Indmedica Home | About Indmedica | Medical Jobs | Advertise On Indmedica
Search Indmedica Web
Indmedica - India's premier medical portal

Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Abstracts (201 - 250)

Author(s): Members

Vol. 54, No. 1 (2005-01 - 2005-03)

202. Testicular Changes in Rat Exposed to Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) During Organogenesis

Singh R

Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi

Halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are among the most common water supply contaminants in the world. The study was, therefore undertaken to examine the effect of Trichloroacetiac acid on the developing testis of Charles Foster rat. The rats were randomly placed in the test groups .They are exposed to various concentrations of TCA ie 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800 mg/kg body weight by oral gavages throughout the period of organogenesis from day 6 to 15 of gestation. TCA was administered in the form of Sodium Trichloroacetate, which in the body is reduced to trichloracetic acid by P450 enzyme in the liver. TCA administration led to dose related reduction in the fetal weight and the testicular weight when they were collected on day 19 of gestation. Control mothers were administer equal volume of distilled water. Histological studies of the testis when compared to the controls revealed decrease in the length and diameter of the seminiferous tubles with 1400 mg/kg and higher doses. The rapid assault on the celluar components with the increase in the TCA concentration causing enhanced apoptosis of the genocytes were well evident, with the subsequent lying in the total reduction in the testicular size.

203. Dermatoglyphics in Mental Retardation - Dysmorphism Cerebral Atrophy Syndrome

Rao BN, Padmini MP

Rolled bilateral fingerprints of 14 patients with Mental Retardation proven as cases of Cerebal atrophjy were studied using standardized dermatoglyphic techniques. The preponderance of digital ulnar loops in nine out of fourteen patients were found. Whorls were more in three patients and arches in one patient. Mental Retardation with dysmorphic facies with sub cortical hemispheric atrophy of brain and depressed deep reflexes were noticed.

204. Stereohomology

Natarajan M, Kothari MVL & Mehta LA

Seth G.S. Medical College, Parel, Mumbai

The homoeobax concept is an admission of the developmental parallel between a worm and a whale. Such a leap of imagination is warranted in discovering homologies that criss-cross the 3D of the human body. We are taking the liberty to introduce the concept of sterohomology that encompasses within itself the fundamental similarities between apparently diverse structures.

The concept of bilateral symmetry is widely acknowledged in development and definitive structuring. Submitted here are similarities in the cephalocaudal dimension called metameric homology. The other is radial symmetry and similarities called radial homology.

The co extensiveness of the vertebral column from caput to coccyx underscores metameric similarism at least posteriorly. In the chest and the abdomen the vertebral column evidently throws a cage posteriorly to house the neural tube and a cage anteriorly to house the viscera. No wonder the sternum is called ventral spine comprising sternebrae and hence the appellation dorsal for the thoracic vertebrae.

It is the maxilla, mandible and the hyoid bones which comprise a cage for the visceral tubes and thus are strictly homologous with the ribs. The vertebral column here gives rise to a dorsal cage having the cord and the brain. The thyroid cricoid and the tracheal cartilages fall inline with the ribs. From pituitary to pelvis, metamerism is sclerally manifest.

Spread-eagled human body presents radial symmetry comprising the four limbs and a central, vertical cephalic limb called neck and head much like in a starfish. Penis/ clitoris in Freudian limb. The head and neck limb minds the mind; the Freudian limb minds the hind.

206. Computer- Aided Teaching Of Histology

Bhatnagar R & Tandon T

Armed Forces Medical College, Pune.

The time restraint imposed by the MCI by rescheduling the 1st MBBS curriculum to one year, has posed a challenge not only for medical students but for teachers as well. It is therefore imperative that we provide restructured teaching modules for all the subdivisions of anatomy. Histology being an important component of anatomy is fundamental to the understanding of pathology and elements of cell biology. Towards this an attempt has been made to complement microscope teaching with a computer aided teaching learning module, using digitalized images and a "virtual microscope". The aims of the study were: 1 To provide more self paced and self guided learning. 2 To make the course more students centered. 3 To provide more problem based learning. 4 To save on the valuable time.

The module has been highly appreciated by the students and peer group. Not only is it an excellent teaching aid but a useful self learning module too. Besides saving on time, one of its advantages is that it introduces students quickly to high-quality images of the ‘core' features of an organ or tissue without recourse to a frustrating hunt under the microscope.

207. Structured teaching module on developmental Anatomy for self learning: Its's use amongst medical undergaduates for understanding human developmental Anatomy

Tondon A, Bhatnagar R, Ghatak S, Sagar TV

AFMC, Puna.

Knowledge of developmental anatomy has fundamental application in clinical practice and facilitates an understanding of pediatric and adult gross anatomy. Didactic lectures cannot be done away with in the teaching of developmental anatomy for self learning can be usefully integrated into the conventional curriculum of 1st MBBS to supplement and enhance classroom teaching. It also improves comprehension of developmental events occurring during prenatal period and during organogenesis of each system. The CD ROM based module incorporates digitalized images of embryology models, animations, high quality video clippings and text is an excellent teaching aid and also a tool for self learning.

208. The Unheard Voice In Medical Education

Krishnamma KK,

AIMS, Cochin, Kerala

To know the views of the students whether they too are to be heard while revising the curriculum and to know the best teaching methodology which will facilitate the learning process. It was also done to know the best assessment (formative and summative) techniques to measure the knowledge and skills.

Input from the students was collected from the two batches of MBBS students who completed I MBBS and one batch currently doing anatomy using a specially designed questionnaire. Majority of the students demanded that they are to be heard while revising the curriculum, which deciding the teaching methodology and the assessment system.

209. Innovative Teaching Aids in Neuro Anatomy

Gopalan M,


A sincere attempt is made here to simplify the internal structure of the brain stem- the 3 dimensional organization and orientation of various cranial nerve nuclei, it's morphology, origin, extent, formation of cranial nerves and its relative positions, course and attachments on the brain stem surface, before they get out of the cranial cavity are depicted in a 3 dimensional fiberglass model made in our medical illustration unit. Teaching with this model received good response from the undergraduate MBBS students as well post graduate students in anatomy and neurology.

210. Multimedia As A Teaching Aid In Surface Anatomy

Geethanjali H.T, Shamasundar NM

J.S.S. Medical College, Mysore.

Initially a photograph of the part of the body was taken using digital camera. Visible/palpable landmarks are then marked as points 1.2.3 etc on the computer screen using picture editor or suitable software. The marked points are joined to display the surface marking of the underlying structure.

The advantage is that:

It can be effectively used in place of cadaver Teaching surface anatomy of areas such as mouth, eyes, ears etc which is not possible in traditional cadaver based teaching, can be overcome.

211. ITEAE: IT Enabled Anatomy Education

Mishra BK

Army College of Medical Sciences, Delhi Cantt.

A study had been done earlier by the author comparing teaching by anatomists using traditional methods vis-à-vis teaching using computers and self study using computers. The benefits of teaching using computers were highlighted. Nowadays using scanners to show images from textbooks saves the drudgery and showing students actual images from the dissected body before dissection gives the student an exact idea of what they are supposed to achieve. In this paper some avenues are exposed and explored of how IT, both hardware and software can be used and various examples of software now available are shown.

213. Cytogenetic Study Of Petrol Pump Workers Of Urban Areas Of Orissa

PattanaikL*, Pattanaik S.**

*MKCG Medical College, Berhampur **SCB Medical College, Cuttack

The numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations are very common to the persons exposed to the volatile benzene as it is a potential carcinogen. (Official US government information source 2002). Basing on this theory a study of chromosomes was made by making lymphocyte culture of 30 petrol pump workers of Orissa. The chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were studied. Interesting findings like deletion and translocation of certain specific chromosomes were observed. The pedigree chart of each case was drawn to observe the occurrence of any congenital defect in their progeny. Medical history of each case was also taken to see the prevalence of any specific disease among the subjects.

All the findings were observed and compared with the similar work of earlier workers.

214. Microwave Technique For Histopathological Tissue Processing

Martin Lucas A. Balasubramanyam V.

St. John's Medical College, Bangalore

Rapid processing of histological materials is becoming increasing desirable. Current conventional tissue processing methods employ fixation of tissues with formalin dehydration with alcohol and clearing with xylene before paraffin impregnation. The time required for this procedure is usually 8 hrs or longer. Microwave further shortens this time allowing even more rapid histo pathological diagnosis. Ten specimens of animal and human tissues were processed using kitchen microwave with paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In conclusion the use of microwave irradiation reduces processing time and concentrations of the chemicals used. The sectioning and quality of the staining is equal or improved as compared to the conventional technique.

215. The Anatomic Comparison of Skin of Various Sites for Dermal Fat Graft

*Vidya.C.S. **Shamasundar NM, ***Nanjaiah C.M.

JSS Medical College, Mysore.

Skin of five donor sites namely, abdominal wall, groin, lateral gluteal area, gluteal fold and sacrum of adult cadavers were taken. Five specimens from each site were taken and totally 125 slides were studied. Tissue was fixed in 10% formalin in normal saline. Prepared paraffin blocks were cut using Rotatory microtome of 5 micron thickness and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Stained sections were observed by binocular microscope. The thickness of epidermis and dermis was calculated by using ocular micrometer and mechanical micrometer. Fibroblasts in dermis were counted by video microscope with the help of software.

It was found that sacral skin had the thickest dermis (1700 micron) and groin had thinnest dermis (610 micron). The panniculus adiposus of sacral skin was especially well developed and comprised of several compact layers connected by collagen fibers. To conclude, the sacral skin is a suitable donor site for dermal grafting because of its dermis has more number of fibroblasts compared to other sites.

216. Observations on the Various Foramina in the Base of 180 Skulls

Dr. Nirmala D, Dr. JH. Sharieff, Dr. G. Saraswathi,

Government Medical College, Mysore.

The presence of various foramina in the base of skull represent persistent intervals in the cartilaginous stage of the skull. Presence of additional or modified foramina of the base of the skull gain more clinical significance due to pressure on structures passing through them. Aim: In the present study an attempt has been made to note the incidence of various foramina in the base of skull and to correlate their clinical significance due to structures passing through them.

Materials and Methods:

180 dried human skulls of south Indian population were studied from the department of Anatomy, Mysore Medical College and other colleges in Mysore. Observations were made on the cranial and inferior aspect of the base of skull to note the variations in the foramina

Results: The following features were noted: 1) Caroticoclinoid foramen - 15.5% 2) Prominent middle clinoid process - 36.6% 3) Petroclinoid foramen - 1.1% 4) Interclinoid foramen - 2.2% 5) Pterygosphenoid foramen - 5% 6) Sub division of hypoglossal canal - 16.6%


In the present study, intracranially the presence of caroticoclinoid foramen was found very evidently in 15.5% of skulls. This caroticoclinoid foramen has been observed and documented earlier emphasizing its close relationship to Internal Carotid artery. Further, surgical approach in this region may present risk due to bony carotico clinoid foramen. Other additional features observed shall be discussed.

217. Canine Morphometry in Human Sex Determination

Yogitha R, Aruna N, Remadevi, Balasubramanyam

St. John's Medical College, Bangalore.

The canines have a mean age of eruption of 10.87 years and are less affected than other teeth by periodontal diseases. They are the last teeth to be extracted with respect to age. Human canines are the longest and most stable of teeth in the dental arch. Among many animals, the tusk-like development of canines is a much more predominant feature in the male animal than in the female; examples are the pigs, deer baboons and the anthropoid apes. In the present study, the human canines were measured in both sexes. Statistically analyzed to determine sexual dimorphic characteristics if any are present. The present study has been conducted on 50 subjects (M:F::25:25) in the age group of 17 to 35 years and on 20- intra-oral casts (M:F::10:10) from individuals in the same age group. Inter canine distance and width of both right and left mandibular and maxillary canines were measured intra-orally and on casts. 280 canines were measured. The mean width of right and left maxillary canines of male and female respectively were: 7.92 mm, 8.03 mm, 7.55 mm and 7.7 mm respectively and the mean width of right and left mandibular cranines of male and female respectively were 715 mm, 7.03 mm, 6.74 mm and 6.63 mm respectively. The mean inter canine distance of maxilla and mandible in male and female sex respectively was 36.09 mm, 34.57 mm, 27.98 and 26.86 mm. The statistical significance of the same will be discussed.

218. Talar Articular Facets in Calcaneus

Priya Ranganath, Manjunath KY, Balasubramanyam V,

St. John's Medical College, Bangalore.

The talar articular facets on the superior surface of the calcaneus are very variable. In the present study incidence of the variant pattern of talar facets in a collection of south Indian calcanei is presented. The material for the study consisted of 71 dry calcanei (36 of left and 35 of right sides). Patterns of the articular facets were scored into four types, names, Type-I; anterior and middle facets confluent, posterior facet distinct; Type II: anterior, middle and posterior facets distinct; Type III: single well-defined facet on the sustentaculam tali (middle facet), anterior facet absent, posterior facets confluent. These distinct talar articular facet types could be identified - 48% with type I facet, 18% with type II facet and 5% with type III facet.

No case of Type IV arrangement of talar facet was found in the present series. The surface area of each articular facet was computed.

220. Sexual Dimorphism in Carrying Angle of Human Upper Limb. Can it be considered or not?

Dr. Shailaja Shetty*, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore.

Dr. Balakrishna **, Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore

Carrying angle of human upper limb has been studied by various authors. Potter and Mall considered it as a secondary sexual character, being less in females than males. The view of considering carrying angle as a secondary sexual character has been denied by other authors. The aim of this study was to prove whether carrying angle can be focused as a secondary sexual character. The present study was carried out on radiographs in both sexes. Is there any statistical significance or sexual dimorphism? The results utilizing the data will be discussed.

221. Study of Sternal End of Rib for Estimation of Age

Pathak SA, Dehankar RN, Mangalgiri A, Palikundwar KG

Govt. Medical College, Nagpur.

Estimation of age involves many criteria, varying in value at different age. Up to 25 years of age, dentition and ossification of bones provide numerous data for assessment of age. Above 25 years, estimation of skeletal age can be done by studying cranial sutures, symphysial surface of pubis.

Aim of this study was to find out age related changes in sternal end of typical rib in male body.

The work is carried out in the department of Anatomy, government Medical College, Nagpur. The specimens were collected from 100 dissected bodies.

The naked eye examination of sternal ends of typical ribs of both sides was carried out between age group 25 years to 65 years.

The observations were made on parameters i.e. indentation of articular surface, margins and texture of bone.

The statistical data has indicated that age determination can be done with high degree of reliability.

222. Estimation of Height from the Length of Head in Maharashtrian Population

Pawar SD , Diwan CV , Bahette BH.

SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai. Beed Dist. MH.

The present study was carried out in department of anatomy, SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai (Dist. Beed) in Maharashtra. The study was aimed to find out correlation and to derive regression formulae for estimating the height among males and females in Maharashtrian population of India, through non-conventional dimensions of head length.

The study consists of 150 males and 100 females of age above 20 years. The length of head was measured between two craniometric points, glabella and inion. Spreading caliper was used to measure the head length. Height was measured with standard height measuring instrument subject in anatomical position.

Regression analysis was done with the help of computers and formula was found out to calculate height of individual using length of head. The formula is presented with discussion of the data from which it is derived. This formula is useful to estimate the height in the case of mutilated body when complete long bones are not available.

223. Variations of Angles and Curvatures of Femur - Male and female - A study

Sesi D.A.V.S. ,Lakshmi CB

Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada.

Aims and Objectives:

Study of variations in diameter of head, length of the neck, anterior convexity of femur turns out to be a valuable aid in understanding the geometry of the bone and helps in fracture fixation.

Materials & Methods

One hundred and seventeen male femora and 33 female femora, 15 X-ray films with unknown sex are measured by using goniometer, protractor and different graded scales.


The neck-shaft angle is larger in male than in female as the averages being 125.7 degrees and 125.5 degrees respectively. The ante version angle is slightly more in male than in females, the difference being 0.8 degrees, not much significant. The length of the femur is more in males than in females. The proximal segment of the femur is 1.58 to 2.14 times longer than the distal segment with respect to the curvature.

224. Revisiting Lesser Palatine Foramen: A lesser investigated structure

Dharwal K

Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of medical sciences and research, Amritsar

The lesser palatine foramen, a scarcely investigated foramen, was studied in details, both morphologically and micro metrically, in 125 human macerated skulls from the north Indian belt. The foramen was found to be mostly single 46%, quite frequently double (39%), occasionally triple (13%) and rarely more than three (1%) or even absent in 1.5% of the cases. The numeric ratio of solitary to multiple foramina was compared with that of studies conducted in different regions on different races, which showed an epigenetic variation. The distance of the lesser palatine foramen (the largest) from the greater palatine foramen and the horizontal palato maxillary suture was 2.7 mm and

10.41 mm respectively. Two cases showed quite big 2x3 mm wide foramen. A unique anomaly was encountered depicting the partitioning of the lesser palatine foramen into three compartments each. This anomaly was not quoted in literature so far. The observation of the present study can be utilized for the ethnic and racial classification 0f the crania for clinical and anthropological studies.

225. Comparison of Neck Shaft Angle of Femur Radio logically and Anatomically

*Chauhan R, **Paul S, ** Dhaon BK,

UCMS and GTB Hospital, Shahadara, New Delhi & **MAMC and associated hospitals, New Delhi.

Neck shaft angle of femur bears a great role on the development of hip joint pathology. Therefore, the present study was conducted on the neck shaft angle of femur radio logically and anatomically. Hundred and six anteroposterior radiographs of the hip joint of the patients attending orthopaedics department of LN Hospital were taken and studied. Eighty one radiographs were selected for the present study as the rest had some or the other kind of pathology of the hip joint. With the help of protractor, the neck shaft angle was measured. Fifty-four cadaver hip joints were opened out of which only forty-five were labeled normal. In an articulated femur, the neck shaft angle was measured by goniometer. The data obtained radiologically and anatomically were compared and analyzed statistically using variance method. It was found that the angle was greater in males (p=0.049) and that radiology was better method as compared to macroscopy (p=0.002).

226. Bilateral Giant Rib Tubercles: A rare case report

Fazal Ur Rehman, N.A. Farooqi, S.M.Yunus, *Faisal Haque and **D.K.Pandey

J.N. Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh

Normally rib tubercle is postero external, at the junction of neck and body and medial articular and lateral non-articular part. In present study an adult male patient reported with heaviness and pain over anterolateral and posterolateral aspect of the chest, he also complained difficulty in breathing. He was advised for x-ray chest. X-ray chest revealed symmetric abnormal bone growth coming from area near rib tubercle of 5th, 6th and 7th ribs, forming pseudo joint with inferior border of adjacent superior rib corresponding side. In my view this may be a case of genetically determined anatomic variant of clinical significant. Observation will be discussed at the time of presentation.

227. An Experimental Study Of The Effects Of Dexamethasone On Fractured Bone Healing

S.M.Yunus, N.A. Farooqi, & F.Ahmed*

J.N. Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh

Accident being the greatest problem of modern era, fracture of bones poses one of the latest challenges to the recent scientists. Besides fractures occur in many cases already undergoing treatment with steroids as patient suffering from Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, bronchial asthma & pemphigus vulgaris; receiving high doses of glucocorticoids but still little direct conclusive evidences are available to show the effects of any of these drugs on fractured bone healing. The present study therefore was undertaken with the aim to find out the effects of dexamethasone (glucocorticoid) on the process of bone repair in fractures.

Tibial fracture was produced by impact device by the method of Hiltunen in male albino rabbits, which were injected with Dexamethasone sodium-21 phosphate, 2mg/ kg im daily for 4wks. Fracture healing was assessed by radiological study, histochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase and estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase in drug treated control animals. Enhanced tissue Alkaline phosphatase activity observed as brownish coloration in slides, increased levels of increased serumAlkaline phosphatase(p<0.001)and marked external callus formation in radiographs was observed in controls as compared to dexamethasone treated rabbits at the end of 2wks and 4wks of study. These findings, which by themselves serve as reliable markers of healing of fractured bone, suggest that steroids impair bone healing of fractured sites and suppress bone formation.

228. Evaluation of Diameter of Portal Vein at Porta Hepatis on Ultrasound in Adults

Khandare V, Mehta LA ,

Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Mumbai


To evaluate the diameter of portal vein at portahepatis ultrasonically and to find correlation between diameter and age, sex, height, weight and body surface area.

Material and Methods:

This study includes 103 cases (males 51, females 52). Patients were referred to ultrasound department to examine the abdomen to establish or to rule out any pathology. The patient was included in the study when hepatobiliary tree was found normal and no other pathology was detected. Diameter of portal vein at portahepatis in longitudinal scan was noted in millimeter. Height in meters and weight in kilogram were documented and by using formula body surface area was calculated.


Diameter of portal vein at porta hepatis was found to be 9.20 mm +or- 1.29. Diameter of portal vein shows positive correlation with height, weight, and body surface area.

229. Embryological Misadventure - A case report on "Renal Collar"

Priya TSG, Rajasekaran N, Kalavathy T.R.

Madras Medical College, Chennai.


"Variations" - accepted normalcy in venous pattern. Variability is more in living than what is seen in dead.

Reporting: a case reporting on an embryological misadventure of developing retroperitoneal veins resulting in a circum aortic left renal vein with its applied clinical implications is discussed.

231. Variation of Musculocutaneous Nerve - A case Report

Chattopadhyaya JC., Dhawane SBV & Tarnekar A.

MGIMS, Sevagram

The communications between the median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve are frequently encountered and clinically significant. The knowledge of these variations is essential in interpreting the clinical neurophysiology and entrapment neuropathy.

We report a unilateral variation of musculocutaneous nerve in a fifty year old male cadaver during routine dissection of I MBBS (2003-2004).

Median nerve had two roots of origin from lateral cord. There was no muscullocutaneous nerve. Lateral pectoral nerve supplied Pectoralis minor. A small independent branch from lateral cord supplied coracobrachialis. Muscles of the front o arm were supplied by median nerve. Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was also a branch of median nerve.

Key words: Variation, musculo cutaneous nerve, entrapment neuropathy, neuro physiology.

233. Entrapment Neuropathy of the Common Peroneal Nerve in Gluteal Region - A case report

Mishra SK, Panda M, Ratha. S, Nayak AK,

VSS Medical College, Burla

Entrapment neuropathies involving the peripheral nerves are relatively common especially in connection with sciatic nerve. Bifurcation of sciatic nerve into two of its major trunk may occur anywhere, in between sacral plexus and popliteal fossa. Significant number of variations in bifurcation, course, relation and distribution of the branches are encountered in sciatic nerve.

In our study, during the routine dissection in cadavers for undergraduate students in VSS Medical College, Burla, a case with early bifurcation of the sciatic nerve and entrapment of its common peroneal branch between two parts of piriformis muscle is found. The detail of the study will be discussed during its presentation.

234. A case report - Variation in Brachial- Antebrachial System in Relation to Brachial Plexus.

Arole V., Bharambe V

Dr. DY Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune.

During routine dissection of 20 bodies in the department of anatomy two bodies were found to be having variations in brachial - antebrachial system. Multiple variations in their branching pattern were observed. The variations were found in relation to cords of brachial plexus. An attempt has been made to systematically document these variations and give possible explanations for these on basis of morphology and ontogeny.

235. Higher Divisions of Superficial Branch of Radial Nerve

Ranjana Verma, Shipra Paul

Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

Superficial branch of radial nerve usually divides into digital branches at the dorsum of hand. Entrapments of superficial branch of radial nerve between two slips of brachioradialis tendon have been reported, which may produce pain and parasthesia along the distribution of the nerve. We report an unusual high division of digital branch of superficial branch of radial nerve for thumb which passes through the fascial sheath around brachioradialis muscle at the junction of upper one third and lower two third of forearm. This digital branch at wrist further subdivides into two branches to supply the dorsal aspect of the thumb. As there is least cutaneous overlapping on the dorsal surface of thumb and first web space, awareness of such a high division of digital branch to the thumb should be kept in mind during surgical procedures for Wartenberg's Syndrome, arthroscopy at wrist and de Quervarian's release.

236. Anomalous Human Lingual Nerve

Dr. Narga Nair,V. Rakesh, Bincy George

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

An adult, male human cadaver revealed the following anomalous course and communication of the lingual nerve. This was present bilaterally. The lingual nerve was seen to arise from the posterior division of the mandibular nerve and having received the communication of chorda tympani nerve, proceded in its normal course to synapse in the submandibular ganglion, to supply the submandibular & sublingual salivary glands. Immediately above the level of its synapse with the submandibular ganglion, it was found to give off a branch that pierced the mylohyoid muscle to communicate with the mylohyoid nerve on the superficial aspect of the mylohyoid muscle. The mylohyoid nerve had an otherwise normal course & distribution (bilaterally). Incidence of the above-mentioned anomaly along with its clinical implications will be presented at the conference.

238. Communication of Musculocutaneous Nerve With Median Nerve

Md. Abid ali*, Vijayasaradhi**

Bhaskar Medical College, Hyderabad.

In an unknown male cadaver about 60 years old, communication between musculocunaneous nerve with median nerve was found in the left arm during the dissection. The trunk of musculocutaneous nerve is joining the median nerve and left the nerve, it supplied coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis and continues as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.


Joining of the trunk of the musculocutaneous nerve with the Median nerve is not seen normally. Some fibers of the C5, 6, 7 might have joined the Median nerve through musculocutaneous nerve.

239. Hitch-Hiking Fibers of Lateral Cord in Search of Their Destination

Athavale SA; Joshi, SD; Joshi, SS and Jadhav, SD.

Rural Medical College, Loni (Ahmednagar Dist. MH)

Sporadic reports and short communications of variations in the median and musculocutaneous nerves have hitherto been presented and these are frequently seen during dissections also. We have also carried out a detailed study of the method and level of formation of median and musculocutaneous nerves, their branches and communications in the arm.

One hundred and thirty upper limbs (Rt. 65, Lt.65) were dissected over a period of three years. In approximately 40% of limbs there was one or the other abnormality of formation and branching of these two nerves. In ten limbs musculocutaneous nerve was absent. About one fourth of the cases showed two-stage formation of median nerve. In 4.6% median nerve crossed behind the brachial artery. The detailed findings of the study shall be presented and discussed.

240. Anatomical findings, Ontogenic Explanation and Clinical Implications in a Case of Bilateral Neurovascular Variations of Upper limb

V. Usha Rani, Devi VS, Sreenivas ML, KrishnaMurthy JV.

SV Medical College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.

A case of bilateral vas aberrant/superficial brachial artery/high-radial artery originating from 3rd part of axillary artery with variations in the formation and branching of cords of brachial plexus on right side and additional contribution to median nerve from musculocutaneous nerve on both sides were observed in a male cadaver aged 50 years. On the right side upper trunk divided into anterior and posterior divisions. Middle and lower trunks of brachial plexus joined and formed a common trunk ie., lower trunk in this case. This common lower trunk divided into one anterior and one posterior division. Anterior divisions of upper and common lower trunks are united from which all nerves of flexor aspect of limb are originating. Upper and lower subscapular and thoraco dorsal nerves originating from posterior division of upper trunk. Common posterior division of middle and lower trunks divided into the axillary and radial nerves after joining with posterior division of upper trunk. Ontogenic explanation and clinical implication of these variations will be discussed.

242. Study of Iiopubic Tract

Ashok S. Bendre, Anjali S. Sabnis

Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai

With the advent of laparoscopic hernia repair, the pre peritoneal approach requires understanding of the anatomy of iliopubic tract and its relations to veins and nerves forms foundation for synthetic mesh stapling. It is important in many approaches to inguinal herniorrhaphy. Ilio pubic tract lies on the posterior aspect of the inguinal region. It is a strong fascial band that begins laterally along the iliac crest, at the ASIS and continues medially to insert fanwise into superior ramus of pubis and cooper's ligament. This study was undertaken to examine the gross anatomy of the iliopublic tract in 15 cadavers. The results confirmed that the iliopubic tract can be readily identified as a thickening of the transversalis fascia running deep and parallel to the inguinal ligament.The mislabeling of iliopubic tract as inguinal ligament has been one of the principal sources of confusion in understanding anatomic relations in the groin.

243. Accessory Muscle on the Dorsum of the Hand

G. Padmavathi, S. Saraswathi, CM. Nanjaiah, JH.Sharieff

Government Medical College, Mysore

During routine dissection of the cadavers by the students whenever we come across anomalous structures, accessory structures & variations, it is interesting to study and to correlate its clinical relevance of applications.

During the course of routine dissection of a formalin fixed male cadaver aged about 55 yrs, an accessory muscle belly - "EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS MANUS" (EDBM) was found bilaterally on the dorsum of the hands, extending from the lower end of the radius close to the Lister's tubercle to the medial side of the dorsal digital expansion of the index & middle finger.

Presence of accessory muscle tissue in addition to the normal anatomy of hand could be a sign of anomaly, atavism or use & disuse atrophy phenomenon. Presence of such accessory muscle has been well documented earlier by investigators.

Clinically the presence of EDBM gains more significance in painful conditions of the hand as well as extensor retinacular pathology; therefore, its identity may be very useful in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses on the dorsum of the hand.

Details of the findings shall be discussed.

244. Origin of Third Head of Biceps Brachii - A case study

GV. Siva Prasad & D. Sudhakar Babu

Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, AP.

The biceps brachii is normally located in the anterior compartment of the arm. The muscle has two heads of origin. The short head arises from tip of coracoid process of scapula whereas the long head takes its origin from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula.

During routine cadaver dissection, third head of biceps was found in the left arm of a male cadaver. This head is supplied by a branch from the musculocutaneous nerve.


This third head has its origin from the medial border of middle of shaft of humerus below the insertion of coracobrachialis.

Insertion: This third head is united with the two heads of biceps brachii (short & long) and is inserted into the radial tuberosity by means of single tendon.

The incidence and clinical relevance of this head will be discussed during presentation.

246. Anomalous Nerve Supply to Flexor Pollicis Longus - A case report

Jyoti P. Narkhede

Seth GS. Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai.

The importance of human thumb is very well known as functionally it represents about one-half of the hand. The muscles acting on the thumb and its innervations from the braches of median nerve is thus of significance for the surgeons and clinicians. The present paper reports the variations noted in the nerve supply to flexor pollicis longus.

Key words: median nerve, flexor pollicis longus.

247. Levator Oculi Accessorius in Man

Narga Nair, Sreenivasulu Reddy, Bincy George,

Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

Dissection of the left orbit in a human, adult male revealed an accessory muscle comparable in size to the other extra ocular muscles. Arising from the deep aspect of the levator palpebrae superioris was seen a band of muscle fibers running forwards and medially superolateral to the superior oblique muscle to get attached to the eyeball. The ocular attachment was found on the superomedial aspect of the eyeball, adjoining the limbus.

The above muscle received its innervations from the superior division of the oculomotor nerve. Observing the course & attachments of the muscle, it is inferred that it may bring about elevation and intorsion (with or without) concomitant adduction of eyeball.

The clinical significance of the above mentioned muscle, along with its reported incidence will be presented at the conference.

248. The Anatomic Characteristics of Humeral Head (3rd head) of Biceps Brachii

Devi Sankar K & Sharmila Bhanu P,

Narayana Medical College, Nellore, (AP)

Eighteen cadavers of both sexes being dissected for Upper Limb (UL) demonstration for students, a 3rd head of biceps brachii (Bbr) muscle slip was observed in four (4) cadavers. Two was observed in the left UL of a female and a male cadaver. One was in the right UL of a male cadaver and another was found in bilaterally in both right and left of the UL of a male cadaver. All these slips of the 3rd head of Bbr was found to be supplied by a branch from musculocutaneous nerve except one slip i.e. left of bilateral variant was innervated by a branch from median nerve.

The presence of this additional slip may be due to embryological, genetical or evolutionary changes. Further details will be discussed during presentation.

249. Absence of Palmaris Longus Muscle - A report

JayaGandhi. S., Srinivasan KR.,

Aarupadai Veedu Medical College, Pondicherry

Palmaris longus is a slender fusiform muscle medial to flexor carpi radialis. It springs from the medial epicondyle by the common tendon from adjacent intermuscular septa and deep fascia it converges into a long tendon which passes anterior to the flexor ratinaculum. The palmaris longus has wide insertion into the skin and fascia in the distal palmar and digital webs.

Variations: often absent on one (or, both sides, the muscle is very variable).

In our study we came across a palmaris longus muscle was absent on right side, and in other case it has a big muscle belly present in the middle until crosses flexor, retinaculum. Once again it became a flat fibrous sheet over the flexor retinaculum. This is present bilaterally. It is presented for this rare anomaly.

250. Relationship of Vagus Nerve To The Abdominal Part of Oesophagus In Full Term Fetuses

Lakshmana Sai P.A.V. Sravani Kolla, BT Narayana Rao & S. Swayam Jothi,

Katuri Medical College & Hospital, Guntur

Study of oesophagus was done in 55 full term still born fetuses and the following observations were made regarding the relationship of vagus nerve to the abdominal part of oesophagus.

The oesophageal plexus of right and left sides were reconstituted into right and left vagal trunks each containing fibers of both sides and passed through the oesophageal orifice of diaphragm and gave branches to oesophagus.

In 24 fetuses (43.63%), the right vagus was posterolateral to the oesophagus lying just behind the right margin of the oesophagus. The left vagus was anterolateral, lying just in front of the left margin of oesophagus.

In 20 fetuses (36.36%), the right vagus was behind and the left vagus was in front of the oesophagus.

In 11 fetuses (20%), the right vagus was traced along the right margin and the left one was running along the left margin.

Access free medical resources from Wiley-Blackwell now!

About Indmedica - Conditions of Usage - Advertise On Indmedica - Contact Us

Copyright © 2005 Indmedica