Indmedica Home | About Indmedica | Medical Jobs | Advertise On Indmedica
Search Indmedica Web
Indmedica - India's premier medical portal

Current Pediatric Research

Anthropometric and cardiac function difference between children from orphanage and children with wards

Author(s): Clevin Rashmi Rebello, Anita Herur, Manjula R., Roopa Ankad, Shailaja Patil, Surekharani Chinagudi

Vol. 15, No. 2 (2011-07 - 2011-12)

Clevin Rashmi Rebello, Anita Herur, Manjula R., Roopa Ankad, Shailaja Patil, Surekharani Chinagudi

Department of Physiology, S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Navanagar, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India.

Short running title: Cardiac function and Anthropometry in orphans

Abstract

Does, being an orphan affect the anthropometric characteristics and cardiac function of an individual? The aim was to assess the anthropometry in terms of height (cm), weight (kg), chest circumference (cm) and body mass index (BMI) (Kg/m2); and to assess the cardiac func-tion by recording heart rate (bpm), blood pressure (mmHg) and rate-pressure product before and after exercise. This comparative study was carried out on orphans in a residential school of Bagalkot. 30 apparently healthy orphan boys aged between 7-17 years were included in the study. They were matched with equal number of boys with wards in the same residential school. Height (cm), weight (kg) chest circumference (cm) and BMI (Kg/m2) were recorded as physical anthropometric parameters. Heart rate (bpm), blood Pressure (mm Hg) and rate-pressure product were recorded before and after exercise. The parameters were analyzed by Student t test. Weight, BMI and chest circumference were all lower in orphans, but the differ-ence in chest circumference was not statistically significant. Rate –pressure product after ex-ercise which directly depicts the myocardial functioning, was also lower in orphans, as com-pared to controls, although not statistically significant. It can be concluded that the orphans are deprived of their normal anthropometry and cardiac function and hence, a step in this re-gard has to be put forward, to help these innocent ones to combat the emotional disturbances, which could be the route cause.

Key-words: Orphans, anthropometry, rate-pressure product, myocardial function
Accepted March 11 2011

Introduction

Does, being an orphan, affect the anthropometric characteristics and cardiac function of an individual? Fos-ter care Institutions in the developing countries function importantly in protecting and caring for children who are orphaned, abandoned, abused or placed under state probation [1]. Exercise testing elicits the body reaction to measured increases in acute exercise. The changes in heart rate, blood pressure and perceived level of exertion provide data that permit quantitative estimation of cardiovas-cular functioning and conditioning [2]. Rate-pressure product (RPP) is the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure (SBP). It is an important indi-cator of ventricular function, which is also called as Rob-inson index [3]. Heart rate and blood pressure are in-dices of parallel changes in coronary blood flow(CBF) and in maximum oxygen consumption (MVO2) [4].

Anthropometry is used to characterize growth patterns. Growth patterns may be affected by nutrition in children and also non-nutritional causes like emotional insecurity. They are important in developing interventional pro-grammes [5].

This study was taken up as review of literature reveals less data on cardiac functioning and anthropometry in orphans. The objectives were :

  • to assess the anthropometry in terms of height (cm),weight (kg),chest circumference(cm) and body mass index (BMI ) (Kg/m2); and
  • to assess the cardiac function by recording heart rate (bpm), blood pressure(mmHg) and rate-pressure product before and after exercise

Material and Methods

This is a comparative study done in residential school of Bagalkot involving thirty apparently healthy orphan boys aged between 7-17 years (Cases), who were matched with equal number of boys with wards (Controls) in the same residential school. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institution. Informed consent was obtained from the school authority. Children with history of any systemic illnesses or disorders were excluded from the study. Height (cm), Body weight (kg), and Chest circumference (cm) were recorded. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated. Heart rate (HR) and Blood Pres-sure (BP) were recorded in a resting state (before exer-cise). Electrocardiogram (ECG) in Lead II was taken us-ing an ECG machine (Cardiart), R-R interval measured and heart rate calculated. Blood pressure was recorded using a mercury sphygmomanometer (Diamond). Heart rate and blood pressure were also recorded after exercise (Queen’s college step test) [6]. Rate-Pressure Product was calculated [3]. Data was presented as Mean ± S.D.

Statistical analysis was done by student’s t-test. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

The distribution of cases and controls is depicted in Fig-ure 1. The anthropometric characteristics are shown in table 1 and figure 2. Height, weight, BMI and chest cir-cumference were all lower in orphans, but the differences in height and chest circumference were not statistically significant. The cardiovascular parameters before and after exercise are shown in table 2 and figure 3. Rate – pressure product after exercise which directly depicts the myocardial func-tioning, was also lower in orphans, as compared to con-trols, although not statistically significant.

Table 1. Anthropometric characteristics

Characteristics Cases (n = 30) Controls (n = 30) t- value P-value
Height (cm) 138±10.6 143±14.13 1.5 >0.05
Weight (kg) 28±5.6 32.8±9.7 2.4 <0.05٭
BMI (kg/m2) 14.4±1.5 15.5±2.3 2.2 <0.05٭
Chest circumfer-ence(cm) 60.5 ±5 62.4 ±6 1.35 >0.05

٭significant p<0.05

Table 2. Cardiovascular parameters before and after exercise

  Before exercise (resting) After Exercise
Cases Controls t p Cases Controls t p
Heart rate (bpm) 93.5±11.6 90.5±11.5 1 >0.05 108.7±11.4 105.7±13.3 0.94 >0.05
SBP (mmHg) 107.6±7.7 107.4±7.5 0.1 >0.05 122.2±8.97 122.2±8.2 0 >0.05
DBP (mmHg) 62.4 ±8.4 65.6 ±10.1 1.36 >0.05 61.6±9.22 63.0±7.94 0.6 >0.05
RPP 10.13±1.38 9.69 ±1.2 1.2 >0.05 13.24±2.02 12.93±1.92 0.6 >0.05

 

Fig 1

 

Figure 1. Distribution of cases and controls

Fig 2

Figure 2. Anthropometric characteristics

 

Fig 3

Figure 3. RPP before and after exercise

Discussion

This comparative study was done to assess the anthro-pometry and cardiovascular functioning of orphans and thereby, take necessary steps in this regard. It is a well-known fact that height and weight of a child are the indices of development [5] and so is the impor-tance of body mass index (BMI). Results of the present study showed that the orphan boys have poor BMI, and weight as compared to their counter parts, which was similar to a previous study [1] and this could be due to lower primary attachment figures (parents and guardians) and often traumatic histories of the children, which could have hampered their growth [1].

Rate pressure product (RPP) after exercise, which directly depicts myocardial functioning, increases after exercise due to increase in sympathetic discharge [3]. RPP in-creased in our study in both the groups, but the per-centage increase in orphans was less as compared to controls, although not statistically significant, signifying poor myocardial functioning.

Therefore, this study shows the urgency to improve the growth and development of orphans who are the innocent victims of unknown fault, by emphasis on regular health monitoring, frequent and effective social interaction between children and care givers .

The limitations of this study was the less sample size – this could be the reason for not getting a statistically sig-nificant difference in height, chest circumference or the rate pressure product, although they were lower in or-phans as compared to controls.

It can be concluded that the orphans are deprived of their normal anthropometry and cardiac function and hence, a step in this regard has to be put forward, to help these innocent ones to combat the emotional disturbances, which could be the route cause.

Acknowledgement:

We are immensely thankful to the children and staff of the residential school, Bagalkot, for their kind co-operation in this study. We also thank the staff of the Departments of Physiology and Community Medicine, SNMC, Bagalkot, for their guidance.

References

  1. Jayashekara CR. Nutritional status of children under five in three state foster care institutions in Sri-lanka.Ceylon Medical journal 2006;51(2):63-65.
  2. Soumya Swaminathan VK, Venkatesan VP, Kuppurao KV. Aerobic capacity and cardiopulmonary response to exercise in healthy South Indian children. Indian Pedi-atrics 1997; 34:112-118.
  3. Nagpal S, Walia L, Hemlata, Sood N, Ahuja GK. Effect of exercise on Rate Pressure Product in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with coronary artery dis-ease. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2007; 51(3):279-283.
  4. Coelho ME, Monteiro F, Da Conceiceo JM, Cruz J, Cunha D, Almeida A et al. The Rate Pressure Product: Fact or Fallacy? Angiology-Journal of Vascular Dis-eases 1982:685-689.
  5. Gharib NM, Rasheed P. Anthropometry and body com-position of school children in Bahrain. Ann Saudi Med 2009; 29(4):258-269.
  6. Sadhan B, Koley S, Sandhu JS. Relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and blood pressure in Punjabi collegiate population. J. Hum. Ecol. 2007; 22 (3):215-219.

Correspondence to:
Clevin Rashmi Rebello

Department of Physiology,
S. Nijalingappa Medical College
Navanagar, Bagalkot-587102, Karnataka, India

Curr Pediatr Res 2011 Volume 15 Issue 2 85

Access free medical resources from Wiley-Blackwell now!

About Indmedica - Conditions of Usage - Advertise On Indmedica - Contact Us

Copyright © 2005 Indmedica