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Journal of the Academy of Hospital Administration

A Study of Absenteeism Among Class-D Employees

Author(s): Mohan Lal*, Jaydeb Biswas**

Vol. 16, No. 1 (2004-01 - 2004-06)

Introduction

Absenteeism is a major factor affecting work productivity and closely related to worker’s health as well as personal, domestic and social life. It is a useful index to assess the state of health of workers and their physical, mental and social well-being in an organization.

Absenteeism’ absence from a work by a work during working hours. Voluntary absence is that which he or she could not have avoided due to such reasons beyond his or her control, as sickness or accident etc.5

No health care activity can be carried out without the deployment of heath staff. Employees working at lower at lower level in health care institutions, are also important member of each team in the institution.

Absence of these employees is an important problem in health care institution. It may seriously effect the sensitive service organization like hospital. Absenteeism also affects the working and reputation of health care institution. In present study the effort has been made to study the absenteeism among class D employees with following:-

Aim & Objectives

Aim:

To study absenteeism among Group D employees.

Objectives:-

  1. To assess the degree of absenteeism.
  2. To identify reasons & factors for absenteeism.
  3. To recommend remedial measures for the reduction of absenteeism.

Materials and Methods

The present study was conducted in three health care institutions of Amritsar City. This study was carried out from 1st July to Sept . 30,2002. Only those employees who had completed their services more than 4 years were included in this study.

Employees of the following functional areas of Medical College were selected by using random sampling technique i.e. basic departments (Paediatric, Orthopaedics), emergency and supportive services i.e. lab. & radio diagnosis services.

Employees working in these selected functional areas were included. But effort have been made to include all the employees of two other institutions i.e. Civil Surgeon Office including field workers of anti-larval wing and health & family welfare training center. The employees were interviewed through structured schedule designed for this purpose. The employees who could not be contacted were not included in the study. The data so collected was analysed and appropriate statistical applied wherever applicable.

Results

For this study, a total of 117, class D employees were selected from these health care institutions as follows:

Sr. No Functional Area Employees Interviewed
No. %
1. Civil Surgeon Office Basic Departments, H&FW TC 35 29.9
2. Anti larval wing (Field workers) 24 20.5
3. OPD 17 14.5
4. Supportive Services 17 14.5
5. Indoor Patient Dept. 13 11.2
6. Emergency Dept. 11 9.4
  Total 117 100%

Distribution of employees according to their total leave (CL, EL & ML) availed.

Duration of Serice (years) No. of Employees No. of CL granted to Govt. Employee
<10 16 10
11 - 20 31 15
>20 70 20

CSR Vol-I (3) Govt. of Pb. 4

A total of 117 employees included in the study casual leave were availed by almost all employees in previous three year i.e. total leave availed 6075 days i.e. average no. of casual availed by each employee = 17.3 days/year. While 100 employees availed 1004 casual leave in the current year (to date of interview) i.e. 10.04 days/employee in current year.

Out of 117, 52.9% employees had availed (EL &ML) during the 1999 to date of interview.

Earned Leave

  1999 2000 2001 To Date
of Interview
No. of employees Availed leave 17 24 27 15
Total leave availed 249 383 574 256
Leave Availed/Employee 14.6 days 15.9 days 21.3 days 17.1 days

Medical Leave

  1999 2000 2001 To Date
of Interview
No. of employees Availed Leave 005 005 006 2
Total Leave Availed 300 180 195 70
Leave Availed/Employee 60 days 36 days 32 days 35 days

None of the employees availed leave without pay. But one of the employee remained on leave for 240 days during 1999

Table 5

Socio-Demographic Profile and Leave Availed (EL & ML)

Characteristic

Type of
Family
Availed Not Availed
No. %age No. %age Total
Nuclear 35 45.5 42 54.5 77
Joint 27 67.5 13 32.5 40
    Y 2=5.128 df=1, p>0.05 117

 

Sex No. %age No. %age Total
Male 54 50.9 52 49.1 106
female 08 72.7 3 27.3 11
    Y 2=1.947 df=1, p>0.05 117

Age
Group
Availed Not Availed
No. %age No. %age Total
<30 8 66.6 04 33 12
31 - 40 15 53.6 13 46 28
41 - 50 30 50.8 29 49 59
51 - 60 09 50.0 09 50 18
          117

Caste Wise no. %age No. %age Total
Scheduled Caste 43 51.1 41 48.8 84
Other Backwards Caste 07 63.6 04 36.4 11
Other Caste 12 54.5 10 45.5 22
  Y 2= 1.855 df=1, p>0.05  

Literacy No. %age No. %age Total
Illiterate 21 53.3 17 44.7 38
Primary 07 53.8 06 46.2 13
Middle 10 32.3 22 67.7 32
Matric 19 76.0 06 24.0 25
Above Matric 05 55.5 04 44.5 09
    Y 2= 10.388 df=4, p>0.01  

Marital Status No. %age No. %age Total
Unmarried 02 66.6 01 33.4 003
Married 53 50 53 50.0 106
Widowed/Widower 07 87.5 01 12.5

008

  Y 2= 3.954 df=2, p>0.05  

Family Size No. %age No. %age Total
<3 08 66.6 04 33.4 12
4 11 50.0 11 50.0 22
5 20 54.1 17 45.9 37
6 12 60.0 08 40.0 20
7 06 42.8 08 57.2 15
8 02 40.0 03 60.0 05
9 02 50.0 02 50.0 04
100>10 01 33.4 02 66.6 03
  Y 2= 2.682 df=7, p>0.05  

Table 6

Personal Habits and Leave Availed

Habits Availed Not Availed
No. %age No. %age Total
Alcoholic 27 45.7 32 54.3 59
Non-Alcoholic 32 68.0 15 32.0 57
    Y 2= 5.208 df=1, p>0.05  
Smoker 18 51.4 17 48.6  
Non-Smoker 32 45.1 39 54.9 71
    Y 2= 2.876 df=1, p>0.05  

Table 7

Distance from posting and Leave Availed

Distance (Kms) Availed Not Availed
No. %age No. %age Total
0 - 5 40 48.8 42 51.2 82
5 - 10 13 61.9 08 38.8 82
>10 09 64.3 05 35.7 14
    Y 2= 1.669 df=2, p>0.05  

Table 8

Duration of Service and Leave Availed

Duration of
Service
Availed Not Availed
No. %age No. %age Total
<10 09 56.3 07 43.7 16
11 - 20 21 67.7 10 32.3 31
>20 32 45.5 38 54.3 70
    Y 2= 3.813 df=2, p>0.05  

Table 9

Reasons Cited for leave given by Employees

Sr. No Reasons No. %age
1 Social 108 67.5
2 Medical 033 20.6
3 Accident 013 08.2
4 Personal 000 03.7
  Total 160 100

Table 9A

Sr. No Social reasons/Factors No. %age
1 Social Events/functions 55 47.0
2 To attend religous places/Functions 20 17.1
3 Repair House 13 11.1
4 Accident & illness of Relatives 07 05.9
5 Harvesting Seasons/Commitment 06 05.2
6 Other reasons (side business) etc. 03 02.6

Table 9 B

Sr No Illness No. %age
1 P.U.O. /Fever 09 27.3
2 Heart Problem 06 18.2
3 Chest Problem 06 18.2
4 Low backache 04 12.2
5 Operated Case 03 09.0
6 Diarrhea and Dysentery 02 06.0
7 Epilepsy 01 3.0
8 Kidney problem 01 3.0
9 Piles 01 3.0
  Total 33 100%

Table 9C

Sr. no. Personal reasons No. %age
1 Addiction 05 38.5
2 Support from Senior 05 38.5
3 Indebtedness 03 23.0
  Total 13 100
  Accident 006  

Discussion

In present study it was observed that maximum no. of employees (90.6%) were male and 6.8% were widow/widower. 67.5% of the employees were Hindus. About 50% of the total employees were between the 41-55 years of age. 71.8% of employees were scheduled caste. 32.5% were illiterate. Of the total 117, 59.8% employees had been working in the department for more than 20 years.

59.2% employees had availed earned and medical leave during 1999 to date of interview. Studies have shown that if the workers are entitled to sick leave with pay, they declare themselves fit or work at their choice3.

The present study also revealed that females employees belonged to joint family, and age less than 30 years of age and widow/widower availed more leave. Baetyea, A.M. et al (1946) study revealed that the female frequently do the two jobs at one time so there is excess of absenteeism among individual women 2. Employees educated up to matric availed more leave.

It was found that employees more than 10 years or more duration of service and stayed at more than 10 kms away from the place of posting availed more leave.

Out of 160 reasons for leave, 67.5% were socio-economic. According to the Park’s Text Book, social factors appear to influence sickness absenteeism in India 6. 36.4% cited the medical reason for leave.

Recommendations of remedial measures for the reduction of absenteeism

  1. Creating awareness regarding the importance of the employees in health care delivery system.
  2. There is a need for regular periodic check-up of employees during service period
  3. Educate employees regarding the rules of leave. If they remain absent then consequences
  4. Know the SWOT i.e. strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to employees.
  5. Efforts should be made to change the behaviour of employees through counseling especially the employees who are having habits of alcoholism and smoking
  6. Most of the class D employed are engaged in housekeeping they are enable exposed to infectious waste material. They should provide with approved protective clothing gloves, footwear, mask and glasses.
  7. Empathize with the employees.
  8. Political link of employees should not be exploited
  9. Employees should be immunized against tetanus, hepatitis B etc. universal precautions should also be followed.
  10. Education and training for cleanliness, maintenance sterilization etc
  11. Incharge of institution should be role model.

More efforts will have to be made to improve human relations with employees and introduce high quality personnel management as a specialized functions in health care organization.

Law are a weapon of last resort in a conflict situation. Effective employees relation can be built only on a foundation of respect for employees as human beings by treating them as a valuable human resources and by professional inside and techniques of personnel management1.

Reference

  1. Anand K.K.
    Managing Health Institution.
    Bombay Management Association P-91.
  2. Baetyea, A.M. (1946)
    Women in industry – Their Health & Efficiency, Philadelphia, W.B.
    Saunders Co. 1946, P- 1095-99
  3. Banerjee B and Chakarborty (1969)
    India J. of Industrial Med, 15, 85.
  4. Govt. of Punjab
    Rules for grant casual leave.
    Punjab Civil Services Rule, Vol-I, P-85-88.
  5. Hano Johanusen and G Tery
    International Dictionary of Management.
    Crest Publishing House, New Delhi, P-7
  6. K. Park (1997)
    Health problems due to industrialization.
    Park’s Text Book of Social & Preventive Medicine, P-549.
For Correspondance:
67, Guru Nanak Avenue Majitha Road,
Amritsar. Punjab
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