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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Presence of Retro Transverse Groove or Canal in Atlas Vertebrae

Author(s): Bilodi AK, Gupta S.C.

Vol. 54, No. 1 (2005-01 - 2005-03)

Nepalgunj Medical College, Chisapani, Banke , Nepal.

Abstract:

This study was done on thirty four dry human atlas vertebrae for the presence of retrotransverse groove or canal or both. The retro transverse groove or canal was observed in five atlas vertebrae (14.70%). Out of them three showed retro transverse groove or canal on both sides while one vertebra showed unilateral presence of two retro transverse foramina / canal (2.94%).

Keywords: Retro transverse groove, retro transverse canal, atlas vertebra.

Introduction:

The presence of retro transverse groove or canal or both in atlas vertebrae was first studied by Veleanu C. et al (1977) in Romania and Gupta et al (1979) inIndia.

On the lateral aspect of lateral mass of atlas vertebrae a retro transverse groove / canal, is present through which passes an anastomotic vein connecting atlanto-occipital and atlanto axodian venous sinuses (Veleanu et al) add this reference here. The aim of the present study is to know the percentages of occurrence of retro transverse groove / canal or both in human atlas vertebrae.

Material and Methods:

Thirty four dry human atlas vertebrae from the department of Anatomy of Nepalgunj Medical College, Chisapani, constituted the material for this study. Each atlas vertebrae was examined for the presence of retro transverse groove / canal.

Missing Image

Photograph 1: Showing bilateral Retro transverse Groove

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Photograph 2: Showing Retro transverse Groove on left side

 

Observations:

Five out of thirty four atlas vertebrae showed retrotransverse groove / canal as given below:

Presence of retrotransverse groove / canal No. of
vertebrae
Retro transverse groove on left side 1
Retro transverse groove on both sides 1
Two retrotransverse canals on left side 1
Retro transverse groove on left side and retro transverse canal on right side 2

Two retro transverse canal / formina on left side in another vertebra.

This study was then compared with studies of Veleanu et al (1977) and Gupta et al (1979).

They were found in five vertebrae, out of five, three showed retro transverse groove or canal on both sides while two vertebrae showed the presence of retro transverse groove or canal on one side only.

Discussion:

Few literatures are available on the occurrence of retro transverse groove / canal in Indian and in Romania populations. This study was compared,well correlated with above studies.

Veleanu et al (1977) observed the incidences of retro transverse groove / canal in 6761% in Romania atlas vertebrae while Gupta et al (1979) observed in 43.93% in 123 Indian atlas vertebrae. In the present study retro transverse groove / canal was present only in 14.70% (5 out 34 vertebrae). This incidence is low when compared to Veleanu et al (1977) and Gupta et al (1979). This low percentages of incidences may due to population, or material differences or may be due to low number of atlas vertebrae.

Missing Image

Photograph 3: Showing Retro
transverse Groove on right side and
Retro transverse canal or foramina
on the left side

Missing Image

Photograph 4: Double Retro
transverse canal or foramina on the
left side

Table - 1 Comparison of retrotransverse groove or canal in various studies and present study.

Authors Veleanu et al (1997)n-71 Gupta et al (1979)n-123 Present study (2000)n-34
right left bilateral right left bilateral right left Bilateral
Retro transverse groove 15 05 19 13 08 10 01 01
(21.13%) (7.04%) (26.76%) (10.57%) (6.50%) (8.13%) (2.94%) (2.94%)
Retro transverse canal 01 01 01 06 03 05 ---
(1.41%) (1.41%) (1.41%) (4.88%) (2.44%) (4.08%)
Right groove and left canal 05 05 ---
(7.04%) (4.08%)
Left groove and right canal -- -- 01 -- -- 04 -- 02
(1.41%) --- (3.25%) (5.88%)
Double canal -- -- -- -- 01 -- --
(2.94%)

Table - 2 Comparison of occurrence of retro transverse groove / canal of the present study with that of Gupta et al (1979).

Type Gupta et al (1979) Present study (2000)
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Groove 31 25.20% 02 5.88%
Canal 14 11.40% 01 2.94%
Both 09 7.33% 02 5.88%

Present study showed Retro transverse groove on both sides (2.94% ). This incidence is very low when compared to of Veleanu et al (26.76%) and Gupta et al (8.13%).

Present study showed double retro transverse canal / formina on right side in one vertebra which was not observed in the studies of Veleanu et al and Gupta et al.

Showed the low percentages of incidences of retro transverse groove (5.88%), foramina (2.94%) and both (5.88%) in the present study, when compared to Gupta et al studies again it may due to population, or material differences.

Conclusion:

The Low incidences of 14.70% of retro transverse groove / canal in five out of thirty four vertebrae was observed in the present study in a single vertebra, a rare observation of double retro transverse groove / canal (2.94%) was found.

The above table shows the differences in percentage of incidences which may be due to either population difference or material difference or numerical difference.

Acknowledgement:

My sincere thanks to Managing Director of Lord Buddha Educational Academy, Nepalgunj Principal, Prof. and HOD. Of Anatomy and Dr. S.C. Gupta Prof. Of Anatomy , Nepalgunj Medical College, Chisapani.

Bibliography:

  1. Gupta SC, Gupta CD, Arora AK, Maheshwari BB. The Retro transverse groove / canal in Indian Atlas Vertebrae Anat anz 145 (1979)514-516.
  2. Veleanu C, Barzu S, Panescu S and Udroiu C (1976) cited by Veleanu C, barz S, Panescu S and Udroiu C - Retro transverse groove or canal of Atlas and its significance Acta Anatomica Basel 97 (1977) 400402.

Presence of Retro Transverse Groove or Canal in Atlas Vertebrae: Bilodi AK, Gupta S.C.

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