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Indian Journal of Community Medicine

The Sociological Intervention Package (SIP) for Developing

Author(s): Sanat Kumar Sharma, S.C. Mohapatra, J.N.P. Gupta

Vol. 27, No. 2 (2002-04 - 2002-06)

Deptt. of PSM, B.H.U., Varanasi - 221005

Abstract:

Research question: How effectively sociological intervention package can improve the awareness status about high risk cases of AIDS.

Objective: To test the effect of some socio-intervention packages developed to enhance the knowledge and awareness status of the subjects.

Study design: Comparative study between pre and post phases of introducing SIP.

Participants: Included sex workers, intravenous drug users, professional blood donors, students, teachers and pregnant females.

Sample size: Three hundred ten.

Study variables: Age, sex, religion, literacy, per capita income and marital status as independent variables and awareness status according to Likert scale as dependent variable.

Statistical analysis: Mean SD and student 't' test.

Results: The Mean SD of the awareness score were 36.18 24.59 and 53.51 24.76 at the initial and final phases of the SIP. The statistical analysis envisaged that the SIP has significantly increased the life skills of the respondents irrespective of their sexes.

Keywords : Sociological intervention package (SIP), Individual question scoring technique (IQST),Awareness status, AIDS Ludo, Life skill/skills for life

Introduction:

Central and State Governments of India have initiated various programmes of IEC (Information, Education and Communication) through media for the awareness of people on AIDS problem, as it has widened its periphery from the urban society to the rural common people1. The increasing incidence of AIDS in the country and insufficient facilities for its treatment and diagnosis have compelled the people for having awareness about the disease and adoption of proper measures for its prevention2. In this context, the present communication was fabricated to test the effect of some socio-intervention packages developed to enhance the knowledge and awareness status of the subjects related to various communities. This was undertaken to take steps towards the call of WHO on "Life Skill" by its division of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance Abuse.

Material and Methods:

Three hundred ten respondents who included sex workers, intravenous drug users, professional blood donors, students, teachers and pregnant females were imparted education cum intervention on AIDS between May 1996 to March 1997. An initial assessment interview, education, intervention session and follow up were conducted. Pretest and post test data were obtained from all the subjects. The information was recorded on a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. The sociological intervention packages included awareness schedule, flip chart, AIDS ludo and AIDS chalisa. The purpose of this experiment was to test the sociological intervention package (SIP) as a candidate tool for Life Skill Development3.

Individual question scoring technique was employed to assess the awareness status of the respondents. Various questions related to awareness were recorded in terms of strongly disagree, disagree, undecided, agree and strongly agree. These replies were scored 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively as per Likert scale4. Accordingly total scores obtained by individual respondents were finally converted in percentage. These percentages were again classified in 5 categories e.g., 1 to 20; 21 to 40; 41 to 60; 61 to 80 and 81 to 100 and were designated as poor, fair, good, very good and excellent5. Further, the results of the present study have been interpreted with the help of suitable statistical tests6.

Results and Discussion:

Table I: General characteristics of the subjects.

Characteristics Male
220(70.97)
Female
90(29.03)
Total
310(100)
Risk category
High risk 98 (44.55) 44 (48.89) 142 (45.81)
Low/medium risk 122 (55.45) 46 (51.11) 168 (54.19)
Marital status  
Married 108 (49.09) 37 (41.11) 145 (46.77)
Unmarried 112 (50.91) 53 (58.89) 165 (53.23)
Residential area            
Rural 56 (25.45) 28 (31.11) 84 (27.10)
Urban 164 (74.55) 62 (68.89) 226 (72.90)
Age distribution
<19 years 29 (13.18) 13 (14.45) 42 (13.55)
20-29 years 86 (39.09) 37 (41.11) 123 (39.68)
30-39 years 68 (30.91) 28 (31.11) 96 (30.97)
40-49 years 30 (13.64) 10 (11.11) 40 (12.90)
>50 years 7 (3.18) 2 (2.22) 9 (2.90)
Mean SD (Years) 31.50 ±11.74   29.56 ± 9.59   30.94± 7.08  
Religion
Hindu 154 (70.00) 54 (60.00) 208 (67.10)
Muslim 37 (16.82) 22 (24.44) 59 (19.03)
Others 29 (13.18) 14 (15.56) 43 (13.87)
Per capita income
Mean SD (Rs) 565.91± 324.82   583.33 ± 327.25   570.97± 325.10  
Literacy rate (%) 94.55   82.22   90.97  

Figures in parentheses are percentages.

Majority of subjects (70.97%) were males, whereas, the contribution of females was only 29.03%. According to risk behaviour, 44.55% males and 48.89% females were under high risk category, while, 55.45% males and 51.11% females were related to moderate and low risk categories. Regarding marital status of the subjects, 53.23% were unmarried and remaining 46.77% were married. It was further observed that majority of the males (74.55%) as well as females (68.89%) belonged to urban area, whereas, 25.45% males and 31.11% females lived in rural areas.

Nearly two fifth (39.68%) subjects belonged to age group 20-29 years, followed by 30-39 years (30.97%); less than and equal to 19 years (13.55%); and 40-50 years (12.90%). The Mean SD ages were 31.50± 11.74 for males; 29.56 9.59 for females and 30.94± 7.08 years for both the sexes. Majority of the respondents belonged to Hindu religion (67.10%), followed by Muslims (19.03%) and others (13.87%).

The mean per capita family income was Rs.570.97 ± 325.10. According to sex of the respondents, it was 565.91± 324.82 for males and Rs. 583.33 ±327.25 for females. The literacy rate, in the present study was ascertained to be 90.97%. The contribution of illiterate subjects were 5.45% males and 17.78% females (Table I).

Table II: Awareness status of the subjects before and after SIP.

Assessment Intervention phase
Score (%) Qualitative norm Pre Post
No. (%) No. (%)
1-20 Poor 109 (35.16) 37 (11.94)
21-40 Fair 79 (25.48) 61 (19.68)
41-60 Good 65 (20.97) 83 (26.77)
61-80 Very good 39 (12.58) 82 (26.45)
81-100 Excellent 18 (5.81) 47 (15.16)
Mean SD   36.18 ± 24.59 53.51 ± 24.76

Statistical significance: t=8.562, p < 0.001

All the respondents were examined in two phases of the experimentation. The initial phase illustrates the awareness status of the respondents at the beginning stage, when the SIP was not provided (Baseline). Similarly, at the final phase, after introducing the SIP, the awareness status of the respondents was also assessed in the similar manner as in initial phase, i.e. poor, fair, good, very good and excellent. Before introduction of SIP, more than one third subjects (35.16%) possessed poor awareness status, followed by fair (25.48%), good (20.97%) and very good (12.58%). There were only 5.81% subjects having excellent awareness status at pre-intervention phase of the study. After introducing SIP materials to the subjects, the awareness status was enhanced. Only 11.94% subjects retained poor status, whereas, 23.22% cases stepped up to higher stages. The stepping up was observed in all the categories of assessment status. The Mean SD of awareness status was assessed to be 36.18 ±24.59 per cent at pre intervention phase and 53.51± 24.76 percent at post intervention phase. The statistical analysis suggested that the introduction of SIP has significantly enhanced the awareness status of the subjects regarding AIDS (Table II). Ray et al, 1995 have also reported similar findings in the ICDS functionaries in West Bengal

Table III: Role of the sex of the subjects on their awareness status before and after SIP.

Assessment Intervention phase
Score (%) Qualitative norm Male (n=220) Female (n=90)
Pre No. (%) Post No. (%) Pre No. (%) Post No. (%)
1-20 Poor 72 (32.73) 29 (13.18) 37 (41.11) 8 (8.89)
21-40 Fair 51 (23.18) 48 (21.82) 28 (31.11) 13 (14.44)
41-60 Good 52 (23.64) 58 (26.36) 13 (14.44) 25 (27.78)
61-80 Very good 32 (14.54) 57 (25.90) 7 (7.78) 25 (27.78)
81-100 Excellent 13 (5.91) 28 (12.73) 5 (5.56) 19 (21.11)
Mean SD 38.05 ± 34.21 51.86 ± 24.62 31.61 ± 23.49 57.17± 23.99
Statistical significance: t = 4.86, p<0.001 t = 7.222, p<0.001
Comparison between males and females: Pre: t=1.903, p>0.05 Post: t=1.755, p>0.05

The basic concept that a teaching package has to improve the knowledge status is universal but what has been the aim of the present study, was to improve the life skill of respondents after SIP. Thus the next stage i.e. awareness of respondents was also tested. It was very interesting that gain in awareness score (%) was slightly higher in females in comparison to male counterparts, still there was no significant difference between post mean scores for two sexes (Table III).

Table IV: Role of age of the subjects on their awareness status before and after SIP.

Assessment Age and Intervention phase
Score (%) Qualitative norm <19 (n=42) 20-39 (n=219) >40 (n=49)
Pre No. (%) Post No. (%) Pre No. (%) Post No. (%) Pre No. (%) Post No. (%)
1-20 Poor 13 (30.95) 11 (26.19) 82 (37.44) 20 (9.13) 14 (28.57) 6 (12.24)
21-40 Fair 16 (38.10) 8 (19.05) 55 (25.12) 50 (22.83) 8 (16.33) 3 (6.12)
41-60 Good 13 (30.95) 14 (33.33) 40 (18.26) 57 (26.03) 12 (24.49) 12 (24.49)
61-80 Very good 0 0 9 (21.43) 30 (13.70) 54 (24.66) 9 (18.37) 19 (38.78)
81-100 Excellent 0 0 0 0 12 (5.48) 38 (17.35) 6 (12.24) 9 (18.37)
Mean SD 30.50 ±15.93 40.±50 22.20 35.43 ±24.85 54.15 ±24.56 44.38± 27.75 59.48± 24.52
Statistical significance: t = 2.317, p<0.02 t = 7.929, p<0.001 t = 2.854, p<0.01

This finding delineates that the SIP has affected the male and female subjects in similar manner. On the other hand, the effect of SIP was apparently seen in various age groups, and it was very interesting to note that the increase in awareness score (%) due to SIP intervention was almost proportional to the age of the subjects. The mean scores before intervention were 30.50; 35.43 and 44.38% in the age groups <19 years; 20-39 years and >40 years, respectively and these scores significantly reached to the levels of 40.50; 54.15 and 59.48% after the intervention of SIP (Table IV).

Table V: Role of marital status of the subjects on their awareness status before and after SIP.

Assessment Marital status and Intervention phase
Score (%) Qualitative norm Married (n=145) Unmarried (n=165)
Pre No. (%) Post No. (%) Pre No. (%) Post No. (%)
1-20 Poor 45 (31.03) 14 (9.66) 64 (38.79) 23 (13.94)
21-40 Fair 35 (24.14) 26 (17.93) 44 (26.67) 35 (21.21)
41-60 Good 38 (26.21) 45 (31.03) 27 (16.36) 38 (23.03)
61-80 Very good 20 (13.79) 41 (28.28) 19 (11.51) 41 (24.85)
81-100 Excellent 7 (4.83) 19 (13.10) 11 (6.67) 28 (16.97)
Mean SD 37.95 ±23.91 53.95 ±23.26 34.62± 25.13 52.44± 26.06
Statistical significance: t = 5.776, p<0.001 t = 6.323, p<0.001
Comparison between married and unmarried: Pre: t=1.195, p>0.05 Post: t=0.539, p>0.05

According to marital status, the mean increase in awareness was 16% for married and 17.82% for unmarried subjects. The mean scores of the awareness in unmarried as well as in married subjects were found statistically similar at the pre and post SIP phases (Table V).

The findings of the present study suggested that the SIP has significantly enhanced the awareness status of the subjects irrespective of their sex and marital status. It can be well understood that change in awareness has been a positive move.

References:

  1. Nag Moni. Sexual behaviours and AIDS in India's State of the Art, Indian J Social Work 1994; 55(4): 503-46.
  2. Khan Shivananda. Cultural context of sexual behviours and identities and their impact upon HIV prevention models. An overview of south asian men who have sex with men?
  3. WHO: Skills of Life concept, Personal communications from Whorly J. 1997 to 98, Division of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance Abuse, Geneva.
  4. Murphy and Likert's technique: Edwards (Pub.), 1957: 155.
  5. Devi AL. Rural women - management in farm and home. Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1987.
  6. Gupta JNP, Srivastava RK. Profile of some statistical applications in the field of medical sciences: An analytical aspect, AIMLTA Chronicle, April 1998; 21: 37-41.
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