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Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

Adult Rat Brain Changes Induced By Magnetised Water

Author(s): Singh, M; & Singh, K.P.

Vol. 51, No. 1 (2002-01 - 2002-06)

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- INDIA


Fifty Hz-powerline treated magnetically restructured water induced changes in adult male rats of Charles Foster Strain were studied. Triple distilled water samples were exposed to 36.2 (RMS) and 51.2 (peak) mT powerline magnetic fields for a period of 24 hrs. Thus regularly magnetised water sample was given to the rats for drinking ad libitum for a period of 30 days, at the end of which the rats were anaesthetised with ether followed by perfusion with 10% neutral formaline. The corresponding controls were treated with unmagnetised triple distilled water. The brains from both the groups were dissected out and further fixed in formaline. The histological examination of the treated group revealed marked spongiform changes leading to neuronal degeneration in cerebral and cerebellar cortices. No change was observed in the size of the ventricles. This study further proves that powerline exposure induces stable changes in water structure affecting the biomechanism of tissue fluids.

Key words: Magnetised water, spongiform changes, powerline magnetic fields, gliosis.


The sensitivity of biologial systems to the electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by any source (direct exposure, power transmission lines transformers, satellites, household electric appliances etc.) is well established. Various scientists have proved that the effects of radiation varies in accordance with the intensity, duration and frequency of the electromagnetic field (Barnothy 1963; Moricle et al. 1964; Neurath 1968; Novitskii 1966; Delgado et al. 1982; Joshi et al 1978; Jerman et al. 1996; Veneziano 1965; Singh et al. 1990, 98). Still, till today, there is no consensus of opinion on the effect & mechanism of direct exposure to these radiations.

Recently, biological effects induced by electromagnetised water has been reported Rai et al. 1994, a, b, c, d, 1995, 1997 and Pandey et. al 1996 proving that EMF radiation may effect the spontaneously changing structural chemistry of biological water which in turn may cause bioeffects. This change in structural chemistry of water is dependent upon the field strength and exposure time. This structurally changed water “remembers” the frequency characteristics of the field for an extended period of time (Singh et al. 1994 and 1995). This may be the cause of bioeffects induced by EMF structured water. This chemically restructured water, possessing memory, may be of great use in the field of biology and so in medicine.

Materials and Methods:

Two thousand five hundred KVA stepdown transformer source whose live waveforms and magnetic flux strength at the site of experiment was 36.2 (RMS) and 51.2 (peak) mT (measured by coil and a voltmeter and calibrated in a solenoid measuring 10 cm in diameter X 15 cm in length supplied with a 50 Hz AC signal) was used for 50 Hz powerline treatment of water. The electric field was not measured as it is not reported to alter water structure and is not a candidate for positive bioeffects. Triple distilled water samples in cotton plugged pyrex flasks were exposed to 2500 KVA transformers for 48 hrs. Control water samples were simultaneously kept with the equivalent sources but without applying power. Adult male rats of Charles-Foster strain were used for the present study as experimental animal models. The rats were divided into two groups. The treated group was given exposed water to drink ad libitum for a period of 30 days whereas the control group was given triple distilled water to drink similarly for the same period. Both the groups of animals were kept in same laboratory conditions and were provided with the same animal pelleted food. All metallic touches were avoided from the experiment and electric appliances were removed from the laboratory to avoid electric influences, if any.

On 31st day, at the termination of experiment, the rats were anaesthetised with ether and perfused with 10% neutral formaline. After the perfusion, the brains were removed and further fixed in 10% neutral formaline. The paraffin sections of these specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for micromorphological observations.


No gross anomaly was observed in the treated brains. On histological examination of the treated cerebral cortices, generalised spongiform changes resulting into distortion of the laminar pattern were observed as compared to that in controls (Figs. 1,2). Oedematous spaces were observed in the neuropil resulting into compression of the neuronal mass with cellular crowding, degeneration and gliosis at places (Fig. 2) On higher magnification of the pyramidal cell layer both large and small pyramidal cells were observed to be undergoing the process of degeneration. The large pyramidal cells surrounded by increased pericellular space had become homogeneously granular and lost their typical shape. The cell wall had become irregular with evagination of the cellular material. The nucleus was not discernible. The cells had become elongated due to the oedematous compression. Even the small pyramidal cells had become pyknotic (Fig. 3) The histological examination of the cerebellar cortex also revealed generalised spongiform changes resulting into degenerative changes of the neuronal masses (Fig. 4, 5). Shrunken cells surrounded by edematous spaces were observed in the molecular layer. The purkinje cells had become irregular in shape with fragmentation of the nuclear mass (Fig.5). Some of the purkinje cells showed pyknotic nucleus, shrunken nuclear wall and dark fragmented intracellular meterial leaking out through the ruptured cell membrane. The satellite cells were observed around the peripheral margin of pericellular space (Fig. 6).

Thus, there was a generalised picture of compression degeneration throughout the cerebral as well as cerebellar cortices due to spongiform changes, i.e. generalised perineuronal, perivascular and periglial oedema as well as oedema in the neuropil.


The brain is a metabolically very active organ accounting for approximately 20% of the body's oxygen utilization. additionally, because there are no significant stores of oxygen in brain and since the brain's catabolism is almost exclusively oxidative, as much as 15% of the cardic output (55ml/100 gm/min) goes to the brain to meet that incessant demand. The principal function of oxygen is to provide high energy phosphates (A.T.P and phosphocreatinine) for transmembrane ion transport, for axoplasmic transport of organelles and nutrients, for the manufacture of neurotransmitters and for the synthesis of cellular constituents required for the maintenance of tissue integrity.

In this study the homeostatic balance of the body of experimental rats was maintained by magnetised water which was given to them to drink ad libitum. Since, there is evidence that water exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields undergoes structural changes and that the water remembers the field strength for extended period of time (Singh et. al. 1994, 95), it seems to be responsible for changing the osmolarity of tissue fluids, thereby affecting the homeostatic balance of the body. In exposed water, the angle between the two hydrogen atoms no longer remains fixed at right angle, but becomes variable rendering the molecule flexible. Each oxygen atom now attracts, by electric forces not only two hydrogen atoms as in ice, but three or more. Thus an oxygen atom may be surrounded by five or six hydrogen atoms, while one hydrogen atom may be surrounded by as many as three oxygen atoms. In the closely knit flexible structure, the hydrogen atoms constantly shift positions and displace one another. Each such chain is propagated in a chain or “zipper” fashion throughout the liquid, consequently affecting the viscosity, dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of water (Rai et al 1994, 95).

Given the lack of biological mechanisms of action of EMF treated water, it is not possible to delineate the inhibitory effect mechanisms of such EMF altered water structures. The present study suggests that stable changes in water structure produced by magnetic fields may have caused the inhibitory effects by differently changing the cytoplasmic organization, structural chemistry and activities of the extracellular and intracellular fluid components. This has been responsible for producing oedema in the cerebrum as well as hippocampus due to changes in fluid osmolarity. In this particular study, extracellular fluid components seem to be comparatively more affected because cells have undergone apoptosis instead of balloonic degeneration. This oedema of the intercellular matrix has been in turn responsible for producing compressive degeneration of the affected cells resulting into apoptosis.


This study reveals that prolonged exposure of powerline induced restructured water may cause bioeffects by causing alteration in cytoplasmic and extracellular organisation of brain tissue through induced structural and chemical changes in tissue fluids.


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  3. Jerman, I., Berden, M. and Ruzic, R. (1996) : Biological influence of ultraweak supposedly EM radiation from organisms mediated through water, Electro- Magnetobiology 15 (3) : pp 229-244,
  4. Joshi, M. V., Khan, M. Z. and Damle, P. S. (1978): Effect of magnetic fields on chick embryogenesis differentiation 10 : pp 39-43.
  5. Moricle R. P., Moricle, L. W., Smith, A. F., Campell, W. F. and Montgomery, D. J.: Plant growth responses, In : Biological Effects on Magnetic Fields, Vol. I, M. F. Barnothy, ed., Plenum Press,New York, p. 67 (1964)
  6. Neurath, P. W. (1968) : High gradient megnetic fields inhibit embryonic development of frogs, Nature 21 :pp 1358,
  7. Novitskii, Yu. I. : Effects of magnetic fields on the dry seeds of some cereals, in Proceedings of the conference on effects of magnetic fields on biological objects, Moscow, 1966.
  8. Pandey, S., Garg, T. K., Singh, K. P., and Rai, S. (1996) : Effects of magnetically treated water on oestrous cycle of female mice Mus maculus, Electro Magnetobiology 15 (2) : 130-140
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  10. Rai, S., Singh, U. P., Mishra, G. D., and Samarketu S.P. (1994b) Effect of waters microwave power density memory on fungal spore germination, Electro Magnetobiology 13 : pp 247-252.
  11. Rai, S., Singh, U. P., Mishra, G. D. S. P. and Samarketu : (1994c) : Additional evidence of stable EMF induced changes in water revealed by fungal spore germination Electro- Magnetobiology 13 : pp 253-259.
  12. Rai, S., Singh, U. P Singh, K. P. and Singh, A. (1994d): Germination responces of fungal spores to magnetically restructured water, Electro-Magnetobiology 13 ; pp 237-246.
  13. Rai, S., Singh, U. P., and Singh A. K.; (1995) : X-ray determination of magnetically treated liquid water structures, Electro-Magnetobiology14 (2) : pp 23-30.
  14. Rai, S. (1997): Causes and mechanism (s) of NER bioeffects Electro Magnetobiology 16 (1) : pp 59-67,
  15. Singh, M., Singh, L. and Bhattacharya, A, K, (1998): Teratogenic changes in chick embryos induced by electro magnetic field. Journal of Anatomial Society of India 47 : pp 49-57,
  16. Singh, M., Singh, L., and Bhattacharya, A, K. (1990): Effect of electromagnetic field on the central nervous system of chick embryos, Journal of Anatomical Society of India 39 : pp 41-77,
  17. Singh, S. P., Rai, S., Rai, A. K., Tiwari, S. P., Singh, S. S., Samarketu and Abraham, J.. (1994) : Athermal physiological effects of microwaves on cynobacterium, Nostoc muscorum : evidnce for EM memory bits in water, Biomedical Biological Engineering Computers, 32 : 175-180,
  18. Singh, U. P. Rai, S., and Singh, K. P. (1995) : Effect of water's 50 Hz power memory on spore germination of some fungi, Electro-Magnetobiology, 14 : pp 41-49.
  19. Veneziano, P. P. (1965) : The effect of low intensity magnetostatic fields on the growth and orientation of the embryo of Gallus domesticus, Zoology, 25 : pp 4319

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Fig. I Cerebral Cortex of control rat. H & Ex 200

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Fig. 2. Cerebral Cortex of Treated rat H & Ex 200

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Fig. 3. Degenerating large Pyramidal cells of treated Cerebral Cortex. H & Ex 750.

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Fig. 4. Cerebellar Cortex of control rat. H & Ex 400

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Fig 5. Cerebellar Cortex of Treated rat H & Ex 400

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Fig. 6. Degenerating purkinje Cell of treated rat. H & Ex. 750

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