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JOURNAL OF
THE ANATOMICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA

Vol. 49, No. 2, December, 2000


In this issue :

Editorial
Dr. Patnaik V.V.Gopichand

Gross Anatomy of the Caudate Lobe of the Liver
Sahni, D., Jit, I., Sodhi L. Department of Anatomy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Branching Pattern of Axillary Artery - A Morphological Study
*Patnaik V.V.G., Kalsey, G; Singla Rajan, K. Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar, *Patiala. INDIA

The Course, Relations and The Branching Pattern Of The Middle Meningeal Artery In South Indians
Manjunath, K.Y. & Thomas, I.M. Department of Anatomy, St. John�fs Medical College, Bangalore-560 034 INDIA

Morphometry of the Human Inferior Olivary Nucleus
Dhall, U; Chhabra, S. & Rathi, S.K. Department of Anatomy, Pt. B.D. Sharma P.G.I.M.S., Rohtak. INDIA

Management of Turner Syndrome in India Using Anthropometric Assessment of Response to Hormone Replacement Therapy.
Sehgal R. and Singh A. Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak, G.B. Pant & G.N.E.C. Hospitals, New Delhi ? 110 002 INDIA.

Insertion Of Umbilical Cord On The Placenta In Hypertensive Mother
Rath* G, Garg** K, and Sood*** M. *Department of Anatomy, ***Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi-110001 **Department of Anatomy, Santosh Medical College, Gaziabad. INDIA

Utility Of Finger Prints in Myocardial Infarction Patients
Dhall, U; Rathee, S.K; *Dhall, A; Department of Anatomy & *Medicine, Pt. B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak. INDIA

The Prenatal Parotid Gland
Fouzia Nayeem, Sagaff S., *Krishna G., **Rao S. Department of Anatomy, K.A.A.U. Jeddah. Department of *Pediatrics & **Surgery, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad. INDIA

Possibility of Cell Death Induced Skeletal Malformations Of The Upper Limb
Sinha, D.N. Department of Anatomy, B.R.D. Medical College, Gorakhpur?273013 INDIA,

Efficacy of Manual Bladder Expression in Relieving Urine Retention After Traumatic Paraplegia In Experimental Animals.
Preeths, T.S., Sankar, V. Muthusamy, R. Department of Anatomy, Dr. A. Lakshmanasamy Mudaliar Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai 600 113, India.

Stress And Serum Cholesterol Levels-An Experimental Study
Jain, S.K. *Pandey, S.N. *Srivastava, R.K. Ghosh, S.K. Department of Anatomy, D.R.P.G. Medical College, Kangra at Tanda. * Department of Anatomy, G.S.V. Medical College, Kanpur.

Effect of Ibuprofen On White Cell Series of Bone Marrow Of Albino Rats
* Bhargava, R., Chandra, N., Naresh, M., *Sakhuja S. * Department of Anatomy, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad * Lady Hardinge Medical College, N. Delhi, India.

JB4 An Embedding Medium For Flourescent Tracer Technique
*Gupta, M; **Mishra, S., ***Sengupta P. Department of Anatomy, *PGI, Chandigarh; **AIIMS, N. Delhi; ***UCMS, New Delhi. INDIA

Comparative Anatomy of Cardiac Veins in Mammals
Kumar Keshaw Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences B.H.U., Varanasi?5. INDIA

Aplasia Cutis Type 9 With Trisomy-13 Syndrome ? A Rare Association
Adhisivam, B, Narayanan, P, Vishnu Bhat, B, *Ramachandra Rao. R*, *Rao. S*, Kusre, G.* Department Pediatrics & *Anatomy, JIPMER, Pondicherry - 605 006

Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve And The Innervation of Coracobrachialis, Biceps Brachii And Brachialis From The Median Nerve
Sud, M.; Sharma A. Department of Anatomy, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana. Punjab INDIA.

A Rare Pseudo Ansa Cervicalis: A Case Report
Indrasingh I. and Vettivel S. Department of Anatomy, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India

A Rare Variation In The Relation Of Omohyoid Muscle: A Case Report
Vettivel, S. Korula, A. and Koshy S. Department of Anatomy, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India

Surgical Incisions ? Their Anatomical Basis Part II - Upper Limb
1Patnaik V.V.G., 2Singla Rajan. K., 3 Gupta P.N. Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Patiala1, Amritsar2, 3Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Chandigarh. INDIA

Anatomy Of Temporomandibular Joint?A Review
1Patnaik V.V.G., 3Bala Sanju; 2Singla Rajan K. Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, 1Patiala, 2Amritsar, 3Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Pb. Govt. Dental College, Amritsar


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J Anat. Soc. India 49(2) 172-173 (2000)
Comparative Anatomy of Cardiac Veins in Mammals

Kumar Keshaw Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Sciences B.H.U., Varanasi?5. INDIA

Abstract : Hearts of human, buffalo, pig, goat and dog (25 each) were procured from various sources and preserved in 10% farmalin. Cardiac veins were dissected to observe their commencement, course, termination and tributaries in all these mammals.
In goat, small cardiac vein was absent and small venules drained right atrium and venticle into right atrium separately. In buffalo, pig and dog small cardiac vein ran into coronary sulcus with the circumflex branch of right coronary artery to open into right atrium separately.Only in human small cardiac vein drained into right extremity of coronary sinus. Marginal vein travelling the left border of heart from apex to coronary sinus was present only in goat.
Only in dog middle and great cardiac veins were formed by union of venae comitants of posterior interventricular and anterior interventricular arteries respectively near the coronary sulcus. In rest of the mammals middle cardiac vein travelled in posterior interventricular sulcus and great cardiac vein in anterior interventricular sulcus. In all the mammals studied great cardiac vein opened into left extremity of coronary sinus. In human and buffalo, middle cardiac vein opened into coronary sinus near its right extremity while in pig,goat and dog it opened into right atrium near the right extremity of coronary sinus.
In all the mammals studied coronary sinus was present between left atrium and ventricle on the back of heart and commenced as continuation of great cardiac vein to open into right atrium near the crux of heart.

Keywords : Cardiac Veins, mammals.

Introduction :

A number of studies have been done on coronary arteries but very few on cardiac veins. Gregger De Dewald (1938) showed the effect of occlusion of coronary veins on dynamics of coronary circulation of dog. Fauteuxm (1946) tried surgical treatment of angina pectoris by ligating great cardiac vein. Ratajezyk Pokalskol (1974) described the cardiac veins in man and domestic pig. James (1974, 1978) observed anatomy of coronary arteries and veins. Subject of cardiac veins in different mammals forms a rather neglected field. Therefore, present study is conducted to compare the anatomy of coronary sinus and its main tributaries i.e great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein and small cardiac vein in different mammals.

Material And Method :

Hearts of adult human, buffalo, pig , goat and dog (25 each) were procured from various sources to be preserved in 10% formalin. Cardiac veins were dissected taking the help of dissecting microscope, commencement, course, termination of cardiac veins was studied observing their relation with different branches of coronary arteries.

Observations :

1. Coronary Sinus :

Its length varies from 5 to 6 cm. in buffalo (fig. 3) while in human (fig. 5), pig (fig. 7), goat (fig.13) and dog (fig. 11) its length is about 2 cm. Its opening into right atrium is not guarded by any valve except in human. In all the mammals i.e. human (fig. 5) ,buffalo (fig. 3), pig (fig. 7), goat (fig. 13) and dog (fig. 11) it commences as continuation of great cardiac vein and lies between the left atrium and left ventricle on the back of heart. In human (fig. 5) and buffalo (fig. 3) coronary sinus opens into right atrium between the opening of inferior vena cava and right atrioventricular orifice while in pig (fig. 7), dog (fig. 11) and goat (fig. 13) it opens into right atrium near the crux of heart.

2. Great Cardiac Vein :

In human it commences at the apex of heart (fig. 4) while in buffalo (fig. 1), pig (fig. 6) and goat (fig. 12) it commences at the apical notch. In dog only the great cardiac vein is formed by union of venae comitantes of anterior interventricular artery near the junction of anterior interventricular sulcus with the coronary sulcus (fig. 9). In pig (fig. 6) and goat (fig. 12) it lies lateral to anterior interventricular artery while in buffalo it lies medial to anterior interventricular artery (fig. 1). In dog it is not related to anterior interventricular artery and in place of it venae comitants are present (fig. 9). In human it lies superficial to anterior interventricular artery (fig. 4). Only in buffalo the great cardiac vein crosses from medial to lateral side lying ventral to anterior interventricular artery in the proximal 1/3 of anterior interventricular sulcus to reach on the lateral side of artery (fig. 1). In coronary sulcus the great cardiac vein lies superior to circumflex branch of left coronary artery in buffalo (fig. 1), pig (fig. 6) and dog (fig. 9). In human, great cardiac vein lies superficial to the circumflex branch of left coronary artery (fig. 4) while in goat, great cardiac vein lies deep to the circumflex branch of left coronary artery (fig. 14). In all the mammals, great cardiac vein drains into left extremity of coronary sinus and drains the right ventricle, left ventricle and left atrium (fig. 3,5,7,11 and 13).


(fig. 1) Anterior view of Buffalo heart


(Fig. 2) Right lateral view of Buffalo heart


(Fig. 3) Posterior view of Buffalo heart

(fig. 4) Anterior view of human heart

(Fig. 5) Posterior view of human heart

(Fig. 6) Anterior view of Pig heart

(Fig. 7) Posterior view of Pig heart

(Fig. 8) Right lateral view of Pig heart

(Fig. 9) Anterior view of Dog heart

(Fig. 10) Left lateral view of Dog heart

(Fig. 11) Posterior view of Dog heart

(Fig. 12) Anterior view of Goat heart

(Fig. 13) Posterior view of Goat heart

(Fig. 14) Left lateral view of Goat heart

3. Middle Cardiac Vein :

Middle cardiac vein commences near the apical notch on diaphragmatic surface of heart in buffalo (fig. 3), pig (fig. 7) and goat (fig. 13). In human, middle cardiac vein commences near the apex of heart on the diaphragmatic surface (fig. 5). Only in case of dog, middle cardiac vein is formed by union of venae comitantes of posterior interventricular artery in the proximal part of posterior interventricular sulcus (fig. 11) although these venae comitantes of posterior interventricular artery commence at the apical notch and ascend upward in the posterior interventricular sulcus. Middle cardiac vein ends in the coronary sinus near its right extremity in human (fig. 5) and also in buffalo (fig. 3) where it crosses the coronary sulcus superficial to the circumflex branch of right coronary artery . In case of pig (fig. 7), goat (fig. 13) and dog (fig. 11) middle cardiac vein opens separately into right atrium in close proximity to the opening of coronary sinus. In all the mammals middle cardiac vein receives tributaries draining right and left ventricles on the diaphragmatic surface of heart (fig. 3,5,7,11and 13).

4. Small Cardiac Vein :

Small cardiac vein commences near the commencement of right coronary artery from anterior aortic sinus in buffalo (fig. 1), human (fig. 4), pig (fig. 6) and dog (fig. 9) and runs in the coronary sulcus. In case of goat small cardiac vein is absent (fig. 12) and small veins draining the the right atrium and ventricle open into right atrium separately. In coronary sulcus, small cardiac vein lies superior to the circumflex branch of right coronary artery in buffalo (fig. 2) while in pig (fig. 8) and dog (fig. 11) small cardiac vein lies inferior to the circumflex branch of right coronary artery. Only in human small cardiac vein lies superficial to the circumflex branch of right coronary artery(fig. 5). Small cardiac vein opens into right atrium in buffalo, pig and dog on right side of the crux of heart at variable distance e.g. 2 cm. in case of buffalo (fig. 3) and 1 cm. in case of pig (fig. 7) and dog (fig. 11). Only in human small cardiac vein opens into right extremity of coronary sinus (fig. 5). In human (fig. 5), buffalo (fig. 3), pig (fig. 7) and dog (fig. 11) small cardiac vein receives tributaries draining right atrium and ventricle.

5. Marginal Vein :

Marginal vein is present only in goat (fig. 14). It commences near the apex of heart and runs along the left border of heart to open into coronary sinus (fig. 13). receiving tributaries from the left ventricle.

Discussion :

Last (1981) described that small cardiac vein was accompanied by marginal branch of right coronary artery but in present study in all the mammals studied small cardiac vein was accompanied by right coronary artery. Septimus Sisson (1961) observed that in dog right coronary artery was accompanied by two lesser cardiac veins while in present study in all the dogs studied right coronary artery was accompanied by single small cardiac vein. In present study it is noticed that in dog anterior and posterior interventricular arteries were accompanied by venae comitantes which unite near the coronary sulcus to form great and middle cardiac veins respectively but Septimus Sisson (1961) did not report the venae comitants of anterior and posterior interventricular arteries. Rest of the findings in the present study resembled with the description made by Greggor De Dewled (1938), Fauteuxm (1946), Besmajian (1980), Hollinshead (1971), Ratajezik Pokalskol (1974), Williams et al (1980) and James (1974,78).

References :

1. Basmajian, J. V.: Grant�fs method of anatomy. The williams and wilkins Company, Baltimore ,10th edition. (1980)
2. Fauteuxm (1946): Surgical treatment of angina pectoris with ligation of great cardiac vein. Annzeles Surgery 124: 1041.
3. Gregger De, Dowled (1938) : The effects of occlusion of coronary veins on dynamics of coronary circulation of dog. American Journal of Physiology 124 444-456.
4. Hollinshead, W.H. Anatomy for the surgeons. vol. 2, Harper and Row, Newyork,2nd Ed. : (1971)
5. James, T.N. The Heart In : Anatomy of the coronary arteries and veins. Hurst, J.W. ed.. McGraw-Hill, New York, 3rd Ed. (1974)
6. James, T.N. : Anatomy of the conducting system of Heart The heart,arteries and Veins,. McGraw-Hill, New York, 4th Ed. (1978)
7. Last , R.J. : Anatomy Regional and applied, J. & A. Churchill Ltd.,London, 6th Ed. (1981)
8. Ratajezyk Pokalskol (1974) Studies on cardiac veins in man and domestic pig. Folia Morphologica, 33(4) 373-84.
9. Septimus Sisson (1961) Anatomy of dog.
10. Williams P.L; Warwick, R: Gray�fs Anatomy In: Cardiac Veins. 35th Edn, Churchill Livingstone London. (1980).



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