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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Determination of personal height from the length of head in Gujarat Region

Author(s): Jadav HR, Shah GV.

Vol. 53, No. 1 (2004-01 - 2004-06)

Department of Anatomy, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Abstract

An attempt is made to find out correlation and to derive a regression formula between head length and body height in Gujarat region. The material consists of 727 medical students from Gujarat. Medical students were selected as subject because of the easy availability. The age was in the range of 17 to 22 years. The length of head was measured betwen two craniometric points, glabella and inion. Spreading caliper was used to measure head length. Height of the subject was measured with standard Height measuring instrument subject in anatomical position. Measurements were taken at fixed time to avoid diurnal variation. The result obtained were analysed and attempt was made to derive a formula between head length and total height of an individual. The result shows that there is a definite correlation between head length and height of an individual. In spite of the racial and ethnical variation, this formula may be applicable to other regions and races, more or less effectively. Looking to the paucity of work done, between head length and height, attempt by workers will be more useful in anthropometry and in forensic science.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Correlation, Head length, Total height.

Introduction

To assess the height of an individual from measurement of different parts of the body has always been of immense interest to anthropologists. For a long time height has been one of the factors in description of the impressiveness of an individual.

The estimation of height from various parameters has been done by various workers Singh and Sohal (1951), Inderjit Singh & Shamer Singh (1956), Charnalia (1961), Ahawale (1963), Patel et al, (1964), Qamara et al, (1979) & Shroff & Vare (1979). Each worker has derived his own formula for calculating the stature from long bones, but no universally applicable formula has been derived, as the relationship between height and long bone differes according to race, age, sex & side of the body, Hardlika (1947). It is proved that each race required its own table.

Estimation of height from length of head has also attracted many workers to derive a formula, Saxena SK et al, (1981), but no sigificant formula has been derived to calculate the height from head length in Gujarat. Hence in the present study and attempt has been made to find out the correlation (if any) between head length and body height in Gujarati population.

Materials and Methods

The present study was conducted on 727 (468 male & 259 Female) medical students belonging to various regions of Gujarat. The subjects have similar socio-economic status. The age group of the students ranged from 17 to 22 year. The measurements were taken at fixed time between 2 to 5 p.m. to eliminate the discrepancies due to diurnal variation. Head - length was measured by Caliper from glabella to inion (Hardlika) and height of the individual was measured by Height measuring instrument.

Observations and Results

Table-I: Values of recorded observations

Parameters Age(Years) Head Length(cm.) Height (cm.)
Range 17-22 11.70 - 20.80 141.5-189.5
Mean 18-37 17.65 165.92
S.D. 0.83 0.97 8.96
S.E. 0.03 0.04 0.33

Table 2: Correlation Coefficients

Parameters Coefficient Value
Age and height +0.08
Age and head length +0.09
Sex and height -0.73
Sex and head length -0.55
Height and head length +0.53

Table 3: Age V/s height and head length

Age Height mean (cm.) Head length mean (cm.)
  Male Female Male Female
17 171.03 156.91 17.95 16.85
18 170.39 156.93 18.07 16.80
19 171.04 157.55 18.05 17.18
20 172.46 157.72 18.06 17.25
21 166.58 159.90 17.57 17.10
22 168.10 -- 17.10 --

Discussion

In the present study we have observed the correlation of height (in anatomical position) with head length amongst Gujarati medical students. Medical students were chosen for the easy availability of the subjects.

Table-I shows that the age ranges from 17 to 22 years, head -length from 11.70 to 20.80 cm. and total height from 141.50 to 189.50 cm with a significant correlation between them.

Table-II shows the correlation coefficients between various parameters. Between age and height, between age and head-length and between height and head-length. It is positive, suggesting that it is significant.

Various workers have shown significant correlation between height and different parts of the body. Singh and Sohal (1951), Jit and Singh (1956) have shown a significant correlation between height and length of clavicle Charnalia (1961), showed the significant correlation between height and foot-length, where correlation coefficient was 0.46. Athawale (1963), derived a regression equation between total height and forearm bones. Patel, Joshi and Dongre (1964), have derived regression equation between tibia and total height in Gujarati population. Qamra et al (1979), made a study on height and foot length and derived a correlation coefficient for foot breadth (Male 0.42, Female .0.47) and foot length (Male 0.69, Female 0.70). Shroff and Vare (1979), have also derived the height from the length of superior extremity and its segments.

But no data, is available in the literature regarding the estimation of stature from the head- length, except Saxena et al (1981), who derived a regression equation between head-length and height in Agra population (U.P.). Their correlation coefficient between head -length and height was +0.2048. According to Glaister (1957), nasion-inion length (head-length) is 1/8 of the total height of an individual.

No such type of study was carried out in Gujarat. In the present study, the formula is derived as under.

Regression Equation

For Male Y = (138.77) + (1.77)X

For Female Y= (128.03) + (1.72)X

For Both Male & Female (Combined) Y= (78.92) + (4.93) X

Where:
Y= Total Height
X= Head Length

As already stated earlier, the correlation coefficient worked out by various workers between height and foot breadth is + 0.42 (Male) and + 0.47 (Female), height and foot-length is+ 0.69 (Male) and +0.70 (Female) and height and head- length is +0.2048. In present study the correlation Co-efficient between height and head length is + 0.53 which is most significant. From the above facts, it is clear that if either of the measurement (head length or total height) is known the other can be calculated and this fact may be of practical use in Medico-legal investigations and in Anthropometry.

References

  1. Athawale MC. Anthropological study of height from length of forearm bones. A study of one hundred Maharashtrian male adults of ages between twenty five and thirty years. American Journal of physical anthropology 1963;21:105-112.
  2. Charnalia VM. Anthropological study of the foot and its's relationship to stature in different castes and tribes of Pondicherry state. Journal of anatomical society of India 1961;10:26-30.
  3. Glaister John. In medical jurisprudence and toxicology. 10th Edition E & S, Livingstone Ltd. Edinburg and London 1957;79.
  4. Hardlika A. Practical anthropometry, 4th Edition, Philadelphia, (The wistar institute of anatomy and biology);87-89,1952.
  5. Jit Inder and Shamer Singh. Estimation of stature from clavicle. Indian Journal of medical research 1956;44:137155.
  6. Joshi NB, Patel MP and Dongre AV. Regression equation of height from ulnar length. Indian journal of medical research 1964;52:1088-1091.
  7. Saxena SK, Jeyasingh P, Gupta AK and Gupta CD. The estimation of stature from head - length. Journal of anatomical society of India 1981;30:78-79.
  8. Shroff AG and Vare AM. Determination of height from length of superior extremity and it's segments. Journal of anatomical society of India 1979;28:53.
  9. Singh B and Sohal HS. Estimation of stature from clavicle in punjabis; A preliminary report. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1951;40:67-71.
  10. Suneel Qamara, Inderjit and Deodhar SD. A model for reconstruction of height from foot measurements in an adult population of northwest India Indian Journal of Medical Research 1980;71:77-83.
  11. Telkka A. On the prediction of stature from the long bones. Acta anatomica 1950;9:103-117.
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