Indmedica Home | About Indmedica | Medical Jobs | Advertise On Indmedica
Search Indmedica Web
Indmedica - India's premier medical portal

Indian Journal of Community Medicine

Women's Exposure To Mass Media And Use of Family Planning Methods: A Case Study of Goa

Author(s): M.S. Kulkarni,

Vol. 30, No. 1 (2005-03 - 2005-03)

Introduction

The government of India started family planning programmes in 1952 with an objective of reducing birth rate to the extent necessary for stablization of population at a level consistent with requirement of national economy. Though the family planning programme was not successful in reducing birth rate during last fifty years but the programme has succeeded in generating universal knowledge about family planning methods. But even with high awareness about family planning methods, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and acceptance of family planning methods. The different communication strategies are used to motivate couples and support behavioral practice at home to use family planning methods. The important communication channels used in R.C.H. programme are television, radio and newspaper aiming at change of attribute of couples to practice family planning methods1. The present study was undertaken to quantify the role of exposure to these mass communication channels in the use of family planning methods by the married women.

Methods and Materials

The data for the present study was collected by conducting a survey on a predesigned and pretested questionnaire by interviewing married non-pregnant women aged 15-45 years in North Goa District. The samples were selected using a two stage stratified random sampling method. In the first stage 20 rural blocks and 5 urban blocks were selected and at second stage 10 married non pregnant women aged 15-45 years were selected from each of the first stage unit using simple random sampling method. This simple size for the present study was 250 married women in the age group 15-45 years.

The data was analyzed using chi-square test and odds ratio (O.R). The multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to control the effect of socio-demographic variables for women's exposure to mass media in the use of family planning methods.

Results and Discussion

The background characteristic of the women reveals nearly 35 percent of women were in the age group 25-30 years, 28.8 percent women were in the age group 30-35 years and 17.6 percent were in the age group 35-45 years. The place of residence was an urban area for 20.0 percent of women. The religion composition of women shows 66.4 percent were belonging to Hindu religion and 26.4 percent were illiterate, 11.6 percent had education up to primary level (I to IV standard), 22 percent women had schooling up to secondary level (V to IX standard) and 53.2 percent women completed S.S.C. and above. The access of women to television, radio & newspaper was 79.2%, 46.8% & 46.3% respectively.

In the present study the use of family planning practice was 48.4 percent. The use of family planning method was significantly higher among women who were exposed to television. The odds ratio of 2.44 indicates that married women who were exposed to television regarding message about family planning methods were 2.44 times more likely to use family planning methods compared to women who were not exposed to television. (Table I)

Table I: Use of Family Planning Methods According to Exposure to Television.

Exposed to television Use of family planning methods No use of family planning methods Total
  No. Percent No. Percent No. Percent
Seen message about family planning 98 54.4 82 45.6 180 100.0
Not seen message about family planning 23 32.9 47 67.1 70 100.0
Total 121 48.4 129 51.6 250 100.0
x2=9.40, P<0.01. O.R. = 2.44

The analysis of use of family planning method according to exposure to radio & newspaper is represented in Table I. The use of family planning methods was 1.66 & 1.96 times more among women exposed to radio & newspaper respectively regarding messages about family planning methods than women not exposed to newspaper.

The results of multivariate logistic regression shows exposure to television and newspaper were significantly associated with use of family planning methods when women's education, place of residence and number of living children were held constant. The women exposed to television about message on family planning were 2.14 times more likely to practice family planning methods compared to women who were not exposed. The women exposed to newspaper about messages on family planning were two times more likely to practice family planning methods compared to women who were not exposed. The National Family Health Survey II2 reported that use of family planning methods in Goa was 47.5 percent. The ever use of family planning method was 74.4%, 46.5% and 42.5% among women exposed to television, radio and newspaper respectively.

Conclusion

The exposure to television, radio and newspaper was positively associated with use of family planning methods. The multivariate analysis reveals that exposure to television Women's Exposure to Mass Media and Use of Family Planning and newspaper about family planning message significantly increased the use of family planning methods. The important implication of the study is that Government of India must continue the awareness about the family planning programme in the electronic and print media with special emphasize on television and newspaper.

References

  1. Ministry of Health and family welfare "Reproductive and child health Programme". Government of India, New Delhi 1996.
  2. International Institute for population Sciences, Mumbai : "National Family health survey (NFHS-II) 1998-99 Goa". IIPS, Mumbai, March 2002.
  3. John Hopkins Centre for Communication Programme : "Bangladesh TV drama promoters integrated services", Communication Impact, No. 7, Dec. 1999.
  4. West off Charles and Rodriguez German : "The mass media and family planning in Kenya", International Family Planning Perspectives 1995; 21:26-31.
  5. Kiragu Karungari, Galiwango Michael Kityo et al "Promoting reproductive Health in Uganda : Evaluation of a National IEC Program", The John Hopkins Schools of Public Health, IEC Field report No. 7, Dec. 1996.

M.S. Kulkarni,
Department of P.S.M.,
Goa Medical College,
Bambolim-Goa, 403202

Access free medical resources from Wiley-Blackwell now!

About Indmedica - Conditions of Usage - Advertise On Indmedica - Contact Us

Copyright © 2005 Indmedica