittle HC and Hill A.V. 1998). Analysis of finger tip dermatoglyphics of tuberculosis patients (Geetha Vishwanathan, Meghna Krishnan, Kalyani G.S – Journal of Ecobiology 14(3) 205-210 (2002) has found 60.6% of whorl patterns, 36.4% loops and 3% arches in tuberculosis patients. In the present study whorls constituted for 56.6% loops 32.1% and arch 11.3% for the study group. These observations can be an additional supports in diagnosis patients of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Table 1: Comparison of finger print patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis & controls ( in % )

Group Patterns Digits
I II III IV V All Digits
Controls N= 100 Whorls 20 21 39 20 19 23.8
  Loops 74.5 77 59.5 78.5 77 73.3
  Arches 5.5 2 1.5 1.5 6 3.3
T B Patients N=100 Whorls 61 39.5 52.5 90 40 56.6
  Loops 36.5 40.5 27.5 7 49 32.1
  Arches 2.5 20 20 3 11 11.3

N-Number

Table 2: Statistical evaluationof mean T F R C + S D in controls & T B Patients

Study groupcategory Study group Mean ± S D Controls Mean ± S D 't' P value
Pulmonarytuberculosis 112.4 ± 7.36 99.8 ± 6.18 2.93 **P <0.02

TFRC- Total Finger Ridge Count 't' –student t test value
SD – Standard Deviation ** -Highly significant

Table 3: Statistical evaluation of mean A F R C in controls & T B Patients

Study groupcategory Study group Mean ± S D Controls Mean ± S D 't' P value
Pulmonarytuberculosis 180 ± 50.6 122 ± 18.9 2.40 *P < 0.05

AFRC- Absolute Finger Ridge Count 't' –student t test value
SD – Standard Deviation * - significant

Table 4: Statistical evaluation of mean A F R C in controls & T B Patients

Study groupcategory Study group Mean ± S D Controls Mean ± S D 't' P value
Pulmonarytuberculosis 38.0 ± 3.77 43.6 ± 5.56 2.64 **P<0.02

SD – Standard Deviation ** -Highly significant
t –student t test value

References:

  1. Cummins H, Midlo C (1943) finger prints, Palms and Soles: An introduction to Dermatoglyphics Philadelphia Blackistan.
  2. Galton F (1892) Finger Prints, London, Macmillan.
  3. Mutalik G.S, Lokhandwala VA ( 1968) Application of dermatoglyphical studies in medical diagnosis. Journal of Association of Physicians of India 16:925 –932.
  4. Holt S.B (1968) The Genetics of Dermal Ridges. 1st ed. pp 12 – 14 New York: Charles C Thomas.
  5. Schauman B, Alter M (1976) Dermatoglyphics in medical disorders 1st ed p7 New York Springer – Verlag.
  6. Bellamy R, Ruwende C, Corrah T, Mc Adam K.P, Whittle H.C and Hill A.V. 1998 Tuberculosis Lung Disease 79 (2):83-9.
  7. Lavebratt C, Apt A.S, Nikonenko BV, Schalling M and Schurr E 1999. Severity of tuberculosis in mice linked to distal chromosome 3 and proximal chromosome 9. J. Infectious Disease. 180(1):150 – 5
  8. Stedmans Medical Dictionary 1966. Baltmore Calcutta. The Williams and Wilkins Company, Scientific Book Agency 21st ed. 429.
  9. Editorial Pulmonary Tuberculosis of Bovine Origin J.A,M.A; 126:435, 1944.
  10. Fishberg M : Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 4th ed, Vols I & II Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1932.
Access free medical resources from Wiley-Blackwell now!

About Indmedica - Conditions of Usage - Advertise On Indmedica - Contact Us

Copyright © 2005 Indmedica