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Indian Journal of Community Medicine

Study of Awareness Status about Hospital Waste Management among Personnel and Quantification

Author(s): Y. Saraf, M. Shinde, S.C. Tiwari

Vol. 31, No. 2 (2006-04 - 2006-06)


The Bio-Medical Waste means any solid, liquid waste material, generated during the process of diagnosis, treatment and immunization of human being or animal. These waste material could cause serious hazards to health and environment in case of indiscriminate management. All the hospital personnel are at a risk to get many fatal infections like HIV, HBV, HCV and injuries by these infectious materials.To avoid these hazards, discriminate waste management system should be implemented in hospital infrastructure.


The study was the part of ongoing project, jointly organized by Department Of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Hamidia Hospital and Central Pollution Control Board. The study was mainly conducted in Hamidia Hospital which was 900 beds and about 1000 personnel.

A scientifically prescribed Performa was used for data contain. The First step was to conduct Cross-sectional survey to assess knowledge of the personnel (working staff including doctors, nurses, ward boys and sweepers). The second step was to conduct observational survey to quantify the waste generated per day per shift in the hospital. Generated waste was properly segregated and collected in 4 color bags (Red, Blue, Yellow and Black) then transported to the place where weighing machine was situated. After weighing, the waste was transported to the ultimate disposal site.

Sampling-Simple random sampling was done. A total of 120 persons comprising doctors, nurses, ward boys and sweepers of various departments (30 from each categorys were interviewed. Junior / Temporary staff, trainees and contract workers were not included in the study.


Table-I showed that all respondents having good knowledge about types of material generated in hospital. Although level of knowledge was more among doctors and nurses as compared to the ward boys and Sweepers.

Almost all the respondents (100%) among Doctors and Nurses were aware that improper management of Waste causes above health hazards while 40-60% of ward boys and sweepers were aware about this fact.

Respondents felt that Incineration was the best method (81%) of solid waste disposal. Soakage pit construction as the most practical and effective method for liquid waste disposal was suggested by all respondents. All respondents felt that closed contains should be used for collecting waste.

Table I : Level of knowledge about type of Waste material in percent.

Types if waste
Doctors Nurses Ward
Sweepers Total
Stationary, Papers 100 100 60.6 60.6 83.3
Sharp Instruments
ie Needles, blades
100 100 66.6 66.6 83.3
Cotton 100 100 66.6 66.6 83.3
Infected waste 100 100 66.6 40 75
Radio active waste 13.3 0 0 0 0

Table II: Level of knowledge about Health Hazards caused by hospital waste in percent.

Material Health Hazards Doctors Nurses Ward Boys Sweepers Total
Environmental 100 100 40 33.3 68.6
Injuries 100 100 60 60 80
Diseases transmitted by recycling 100 83.3 46.6 46.6 70


Awareness study about hospital waste management showed doctors and nurses had good knowledge of waste management as compared to workers probably due to the training got by them jointly organized by Medical College and CPCB. The quantity of Waste generated in hospital was 2 to 6kg/day/ shift, That amount is inadequate as for as the capacity, patient turnover and facilities available in the teaching institute hospital.

The reason might be due to faulty practicing of Waste collection, segregation, transportation and disposal of waste by personnel. Therefore all the waste generated in hospital was not quantified and most of the waste material was indiscriminately thrown in hospital, surroundings.

Deptt. of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal.
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 28.8.2000

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